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Plane

ElectromatinetlcWaves

In Chlrlci 7 we sho*.d rhat in d sourcelE nonconducriossinpl. n.drn,

Marwel|! .'rudions (Eqs.?-79a,b,., andd)d.

b. conbinedto yieldhomogcneo$

Eq

(7 3l) md (7

32),

eqraiion ror E n

v{tor *av. equationsin E an't in H. rb.s

havedadly the sanc fom.ln rc

rwo.qutionq

sDacerhesour€.i@ {!v.

=l

x l0'(frt) = r00 (MmA)

8

k

rhevdocny ol *avc popasarion (rhcsped or [3nr) in fr* .p.e. The solutjons

ol

Eq. (3-l)

rcpftsnr

wavs. Th. studyol the behavioror wara rhd havea oo.

dih.n.iond spariald.pend.ne (/os

we hcsinrhc .hrpb

H,sr) is rh. nain .ooero oI $n chapei

sith a $udy of lhc troprs,rion

or tim. hamonic plaoF

walc lidds in an uDboundedhonoseo@usndiun.

Mediun panmdea suchts

intnnsic inpdan*,

b.

we

!!6uario!

be inrmdDcd

the depthoI {rve pEnctarioninlo a sood condudoi

6n$aDr, and phse otrun!

{as

.!ny

till

The ne.ding of xlin /rrr4

*ill

Th. eonrqt ol P.!"tine &ctot, i povd flur d.nsitn wi[ b€discu$€d.

.rpldned Elstonagndic

with rh.n ekdromasneticpower

ll

exanin. rhc bchlvior oIr

plane {rve iocidenrnomally on a ptrD.

boundaryTh.

obliquelyoo a planeboundlry vtll rh.n b. discusd, aDdthe oidttions

rcfletion andlor toral rffdion

lawsgov.rbi4 the refiEtion andrcfra.iion or plab. raves 'ncident

will beerm'n d.

lor no

A niltd

phA. w.e is a p nicnlar solurionoI Marwetl\ equaions with E

Asuming.heson. dn.dio4 sanenagnitud., andsan. phac in infinnephnespeF

p.idicular ro th. diHtioo ol prcpas!rion (sinildly lor

H) Sticdy sp.akin&. unr

8-2

tom plan. lave dGs not existin rmdie

requ'Edrocrcarii. andpsdicalwive sourc*arcslwaysflnircin.xtenr.Bur,ifw

be.au$ asouE infinitein erreorwouldh€

arctd enoushawayriomI souc.

aino! sphericatjand . vdy snal ponion or rhe surfa.coI I

ma y a plane.The chan.rn$i6

andlhon iudy is oI fundan

td

rbcvlet

', Gurlae oI coonarr phas) bones

sirnr

re paiicul

sphercn very

y sinpte,

of unilom planevrv*

thcorclical,$ {ell aspmdicd, imponane.

Plar€walq id Lcd€$ Media

In ihis andfururcch4!e6 {e

Io.os our aientior on wv.

b€hrviorin rhesiousodai

$qdy sdq usitrsphson ro srcrt advlnbge The souu rH wave.qu!ion, Eq.

(3 l), for fte lDae reoms

a homog.neoNrdor Hdmhoiizt equation {* Eq.

*ht.

ra k tht ltbt$.

wAmkl

i":

r;=1

(-d/-)

rn calesirn @ordtnates,Eq. (3-3) isequivalenrio rhft. $atar H.lmnohrs equa

rions,otreeachin iheomponen$E , r,. and 4.

wnriosirrorth.

.onponmr,,,

(-4.fl-#--,). ='

o.tnzcd byr unilom t, (uniromm.siiludr

p.rpendicular rorj rhatis,

md mnshd phae)ou plam$ftes

ff'4+=o

{hich is an ordinuy diflcrenrial.quarion be.aue ,,, a phasor,dependsooly on ?. In. sorurionoI Eq. {3 6)is rcadirys.n ro bc

whercEj and td

der.miicd bybolndarycondnioB Notcrhat sine Etr.(3 6)k asM.d

iioa ih sencBl solurionin Eq. (3 7)onrainsr*o inlesurionco6ranb.

aE ftitnry

(and, io general,comptex)conianrs rhat mu* b.

order.qua-

Now 1e!us ermino vha! lhc llNr ph!$r

Gm

on lhe rish. sid. ol E r. (3 ?)

rcpi.Ms

in sal .ire, Usios ms or s rhe rcrercm md a$n'jng ,J

b

b. a ml

oi$m.

(?ro ffercnc

phse d u = 0),wehave

E:(z,t) - @.lEtid-l 'al

= a.ta;!-

:u6s(@r

to,

(v/m).

Fqk io'(3 E\3 bfoproredirig 3

E; c6 ko?tu i cdinc .udc {irh

ro-ff'r\ik.of'

4.' -0.r,1r.0'-

rhecurue

d

andnude ,J.

A! su@sive hB

iftdio''

ini (a poiot oI a panicular phnc) on thc *rvc,

w. haYe,ibcn, l 'oaf',

,a8.

lf we

weet cor(or - ko?) = . onsanr

or

Equalion(3 9)asurcsustna! the yelocity ol pbpas.tiotr of adcquibhdc tiodr (.he

,r4?

srair,

in fG spe. i, cqFl b .h. velocilyor lishr, whj.h is rpprorinar.ly

wavmumb* kq beA I dcfinnedarion to rhe *avelenslh

Fron Eq. (3 a),

,"='i

r'^r^t

vhicbmesurcsrhenumbtroI *rveleosrhs ,nwneErarionof Eq.(3 l0) i!

'n a.mpletc

+''

cydq h.ne

it. Ilde.

A!

Equt ods(3-l0l md (3-ll)ee

rosds maErid sDchc a perled dEledriq in$eld o1ri.c

vatidlithour thcrub$ipt

0 it !h. mediumisa

sras. n onrhergh,,ideol

Ir isobrioL-*i hd '

rcpto14 rhi 'r- sond plr.or k J co.'nDod"

ri.d

Eq./3 t), ro pnd. rdeor.

rcdion, ,t

taElins

!dr,Bvr.,oain rh. drecoonq,

+,

di

w a v 6

wav6

only *iih rhc Hve ravetrnsin rhe

in rhemediun,ntded

= 0.How.vtr, it lhcreaE disoi.inunis

id .h. opposnediftcridn nu$

aho bc onsidere4 3s we*i1l se larerin

'Ih. sso.iatd

","=f

magn

'

lrt(z)

icncldH en

"

o

0

"i/

;l=

0

bc roundfron Eq (7 tO4.)

io,t(,.H:+."Hi+,.|lr,

,'rl = 0,

H; =o.

ThB /{r+ is rheonty noEdo componenroI ll; andsrna

!!i9 =!Lr:" ^"t=- 1,"r:ct.

ot":h,:,t

=*':u,

tot',

we tuk inrodlcd a newqhhry, 'ro.rnEq.(3-r):

'" = iE= ''" ="'

d d-

!

,''

,.r= 6lr a

ttJ(:)isb pha${irh E;k), and{c cm *rirc thcit srnraieoN .rprcsionrorH as

EC. '

= \H j|z. 4 : +q.l|: tac ''l

=r,qos(o,

to,

iA/m).

inpedaneol thenedium.wo iho iolc tharH is r{D.ndicdar roE$d thd borh

not s rsdctive asit appeaB,inasmuchN *e arclF

E as.he+r.dlEdion,*hichnnor

ro dBigiat

rbcdn-

on or

I A unilom plaie {rve {irh E :

r,4

pbpaedd r alosles simple

mcdiun (i = 4/,

! rlcqucncy100(MHz)sndh3sr maxmunvalueor + 10

= l, ':0)ii

rhe+;riircdioi Asune tharr"is sinusoidrl*irh

'iv/m)

r!

' = 0 md

wnte rheinnanraoeous q presionlor 0 lor .ny r lid.

DddminerheloRtions{hercE,irapdririvcnarinumwh.n':I0'Gtr

=i

^ iF\/4 = t

r d/ml

!) Usioscosor astheEGreoq vc find thcin$rnrrieoN exptsion rorE to be

r'+ /l ndionequaherc-

qar=r,4-r.10_'.os(2n1fi

Sin&r, cquah+10

*c bde d l:0rid,:*.

hlo!,

L +V=q

t=,=(f)(j)-ir."r

"' '*('*'

".'"*['*

T"i)

T('i)]

I shirror t (n) r rhe+: drcdrci

rron $e naremenrof rheprcblcr.

b) I]i. pha$r erpressiontor H i3

':f=3=,",n,

c) A! , = I0

n" r=".5-,[*'oE

', vc .quar rh. ,lgunenr of th.

mk

E, I pdiriv. marimum:

I'rorro ,r !L-

' J

\

rr

tl

:.=Trri

(m).'=0,1,1

1

Examinincthis rcsuli nore closly. *c oob rhat rhe n.diumis

ucne the posirivc n*imum

a=?=,

v,l&

,i=

of ,i

(nl

MUlvI

8 1,2

(nI

Thc E md H fi.lds aE shovn in Fig. 3-2 astuodionsot z for rhearcne

ome

,.|'.'

When!h.re is ftlarive notion bowen ! rimdhamonic sourceanda rceiv$, .h.

ri.'rumcJ ol rhc*!tc

by rhesoure. rhir phhomenonh rmwn asth. Dorrr.r .]iu./r The Doppl.r enet

mDifes sn$lr in acoNri.s s *d1 asio glstom asidis Perhapsyou havcerpd-

.n@drh. changesin the pith of . fo$'movingloconotiYerhisllq ln rherollowing we eiv. an explanalionof lhc Doppld ctrd.

dcbc!.d by thercGi*

tendsro bl ditr M! lrom thd emiitd

Ld s

rshc

thd rh. sr€

tnrsnnbrl

T of a tinlharmonic wavcof a lc

rin.roI $a

qucn.y / moveswnha velocityu at an!nsl.0 rclativeto thl dnd

riomry Eceivern, as iuu$dlcd in Fis. 3 l(a). The .l*tomlsieric wave.n !d

by ? at a rcfercne rimct = 0 will rcachI at

"=i

A! .

la.d

tine r = Ar, T h$

nov.d

by ? atrhr timerillFch

R sr

'"=n,|

=^,+

t.6

d!

coru+r!^r1

rf(u^4?<<r;,E,r 13 17)bmm6

('

Hene LheLimeelapsedr

3, dr', .offipond'ns

ro lr

al T E

-.

-:

*,)

Iflr r.prcsdr aperiod oIrh. tine,hlmodc souc

rh. tcqlercy of lhe reiv.d

waveat n is

lhatis.iflr=

f=*\

(' -:*i

=('':*i

rorth.uuat€eor(,/.F<t nor hold when0 b .los b

indicatd thar rhefreqEncy p.rc.ivcd at R n hish* thanrhehnsmtued ricoudd

Equadon(320)h anrppro;mrc fomuh md doB

you knov wh/) Fd

d - q Eq.(s 20)clarty

r/2, (Dd

mird Lequen(){\eo r,mo\e!4*aJ

r\cpeRffd

-on f\0 - 4 L nob!iou.,hafuini,,_F$tb

LcqumqN o*o hrr,.rdnF

de obraiD.diI R novB 5d

? is $ario.r4.

ft

Dopolei.ierhrfrbe\hdopertronorrheiDopote,,, d L.edb)pot,e

)ick rh. TqeocJ

pe.d

sb,i or rh! .qrd

orrh. rrch

*rr

dndmn o.

EreEd bl d mo4rgrrh\h i p'opo andtro'h

r! FeDopp.e.efla,

Nrl$rh.suroI h(!o.-".led4d,ltorr.etichr,Fd,urehnhDy;,(.dros

d.'ekdirddiqpt4rmon'hond-hetou r5q p,ob-mp3

A. rh.rbrmr\a,ar

r

r huh.p.edrrcmsooblo.e,

t,?r'r endo,he

ooeri h.rh.'eryed fi.quhc).lu.

row4drh. r,q./rp{ur\

w. h"w $.n 'hd a Lrrm platr.v,\e chadderu.dbt E - rJ, propasatirs r h I s nssnflic6etoH

fte perpadicurar ro qcn

ro rh. dn4don ot pDpr-

rcroqnd uF 3( rutruoE aro'l

weoowiod!d., rbepropas4dd o-s unitomplan.$s.

lod

sariotr. I' i. ' p,druh - cor ot 4 '*

orher,anl borhaE rosvee

'*^,

,t*t*"r,

fl.\n

,*

h'

ih:-'

a.oosrn,ibird,) drEt

rhardf! dornecs,nh.oioci& -eLirric "nh rcoodn-erls

-The ptdd

ti.ld inbsi.y

tor a unirom ptane*rve prop4rtjns i, rhe

*heE Fbis a .otrkrt

q') = Eo?-'''

kdq.

a moE g.ne6t rom o1Eq.(3 2D c

qr./,

= Er

L.

r'" ! .

It sn bs.asily proved by diHt sub(hution

sm.ous ricbnhotrt

equalio4 prcvid.d rhat

that .hh cxpEsion sali$s rb. homo-

Il{e

definc. HrdMrrr

@r,r N

l=rJ.+r/r"+rl=l!,

dd a ndius v.dor lron rh. odgin

.bcn &.

(3 22).anbewirbn odp&dY at

EIR)=Els n r:Eo b

r

tv,mr,

uni!v.dorintn.diHtionofpropa!.rion.FM Eq. (3 24nncbar

t--t

r- - r,,

r,

r,,

l,-t

-Jr.

r

rr-h.rj-t.

r

,

rnd$d r" r,,r"

,ddr

,arc

The g.omdriol FhuoB orr. md Raft iluarcd

r

# !h.r

r,

r = knAhor

(a.osbq

I '& 3-l

f.om qhn\ qe

is rhe .qurion

Con{ant

.onul to !,, the dicdiot ot pmpagarionJNt s ' =

ddor6 a planeolmnst ph!!c andmirorm mplitudc Ior ih. vaYeir

of a plm.

Ea (3 2l), r" . R = conson! i, a ptam or condant phs

Ior lhe vav. in Eq (3-26) In a charlafft

nd

E = 0. A! a t

u.ilom

andnud.

Esioq v

suh,

'ft,.

rt.@qj@d6(

rd

s''

&

o

iF.

Ei

rr

rcfird

s.b.,r.

tud4

P)

[L

wt

= _,{r,t"

=

hencE,r.(3 23r).anb. *ri

ltrr

cnas

+ rl,

r'

I

r'

d' / + 4r.)e-i'_*"Fr'r

r*@o ")? '"

tr=o

r" Eo=0

Thu rheplanc-wle srution in Eq.(3 26)implesihar f,! n hnssi.c

ro

Taem€srri, htd &s9.Id

*

htrR.,

t.q,3 2d)nd) b.odr,.ed

HB):;!,E(R)

HrRr=lr"/ ER)

lA/mr,

is rh. ituk

ic in erha.et at rhe nediun. subsnution of

xrn=jr'

e"" -'

r^.,

Ir h nowcl.arthara unifom planc {ayeproprsrrinein sn,rbnrt,y isaTEMray.withElLHmdrha.borhEandH aEnormdrori

If E(R)ot aTEM waveis giecd, asio Eq.

! dl.lion dpEsins

E(R)h

by Njos Eq. (3 2e).obrdi

solr'i'i

AsuminsH(R)rohaverhorom

H(R) = Hoe n"'

( obD n lrom Eq (? 101b)

q*t=1o'"t*r

=*lr-*r"' "t*r

qR)= -'?|, r H{R)

iv/hl.

Alt.nalilcly,

(3 29)by !, nd usingth. backcabrle

{c en obtainth. samcrsulr by dossnultiplyins borhsidd of E4.

in Eq. (,

,0)

'rhe

ehctncfieldintnsity vdor d a siven poinrid spa*. Sine th. E vdor of thoplanc

al a $ilon pt^reNavedesribA th. rim+varyiosbehaviorol rhc

tot'tiz'tio,

waw in Example3 I is6x.d in ther dnedion (E =',r,.

or nccllilctr rho {aE n $id !o b. /fi?dl,

dessiplion ot n.gnc.i.-fi.1d beh*,or is oot nes$ry,

H i!

whde E, maytc t6i.jv.

r',r

ft.1 in th. rdiddioi

A sepamt

inasmu.hd thc dncdion of

deflnirclyrclat.d to rhat oItr In sne cass the dnedion oIE ora d!!e

phasornorationw hrve

wNe d a givm point maychdse

ray6: onc toldizcd

ih. Idircction andlaggrng90' (ot r/2

*nh ime. comida rhcsutclposnionof rwo lin.arly polailn

in thc r-dncdion, .nd theothtr p.larizedin

Bd) in .ime phr*.ln

wherc ,D

and t:.

are Hl

nudbcs

dcnorins.h. amplirudsor th. two lina y

In erabini4

F4,,t) = a4b,E,t4

-,,,,"".,-.",.,/,,*'1",,-

-\zJa

+ ,,E!

l.Fl

tir. dnectionchangeoI E ar r gim point 6 r cbons6,i. is @!veni.!t

E(0.4: r,Et(q 4 + slrn0,4

= r,rr

coso! + .,tr

sinot.

or incH*s

nom 0 throlsh z/2, n, md 3'l2-.odpleting

lhe cyclcar 2r

$.

ot the vedor F,10,r) will tmv*$

an elliptical locus in lhe cduntcrcldc**ise

l

dircdion. An yricalty, *e have

-=-].

E,r0.r)

=J,t=F;=

*hich readsro the ronowingcquarionfor ai dtips:

fE:10r1,

fE,(0,47

pohnrd

glsdt^rft,is etEptitdt! totuiad it E,o + E1a,8d

Hene I, whichis rhelun

,r!.

of r*o ti,*rly

in both lsa

is citctr,,,otuizetr

Mvs

A rypier poiarjzarion cirt.

h sho"n in Fi& 3 5(a). oussrst.c rharEmajlswirh

"-b'-' EJ9 4:-,

{!w

in spae qud*llE

d@r

ar ' = r} (a) .i(r{

danadoi.

E(0,r)=f,/r

q0.4

+r,

@r;(b)rruu pohnarioo.

- 4!,o+!,erJ@s!r.

which iodicrts thrl E 6tat*

.o!'rad,.krn?

a! .

uiifoin

rac vith u,nsuh

velocityo in a

diEcrion. wh.n rhc linccn ol rhe righr h3ndfollov ihe diEtion n6 to rhedn{iion ol propagdliotorthewrv.

.iuk'tt

tatonn'I Mtu.

'rhis i t risht-hud ot Nih.

II weshd *nh an Ert), whichreds ,11:) by 90' (r/2 nd) in 'ine phsq Ers.

G-3a) and (3 35)*ill bq Gperiv.ly,

q4 =.,r1oe ,L + i,j.:os

r,

q0,, = t,rn

coso'

lprsin

@,.

comparingEtr.(3re)NithE+(3 35),{e se ihrt E willii[

b€ellip&allypolanzd.

Ir t?o = t,!,

E will becncuhny polanad,

d its angk nerurcd tom thor_aris

at

: = 0 {il1 no* be -or,

ituli.alinc lhd E sill roraiewnh ro ansularvelociryo

in

a dro&,ns diHtion! thk is a ,.rJ,rd & ,.stt^. cituhtD p.biz.d v6.

IItr(:)and E,(:)arcinspa.cqFdrdDr

butin iine pbas,thcnsudE *illbc

wnh th. *dii

in.any pohnad rlonc a line thar naks an aosrekn - ' (E?Jx

ss depidedin Fis. 3-5(b).Thc iisdmansus erpresion ror tr ar ' = 0 k

E(0. 4 = trJ, ! + r,rrl

@.!J.

8-

Th. tip oI rhcf{q l) *ill b. arrhepoint P, whm or = 0.Iis masnihdcsill derca*

nqm r.

o*"'d i

l.

I

e' r\dt.E((I'l {".b

rojctu{

dgdin

in rh. opposirediEchotr,ro*ard th

In rhe encr.l

d*,

un.'rud amplitudes(tr

Er(z)sd

+ tre) and.m diflei in phas by anoditary

E,(:), vhrch arc io spae quadrarud,.dn hayc

anount inot

zdo or an inrcgralmuhipb or r/2). Then sm E *i1l6e euiplielly pollned, lnd

ih. pnncipalars ot rhe pohrnation ellip$

coodinatA (@ ProblemP.3 7). we noteh.ft rhattheetdrohaerdic aaks Bdi edby AM brcadcst nariotrs

ll not .oidcidc ailh rhc ax6 of the

rhe sroubd.

E-ri.ld

in lhe hoizonrol diHrion. Thn is shy lhe {im

archonzonral?hc mvcs ndiaedby FM broadca$naions aF

lolffizd: h.ne iheon6!.rion ofln FM Miving.nr6na

s it lH in a plmc nomal ro thedil.ction ol th. signal

For maximumccptioi

rharis.venisl. TeLvnionsisnah,on thc othd h$d, 'r

lifrdy

polaized

mtnoas

circuhrly

of rooftopTv reiving

s.nerally

isnot.n calaslong

Prc*1h{a|inmrlypoldk.dplan

nghGhandck.uhny

polai?.d *av. and a left-bandcirculady polaild

vavc ol

SollrioD corida

we cro rsunq rilh nolo$ orsen.mlity,rhrt E k poladzedin th. r dnedionln

a lina

y polariuedpl,n. wavepDpasalingin lhe + z diEtion

8-3

u",,r= ?r", n"r"-*

n,e=!6.*1,su*.

Fron pobs

dism$ions *a

rEosni? lns E^k) in Eq. (3 4la) md trr.(?)in Eq,

ot rhisprobtn

is lhdelore prov.d,

{3 4lb) reprcsmtrishl-handind

lelt-hand.ircultuly polrriz.d wr}s, t!!F!uvqy,

@h havingan mpljitrd! Th. convce $tem.nt

aav* or.qud ahp|nud. is I tib.rrty Dota;zd waE is. or.ou$. aBo ftd -

top. Tne nabm.nt

0'r! lhe sumorNo oppoliaty roraios cn.ubrty polari,ed

etao"wres tntarsyueata

In r soudlf@

losy m.diDn

rhobomogeneonsv.clor Hrlmholr\

vt+c[-q

.qurion to be

G 42)

ne deiv,rion\rod d

serio.

rnply replacibsI wirh *. Hov.v.a ii an Efon io oorom rnh the onvenlional nohton u*d b tacmissionline rheory.ft n culon.ry ro d.fim a pioDasarion

-,\'or

p.fuio.nE'o ps.

r'!6.d

r tosta. r.dirm in

in a losy m.diun by

3 2.on be nodi6ed ro lppty ro waE propasalion

t=tk,:p"G,

\^').

sine l isconptcx,*e nirq wnhrh. helpot Eq

t=a+jf-ial!.\\+

,*)'

whdc ' dd

significan@vil t xprdncd

are th. f.l

,

bd

1 )

inasioary pan. of7, Hpdivdy.

Thei physjel

F6endy. Foi olo$le$nediuq d = 0ki] -0,€ = ?)j

rt.

H.lnholb:

equarioo,Eq.(3 a2).becomB

rhe slurion or Eq. (3

vrE

l?E=o

a6),EpBenting a unirorn plll.

{Ne

shec w

propasationlador e- r

hav. rsm€d

[:r"E'=|'Eoea''

rhar the *av. n ioa

y polarizedin the:{i€tiod.

qn hNnth

s r produd ol t*o fadon:

The

Asw sha0$q bothc dd,

!E positivequantities.Th.6*! fcror,s--, d.m*

td.

factor,r-l,',

pd n rd (dd/mtr Thc pha&.od$an. cxdcss

nre sI unit orrheartenuationon$mr is neFr p€rneter (Np/m).1Th! sond

is r pnrscfido.

t

ij sutd

r rrdr

.dd

d h .rpft&d

in ndians

lhe anob! oI phls shilt .ha!@us

adel3l dprcsioG

of d$d

p in rm

/4 andd-of

tnen.dium arenthd

involved Gc ftdbled F.3 9).h rhofouo{ing im e .xpGdons for rov-lo$ di.leddc!, sood

A lowloN disletic

mndNtivity. $ch rhd r" < .

en t. tpForinabd by usirs the binomialspansior:

is a good bu! inpdfet

oi o/c

insulatoi {nh a nonbo

equivai.nt

(3-45)

< I Under rhisco.diriotr, 7 in Eq.

'-"r,r-,,rF[";r;(il'J

lon

which*c obroinlhc o!.nuion

codlnt

_f

.;(:il*,.

It issm fromEq.(3 43)thalrheateoualioncon*mt ola

prcpodiond

phs. coona in Eq. 13-49) dcvir(s only veryslisho non

positiv. qumrity aod b apporin.ely

diFdy

I N@

L I dnq5bdq5

cuili).

? I (=o$)4nhEbi&b,e

trd = i orr/nr

dr

lnl

rh

I

ur

vN

etiMc

d6fte

b

!

h14r&

ai n'ourton d | 1NP/n)4BL

r

osio.=

'fte intinsicimpedm€ofa lovlo$ dicl.ddcn

f,

r=J;f '

.\r

/

'

Er .,tt

-V.\'2.,/

siic.th.iitinsicinp.dmcislhcn'ioo|''mdHl

for a uniformprftc wovc,lhe

n ,he mtio d/p in a f$ffi

in Eq. (3 e).usingEq. G a9, wehave

=+f,- .l?lI

simirai b ,hd

hichd/o€> 1.undn rhismndirionir isoo

vcnicn o Ns Eq. (3 aa) and neglrct 1 io conpaison wirh lhe cm

r/jc

we

t =

-f;

t_

@\!l'.

.-

= at,!0l'6

r+t-

= T,lard

t: "+n =O+t.lW,

G 12)

lj :\.rntr

= da+ =( + it,,

rid

appmxinatlyequalandborhincFa* d f

o = 14.

Equdion (3 r)

iidndd

'hd

a and I

rd

!6

ror r

so For. good siddor,

,:f

: Ei

+ll

tol

*hichhasaphmgaogrsor4y'Hfr@lhc

dcdn. hddint.nsiryby4r.

Th. phA€rocr)

m i sood coidudor

vhich is proponidnalro It

and r/'6

considq copp€rasan crrmplel

d = 530:

10r is/nl

/:

ur:

ar x

10 r

lH/nl

r20(mF) at

l(MHz).

*hich isabou!lwia rheYclocnyol

iowd

rhrn !h. veloci(yor lighi in

souidn rn andisnanvordesol air The *avdength of a pla'e Na{

'=7=i:"

lp

For oppd

*avc in

rr 3 (MHz),.i = 0.24 (mm) As t con$fton an has. Mvelensrh oI 100 (m)

Ar ven hiah rrequ.n.iesthe atcnu

gr,- b] r!

't'".;.,d'

b

*

*',

h gero'.o"r-

a r (MHz).htomasnelic

vq/

,:

Jfu " rd)(4; '

o1(tr0 , toa = 262x r0! (Np/m).

sjncerhcatrenuarionlldor

icrorol?'

di$anc.isrl/2.62)x

iss ". rheamplirudeolr *avcv

berucnutdbva

=0.163vheni(trvelsadislancr=1/.

Forcoppdarr(MHz)Lhf

(/rl

h'o ghrh 5'

o' n 'bB' ?uedrh'

c

I

!trvsnrlldiNhneiod*d.Tnusahishlnquencvdedrcnrsndi'Mvena!'nmied

l0-! (n),or 0o33 (mr). At l0 (oHz)n tuonlv066

'

ot a eantctot:

\er.noiulvd 1D'oodad'tr:good.ondudofhedir.''o

**a

,.i,,i,:a.o. ",l.tigpt

'kk tepth at rht dqth af Pdddio.

,=i=_!

sn a:

P rora goodondmb,,,

dL-.d

DurDos. -

$

.onlinsd in r very thin lavd (har h, in rhe skin) or the onddor

m"

rhd rla

'nu

_;n

!'n.'

o-

''d

'

b'

Jl

r'

'!L

suda*

Tablc3 I list rhcskindepthsof*vrsl

rvp.sormtenat

d variouskcqEncFs

Th. etstic 6e1diniensirvoIa lin.rrlv polarizeduoirom prrne*aYc

p"r"g"*s'th"

ih".;'ii.'F."."'

I

drrria

'b tuqft"

d"'"i !r"-

r

-r

l00 o\' onr''vm " /-n

.2!.

I

i'd'

-

4'sn' I'

D r

sh! e!!&

r h (mn)! or yrnc

Mrr

rr'

J=6otH4

327(nm)

r(MHd

0064(nh)

I (Gs4

00020(nD)

r:(m)

ox(n)

tmin. theateNatioD .odlrnl

Mv.l.nsrh, lnd skin deprh.(b)Find lhc dinanft at *hich rheanplnudc oI E is 1% of nsvorued,: o (c) wdE rhe.xpftsionsrorE{. d dd H(44 3r, = 0.3 (n)

phasccoodanr,iorinsi. ifped.oc.

pha$ vdmiry,

,r=;:5!

106(Hr,

Henes. canse rhcIomulas

"

lq'w

: v5;0iia;ro=t = s.se(Np/.r.

t= vtt;=

BBe tdd m).

,:f,:S=0.'o' r.r.

,=

=

=0r12 lmi

b)DishoE;, .t {hi.b.h.mplitudeor{aved@r.as!o1%orirsvdueat: = 0

*

a":_=

:

=

'i 'oo=;;=05

r{r= r,r00? '.e ,'.

'fte in*mtancouserprc$ionrorE is

,,a - a.l[\4,-l

=,!lr,l0oe

_rF

,rl=t,lo&

a!z:0.3(n)fthave

3

roo

,m

"6s(0r

P,).

tr10.3,4=r,100?_03'c6(10rnr0.3n

= !,0.032cos(10'd 7.ll)

(v/m)

normalto thednodioi oI e!!e propagarionr".

in$urrn.ous .xprcsion of H rs a tui.rion ol t, w n6t aal nuk th, hEtdk, af

!,f

4

andrr,(:, t rnh a corplcr 'ruufiy

ThusH = .,H,

To find H(. r), thc

I,(:,

n6t

be

i,

trk

4 = t

(?, 'l/r. be.6

hh {ould b. nixing rcaliine rudios

r

Phmr qmdiiies tl4

and ,{/,

tod

*hich *c obui! 'he ftl

ioh

' HEtt-'

I!d-)

For the preor

Eoblem wehav., in phaso*,

Nde 'ha' ,o,,

an96

ns!

be in mdhns b.rorc conbioing.

crpresionrorH ar?:

03 (m)isthm

H(o3, 4 = Lo026 .os 00rnr

l6l)

(A/n).

we caDs@lhara 5 (MH4 plane*

bson*

ncglicrblysmk s veryshoddis!.n@tror ihe souft Ev.n at Ycrvlov

tequenci$, long.disiroe mdio lonmunia{ion wirh r subnsrsedsubnrdneis rery

Ii rhe.rnh\ trppdllnosphcrc.roughlylromr0 1o5m

8rrd2

ftn)

inahitudqth.a exist

Th. ionolphcrconsisb oI tEe el{hoos

sbsorbedbyrh.aromsridhotc.utcsjnthcuppcra.mosphcrc.Thecharyedprnicls

agnericfietdTh.

:rtrdcandchand{ otrhc

ionizcdl.ycrs dcp.ndboth on rhenarureoI thesolarmditrhonandor rh. corposi ricn oI rhedmosphe4.ThcychcngcRi.h lhcsunspotcyds,the$rsoq and$e hou ofrhedayinrvtrycomplic&dwayThcchcroi lnJ iondcnsiricsinrheindividurl

niad sss

vilh cqualclccbon.nd ion dedties

ThcionosphercpLysanimponrnt

Bsiu$

rhLcterons aremuchlishrr rhanrh.

r by rh. dsd.

ncld, ofclLcromasndicMvs

urmalysis*eshrllisnorcrhemorionoilhcions

andreFrd rheionosphdeasa fte el(ron

.ollisionsbd{ccn lhc dcdrons andrhc gasalomsandmolecules.l

8as Fonhrnorc, weshdr iestfr

rh.

!.nd ma$'' ina rinc.hamonic.ldnc 6.1dtrio rh. .x, whi.hdisDhestr

Iroh a por i{

ionbya diianc x sucb.hd

13 dl

In {nling Eq. (3-62)}e havcintlicitly ncshdsdrhcmulualcfid olthc indudrd

dipolcnoncns orthcchctoi, oi om dorhci Fiom Eqs F c?),nd (3 62)se

i

@n6pandins tutu

cand rhc tla'm

n=."r.r=""fr l.{)s

:€0i,-=)a

fie

".-iry"

'ii

Msal&

tqun

tqun

tuquE!

E

Jj a chai'dfisic

.b"ttuA

-

2a

2r.1n t

ot rhe ionizcdnedium. Thc

ThN lhc equivalenrpddndviry orthcionosph.ft

oo ih. bair oI Eq (3 661*.

"('

."(,

= i"''Fi

;jl

+l

J' $l

1t

wh.ft r" :

FDn

pa,.h

,0/.i

= r2or (o)

!q. (3 66)*.

t.

io& rh! peoliff

rrc

phcnonenon or a vanisbi.s € !3 / ap

depend.onr;(

onbo,h,R

beposibk roi rn o$ilatins E

whcn! bc.or {

ckd . dtrphrmeorD,s rhh

' .6eto'okUJ f,u n.h d.No.

md polez!.iotr chtrsd)

r.\ir

is nd. In tna!@$ n *otrld

tr.

D'h- d&m4 m rhrdb$ne o

r,e. km.ns b _ s c,x( rr'a;o

$ \eo,

'

rbMnepurct! 'ed.rd'qrosd rF

u,rons.,,ou.bropaga.

8

ur.h.m"sjmry indiQr.oss .m, \. told qr

rhL

inasinory, andelsronagoeric waw! plopasaE

.rns.oo u,derv,nouscoodr.ob tarc.r

neglieibtc@llisiontoss).

chapGr.whei t>

r is purely

r.

Dm&truatedii lhc plasma(s$mins

nuredinbEr.1365),{e lindr wry sinple rormularor rhephsma(curolr) rFquencyl

/" =r,fr

(Hr.

136e)

Ar ec hav.nenriondl bdorc,N ato givenalrftuden noraon$anti i! y.rics anh rh. line of th. day,ihe sson, andotherlactoB Th. clcdon dcnsnyoI .hc ionospherc

mnssrbm aboutl0i0/,r in 'hclow6rLrytrro10rr/

ihes valu4rorN in Eq (3 691w.frnd /p rovaryrronoe toe (MHz).Hene,for

intheh,ghe{hyer.using

us lieqoenciesnuch higherlhan 9 (MHz) !o errurc wavependiation rhrouenthe

1.yq *i(h lhc larsBt rv at fty anslcor inoderc (s

rEquenci* lover rhm oe

iooosphercbur my prcpilatc ydy lar aroundrheaith by My of rohiple rcflE tionsar theion$phcrc sboundaryandrh. eanh\ sorrsc. sienahhavinsrrequenos 6dreo 0.9and q (MHz)vill p.ne

h*o dnly! vtry snuriioniscon

plistd

of lhc c!nh\ mrsneri. field.

Prcblm P.3-11).sigrah *nh

laytr or ih.

{Mnz)

canoorpenetat into cvcnLhclo{5r

bur{illcvenrurllyberunedba.k{hercN is1aqe.we hrvegiv

sinplifi€dpictureol lave Eopagrlion in rhcionosphcrcTh. d d

byihelackoldirtiid

laydi o

whenr spa€raftEenreBthe.arrh'sahorpherc,ic sp*d and cmp*aturciontethesuroundins.tohsanddoleul.sandcrcatcapl6na Ir hls brenclimarLd!ha!lhcchdroi d.nsiryisinrheoeishbooodof2 x l03p€r(cmr).

spaecralt andrhcnj$ion contolic6 on .dh.

Eq (3 6r)gi"*,

=,

,

"/r*

N=:

l0 FGm )

:,:

'0,.ed(n),

I0" = r27 x r0?(Hz),or r27(MHr. rhus,mdio

cobhuii.alionannor bcAhb|nhcdlbrrrcqmn.ic!bclo* r??(MH?)

In sdion

asthevdocnyorpropqation oI.n e{uiphaswsv.rront.Therlarion b€tN*n!,

andth. phasecondru,l

3 2 {c d.6n€nthe pha$ velocity,!,, or a sinsleftquency plane*rv.

is

')

For plan.s!!6ln

a losl.s mrnium,l=oJ/.

is a linearrundiororo. As a

consttuenq rheph3e v.lociry r, =

qrercy Irowwer, in $ne mss Goch !s vrv. prcpaAalion in a 1o$ydielEdq as discu$d pFviously,or alonsa iansmision lio., or itr s vsv.guid. ro br disus.d

1/J!€ ir . conran( lhar js iodepende or fr.

in lat'

chrpteB)th. ph!$ coniant is not r liod

luoctiotrol.d; wavcsordifl.rcir

b.rnncsicnah.onshtor! bandoffrcquh.ici wa$ ofrhc.ompon. kqmi.ias

no siEnll _dispsNr." Thc phonomcnonoIsiF

or tb. pba$ vdNity on tequ.n.y is albd

(7 115),weconcludethrl a lo*y dic|edc i! ob!,oudy a r';'rd'i.

di$onion caaedby a dcpcndci@

Ii vi.w of Eqs.(3 51)and

r!tti!r.

r'brs tr.

An infomarion beanngsi$al nomally hasr smallspreadolfEquencies(side

bdds) sound x hish siiid

|[rr*icy

such a siBndl.onpri$s |

?oup" or lft-

ol th! laFprckd

Cansiderth. sinpl6.@s ora *avcDa.kc!rh.tconsisbollsobawllnAsav6

hauryeqMlsmplitodesnddigh'lydiflffslmgu|s|ftqkmi.soo+^@'nd oo - ^a (^o < od. rhe pha$ con

slighdydifercnr Ld rhe pha$ mNbnt corspoodins to the r*o tEquencis b.

to + ^, ud ,o

cnvelope (ot r sroup of rnquencis)

Al. 1vch.Yc

t(a 4 = ,. os [(oo + ^o), - (ro + ^ft]

+ t!

os

l(oo

- io), - (ro- Afl:l

=rtoos('^o-:^r).os(oo' ro:).

q.(3 71)Epr*nb

a npidlyosill

ing Barc

hlvidgmanguhrlaqucicyooandanompliruddharvans slowlysirhrn ansuhr

'flre *av. insidethe envelopeprcpalnts with a phrs velocitylound by sttins

"

dz

dt

aa

1,,

The velociryol $e eovdop€ (lhe

thearcumentoIIh.6sr osineladorin Eq (3-71).qual1o ron$ant:

,r,,,

et&t,

4) on be detrmiftn

by setiins

*e haverh. fomuta tor conpurinc

Thn is th. veb.ny of a poior on rheenvclopeoI rh. {ave p&ker,.6

3 4 lnd k ideorifi.d asrbcvelociryol rhemiiow-band

srion 3 r.l , is a ruocrionoro. r o is plo!.d yenus

The slop€oI rhes$ighr IinedrawDton

rhe ,haE velocirno/A

n fte ero$ vctociry,dollr. ln Fis.3 7m o t gdph for mv. popasarlon in m ioded nedium is ptor.d,

shovo io Fig.

jsDa1.1 As wesw in Sub-

,, m o f craph is obiained.

sBph siEs

ro rhe sraph d .hc Foiot

thc origrn b a point on rhc

rheraiscd!

andrhc lodl slopeor

I = oltd

At d : .4 (hc culorangular

l+)

subnirurinsEq.13?3)inEq(3 2),wchdc

.-.i{"t

'

V

\,)/

d lor vavepropagariori', A similarriusrionexis(ii vavrsuid* ls4rion l0 ?)

ioiizedncdium,

!,r.-r2.

p md phascrelociriesmaybeabrrinedby mmbinrsE,rs.(3 701and(3 ?2)rrom E,r(3 ?0){c hrE

dtt

h,

d

la\

to\d

t

ut

@h,

r;

da

subsirdionofrrEabd. itrE,r. t3 2) yicrrr

'i,1"'

FromEq t3 76)*. *. rhmpo$ibtccas6:

!:=, (',,indcphdcnroro.0 r linerrundioioro).

*'"

{nsr o".\d',1

n p op,s.k

h-,.

".1.c.crol' eiE r

r -dere' !

t

conna oIlhcncdnn is1.5. ia) Deierni'rI rnd /r 0) Ddcmins!r andr,. h rhe

.) sinc rrr ros 'rtre.tr'. / :02 xnddr13€r< t. Eqs. i8 a3)and G a9 crn

!c find Ircmrbetos

beNd

b dd{mne,

sd,

sn.drjycry.Burinl

8-5

.," tu

.;(t'l

"""#

=

1d{

'jK I I+.\

=-

:!j'[,

'21

L

Grow velocity {iron Eq.3-19):

,tzL' 3 \ ]o,,'l ='** *'r",

ll

6

=

l

r l

dd

':J/.1'*3\/]

-t-

r/. f l

*:owa'.tF=-

Thus r loN los di.bdn. is .early nondisD.siE H{e wehav. a$um.d € io

h€indeDhdenrorrftquency.Foi

o andmy hrvea

will no lonserhold,lid rh. medium{ill b. disprsive

magnirudc.ompanble ro a. Thc rpproximtioo io Eq (3 lc)

sillbe a runctionoI

! hiehlos dieledn.,.

Flqs of Ele.l@nagn€ticPoed dd tb. Potntingvecror

Eledonasoedc {avessiiy Nirh themclednmagnelic pow.i En.rsv istanspon.d ,nr atrn ls poin b) ek.r'ondsr *"'".,"-'i bd"*'h.d lieldinGsities!*ociared ih r ta Wcb.crn*rh rh. cu cqurrons:

"'"=-ft

o"x=nf.

rh. vedfidtion or thc tollowiic idenrityof v{to r op€ralions Ge Piobkr

P 2

33)

Y (ErH):H.(vx[)

E (!xH).

snb*itutionorEqs. (3 7?)did(3 73)inEr.(3 ?e)yields

"):"+ "+

Ir r sidplcdcdium.{hoscon$itu

"i=" ru

iD

''t="

_

-

,1/H) =1 lrlr,H H)

a

r

dGE) r,rGt E)

,r,

:t,

d

=

E.J:

tr (dtr)= dI

*(]

at

(:'

,

)

Equrlion (3 30).anrhenbeeriten as

.rl''-,"1

.r\r

t

J

whi.h is s poinlrunchon rclarionship An iniosal lorm or E t. (3 3l ) is obhioed by imegmtinsboihsidesovs rhevoluncof.oien:

9"r",'r'a.=$i,(r.,' -r ,,')a,- 1, *' a,.

*horc thc divdsenc thsI$

v .(E

hasb*n applied (o convci ihe volum.

iDtsral oI

x H) to rheclos€nsurlrceintsol or (Ex H)

we Eognir

thr! rhct6r ands.ond rens oo rhenghtsidror Eq.(3 32)

rcpEsnt thc lineore of .haiee oI the enel3JnoEd in lhc c|elnc and mssrdic

fidds,nsperikly. [conpaft {ith Eqs. i]

ohmnpo{d dnsipacdin rhcloLu

d.nsny 'E ii

sid. or E4.(3 3r) a rheroir o/ /.nev or 'hc cleric snd magnetceneryr* doFn,

subtnded 6y rheohric po{d dissipsredrs heaiio rhevolumc/ To beconsistent

withthela! oI on*ildion

l76b)and (6 IT2O]rh.hdtnirhe

rh. prcsenc.of the el{tic

oI

e4J,

6eldE. Hcn.c *c nay imelpEt rheri$i

thisnu$ equalthc poetr t

e oreneqy) a v{ior E!-

leatrdlhevolumeihroughirssudac.Thuslhcquan.iry(Ex H)r

Quantity P is knowo m the Pordn,

!$dciared with an el.cbomaendicridd overa doed surfaq rs eiv.n by thekft

!.d,n

whrch n

The asedion that sideof Eq i3 32),

n rckne,tb ^sPotrn sttbdn.Ttisdsc

-9"

e a=iJ,v'

+ Le.d",

4 = ir: = i.E , tr* = Eredricemlgydmstn

!.

= l/r"

= l/H . H. = Masndic{dsy deciry,

jon i! no!timilcd

 

p"=dEz:J1/o=aE.E

=J

J'lo - Ohnicpo{er&6ity.

(3 37)

ln {ddi

Eq. (3 34)sbrsihd rhetorarpowerno*ingi'r, a,josd

sort@

lny

in{an! cqlak rhc suh

d.rc,6

Tro poinb concming lhc Poynlingvcdor aE sonh y oI noG Fnd, the pow*

relationsgiv.n in Eqs.(3 32)ud (3 34)pcdain ro rhc !or!l porer 8ow ano$ t

do$d surlae obtainrd by the sndaft intgrsl

Poyitins ycdor io Eq raceis ai arltrzrr,

Th. d.frnirion of !h.

of the nts

of incrcaseol the $ored eledic and ms.dic

ondlhc ohnic po*er dissipal€n{ithio theenclosedvolune.

(3

of (E x r!.

si) asrheporer densityvstor rt e

olbej! scful, .or.spr.

S

ond,

lhc Poyntins yedor t

is in a

Ir rhe Esioo of conftrn is losles (d = 0), th

tne ldt

rn

in Eq. (3 34)

v.nhhcE lnd !h? tot increa$ of rhc $orcd

po*a fowing into a closd su ae is eqnalro rhe nt

ded.

of

.nd dagnelic .nelgr* in the .nclo$d volune Io a n ihe ishr sid. orEq (3 34)vanh[ and lhc

!o!al po*er flo*ios into r closedsu

dndins wirc (or

dius b andcondudiviry d) rhai carns a diEr

curt.nr L v.nry

rion. rhc .uftn.

in th. {irc is unifomlr dis-

tibur.d ov* irsro$.stioml

wirh rhe z'sis. Iietrft 3 3 show.! 6ecfrcnr of l.ngth / oI lhc lo$ vjre. Wc h!v.

arca.rd usasune thar theaxisol the*ir

coincids

-

J

ILluiEttrs

Pdr

i3\

6!qen

(hlnPrc

3 71.

ThusrhcPoynringvecloratthesurceoIrbcwircis

t:f,xH=k.rr.l-

: \ 2^l"

whichi6 diecied everyNheEinlo

rhe*,ft

sudacL.

To venryPoyntinCsrbeorcm.{e incsr.c

4

ovr rhe{

l ol rhewift selnent

6e

ds= -a

e

r.ds=l--l2"bl

=r'l -l:,' R

*herc lhe fonula ror rbercsinane or a snighl {ne ii Eq. (5 z1) R : 4ds. has

h*n usd. Therhov. nsoli lfilm rha(lhe ftgarive

verorr exadl!eqmlrode r:R ohmicpo*s PoJninB\ Lh.orcmn.{ill.d

surhc intsnl

of th' Povntns

los in iheconddine*18 Hct*

Io

o

dcllinsvnh dmehaffioniceletrooagndnNavs

"*

pt',-'.orio

rm;*mtan.oos

\2lueorx

v. h8veloundir cotrvenienr

'lurntitvisth.nih. rcrlpln

oIrlt produd of rbcphNorqmnriiy and/d Forsrnprq lor rhepbasor

[i:) = e"!,i, = e,ror r]4, fic innarhn.ourexpa$ionis

whencosor isu*d

q;.4 = 4.[tr€)sp]=r,.oc

=,,r/

'.dr(o,

tr.

-?.FJ-

'.!

13sr

Fda mirom plm

w4c prcpasding in a

lo$y frcdiumii rhc+:ji@rion, rhe

a$ociaredmsidic fieldimdnjryphasorjs

H,r:,,Hlr=, #""

-.'"

{hercd!k rh. pha*

cori*nondin8,nr&eneou!erprusionrorH(:)is

a.rteofrhcintn|s

tfrpgdmc. 4 = h/l!r orhs mdlm

fhe

H,r)=Lt*nc t=,,fi.'-.u" r, ,,,.

Im-

msddo

| " q .,nr,i.ri\ obr"n,\li

rlo.' r,oidrto.m'li(\,4 poldi.5.e o. bergl

Lrs 'n r

n.o.d_ri.edrr L"ro'c' . a.iou- . dru.edo

rh! rcron

, LhlL

nc "r

|'

. h,o,t,T". op

5ur8oot

h

-o

r5e,n.r

4.l[tae'l

r' coF etf,

fro'n Fo

i3 33lrid

(3 90)

/ ,r.lH\a.F l r. !i.tq|]

io,

\

ro.,l

\ t\an4l.

ac.4 = E(z, a I HQ, a: 4.tEdE-l x d.tHc)c-l

:f.rir

-.os(or

f.@stat t:

a)

. ="" fi" '-t.*," r-'c., 'p,-,,;1

{hrcd.srq*erDG

J!r)-t^

+^1

[c o&Ls 6t!$r

dd

,,18)= tB+B!

d" rtu5

,n^r x rnsj= t^+^.ri

tB +r.)

=lrn^i,,+Ax3r

I-,,11 tl t".-

.

tu

H-".1

r."i"

,

.r

!hi.h isobvrtrslyror thesrmers (hccxprssionii Eq (3 c2) AsrarasthepoN* hnsoi(cd by

rerrse ralucisr moa sigii[.a

(3 9?).se ob'rii

q

rl'e rimeilerrse Poynrinsvcdoi r

(:):

0,.

a.o=i !; "r

,t*:'

ffi" :"cosd, rwrm' l

{hc(

orIq

7 = ?nrdk rherimepd,odotrhe{ave.The$!ond bm oi ft.iehr

3

q,

dto.rel'.'o,oliJouqlf q.".\ rlo',

-"*i

side

.eooe l

usingEq.(3e3).!

aieiprcsrhenBhdrneoNPqnlinscdoiiiEr'(3

e2)

asrhercrl panorrhenLmof twolerms.in$ladorrheprodudorthercalpansor

e(,. r): r.[E(:)!-]

x 4.[H(:).tu]

: lr.ltr(,

x H'1, + tr(, x Hk)1'"'l

rhe sv$rsepo*{ densny,,r'".C).canbc obrain.dby nts.rtins !4.!) ovn a lundamcn.Jp.riodT Sinethcrvmec olrhelai Gecond hffmonic)tm i" Eq.

'&-,h" 2 = 2lr,

13

iM

!)

r

+i"

a !N!id

'^h

4,( )=+r.tE(-) .

Dhs

d;6'

n0 =

H1:rl.

In rhe ccnftalcse *c mayno!bcdcdlinswirhadavcpropdgalinsin rhc

e,,:lr,(r ' Ht

(wmrr,

{hichnre.ntr.l fonul.Iorompu(ingrhc.(ngppoqqdcisnyln.Dropagarins

""t%a*,)"',,"n ,

"(*ry,.,)" ,,- r,r

{hcrc1= rn# n 'heNderens'h.

r) writ

b)

theerpresionroriniantx

nd

Find rhebhr reiase pok

r)

w. iore rbd Pts, = ro = 120r (o).rhc in$anbncosPdynling y@ror is

l/iR,0i, = r! l[1R,0).@] x f.tH(n, dtrdl

=o, " "")ro"l-:l 5ironn' t'

fR,

b) rhe Nqage pow

.

arr.ri \'

'r : /

I .f:dt'

.o.r."

rn)

rwn,

deBitr, \€dor q rrom Eq (3 e6),

3"\tR,dr=,xr5nt= | \n'o

r4e valueor !p(R. 4 4 gilen in pan (.) or I odia'edr obhinedbyiniegdinse,,(R.d)

i

,

rl/"

.r_rdo,

i

1

.,

|dre,n.r r'

ud

hr/-r.!'.r-ile

P., = trrt.@, t.= \r4vfl

r.0

!.itF@

i

di.F,nL

6

4-F

8-6

or

hcsun@ of rhesph.reofndru_nl

(x.4.rs=

,t^'

rdar",, =9 a

1,"(',J'

T.,iJ

:^,.(!.)".

whffc t is rhemplnud. (!6 iimes

theeflerive value)ot rhesinuoidi

cMienritr

l*ut

rnda*"" or" pbr CondudiogBoundary

up ro this poinr oe hale discused thc Foprsrrioi

rcohr,-r'r!'rlnedsqiinofl*.n'-".r

d".

ot unifom

p",

1.;

Dranevav*

p"-,

r

an

\ah",

{-Arn.m

bo,d3,\ wse \.hnre',r ,n.d-"8(( rEcuied nsKioi53 3 3 9 and3 l0

1,.hh"r

d

d _ pt"-

*e(

qneo I tr ncioea

rrr.h,

o

oera,.i. mss

$

f

.fd\irnl

du.b'

rmedir

'J

:

r-

r lll i

{r.

rh:.rT,

J(orLs.

rc

H,,B\rr.

tr,

ro

,,ta'd hd.hc bou,dqv,,,o l4t4e srhs pcned .on-

d. -

hodmi

ndndD

'1

e. 'o

on a pl&c mndrcriis

$r q,dJ

h.5etabrr$ o, ol botr.dtry.

;:9'.

ilxn|;*-*'"'""'"","""',"."".'.-'".

diEtion, andrheboundarysu ae fusndic ficld inlcrlny phas^ arc

9 whne ihc incidenrw*e ravets in lhc +r

H,pt=', nb" " ,

=

0,and /, and r,

areihephascon$an,3trd

lhcintinsic impcdan@,Esp.dtsli

of ih. inddmt *&.,

of.n{!J propagalionTh. v i$le: n negalirio m€dium1.

ol mcniun |. Ir t notd th!! !h. Poyntingvedor

r{:)

= E,(:) x Hp), n i. rher. dn{'ion, vhich isrhedndior

Inddc nodiun 2 id pertat .onducror),bolh dcd c andfr.endic 6cldsvanish,

f,: :0, H,:0r

fteion. rh. inodenrw4v. is d{te4 giviig .se b I ftfl.ded **. (x,, H.). rhe ftd.ded .kdc 6.ld intensityon bewrntenrs

beie no lavc h rransmirtdatro$ rheboundaryinlolhcz> 0

enrsisnifi* rbarihe rcflerd

savc ravch in lhe

E,Q)=Ep)+ trlz) = r,(r,o€ r."+r41,1.

G ro1)

E,(0) = r,(rrc+ ,,J = E?(0) = q

whichyietdsra =

Eo.rhuq Etr.(3 101)beom6

Et(,):

rJ,o0

'u

?"j)

Ih. mssndcrield'nLe6ryH,or'hercfl*kd !:w

H,1r:

!- x E,G)::(

r,)

n Ehted b E, by Etr. C :e):

=-".!2^a, =" tua, .

ConbiningH,{')*nh H,i, in Eq. (3 99),wcobiainthc!or.l n asnericheldintnriry

H'(, = H,(, + H,1. = a,r!fosl

:

Ir isdeir frcmEqs. {3

*.rhrherokldrnom"sien! qd€ 'o mediuml.sinr C

l0r[i3

l0]),ad(3-96)lharoorveragepo*r

/.jrnd

H.r-

ri rrdn tr,!rrnjine Llt rrxd

!tr't brhr! fr ofrlr

rollLJictd,nmudum t. {c

r Eqr (3 r0rridd(r r0l

tsLr:.rr

,,ftr,LJ!,,1 ,.rr!,

tLjnr,'.

DLr[ Tr]!mdi,rg trrs

$!f

/r,r

*,, r

=

,

,r::

,*'rl -

= ,:'

rl isi !a,/r,

L];

ru14rc!Lrjns

Lhth. di5rm. tuJ'uruJltumrbcbouMrrr

nt ts

1

sveml valuesoI or. Norc rhe rotrowinerhrcc poin6: (1) E, vanishs or

.on-

duchq bouodary (rE = d $ sdl a d eoinr

thcbonn&ryi (2)H1i! . nlimum onrhecondudineboundary(ir{ = re,i = r/o/?l)i (3)rh. $ndinc {ays ortrt and H! arc in rine qmdmu( (s0! phaseditreftnc)

aid aa rhincd in spa.cby a quan* Navdensrh

th.

.hd atu nuliples orip rron

a r.poraizd

utr dm plare wNe (f,,, H,) wirh a lrcqucncr 100

dn4don andimpinss oonally on r pftudy

*rir

the

{6) tr

(MH4 prcpagds in ari in

.onduding pl

ph$or md in!$.ancous e4rssioos ror (a)E/ andH, oI th. incidcnr*avq

andH, of rhedecrd ih.lo€rion iea!

wav.!and(c)E1andH! of rheior rorhecondudi

lhc +:

e ar x = 0 Asum'ns thc afplirud. or [r ro b. 6 (nv/n|

Navein on (o D