Anda di halaman 1dari 4

ELEC 423 Powe Distribu 4 er ution Sys stem

Sp pring 212

Load Ch haracteri istics

In order to design an electr distribution system properly, some infor r n ric rmation on load characteristics must be known. These char racteristics a importan to estimate the loads the are nt s, cable siz and the substation tr ze s ransformers rating. To do this, som importan definitions and me nt s factors should be kno own very we and these are summa ell, e arized in the following. e Basic De efinitions

Demand d The demand of an installatio or system is the load at receivin terminals averaged o on m d ng over a specified interval of time. The loa may be given in KW, Kvar, KVA a KA. and d t ad g Maximum demand m Maximum deman of an installation or system is the greates of all dem nd r st mand which has h pecific period of time. d occurred during a sp ted Connect load It is the sum of continuous ra c ating of the load-consum ming appara atus connect to the sy ted ystem or any pa of the sys art stem. Average demand e Avera demand of the system means its load requ age d uirement in M or MVA averaged o MW over a longer du uration of tim a day, a week, a mo me onth or a ye ear. Average demand m be calcu e may ulated from ene ergy requirem ment over a specified tim as follow : me Averag demand = ge

Energy required ove time " t" in KW hr r er "t t"

Diversified Demand It is the demand of the composite group as a whole of somewhat unrelated loads over a specified period of time. Maximum diversified demand It is the maximum sum of the contribution of the individual demands to the diversified demand over a specified time interval.

Definitions of Some Factors

Demand factor It is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system to the load connected load of the system:
Fdm =
Maximum Demand Total connected demand

= Dm

Where: Dm = Max. Demand TCD = Total connected demand The demand factor can also be found for a part of the system, e.g. an industrial, commercial or residential customer instead of for the whole system. The demand factor is dimensionless and usually less than one. Table 1 shows some typical demand factors of different types of load. Diversity factor It is "the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivision of a system to the maximum of the whole system". Therefore the diversity factor (Fd) is:

Di Sum of individualMaximumDemand D1 D2 D3 ....... Dn i 1 Fd CoincidentMaximumDemand Dg Dg

Where: Di = Maximum demand of load i Dg = coincident maximum demand of group of N load Or Fd can be written as:
Fd =

1 N (TCD )i ( Fdm)i Dg i 1

Coincident factor It is "the ratio of the maximum coincident total demand of a group of consumers to the sum of the maximum power demands of individual consumers comprising the group both taken at the same point of supply for the same time" [4]. Therefore the coincidence factor (Fc) is: Fc =

1 Coincidence maximum demand Dg = N = sum of individual maximum demand F Di d

i 1


Table 1 Demand factor of different types of load

Typesofload Commercial: Restraint.Shop&office University,Schools 0.5 Club.Cinemas,etc. 0.5 Hotels Industrial: lighting 1.0 Motors: Generalpurposes,pumps,press,etc. Semicontinuousoperation,papersmills. Continuesoperationstextilemills. 0.9 Chemicalplant. 0.9 Arcfurnaces Resistancefurnaces 0.8 Arcwelding Resistancewelding 0.2 0.3 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.5 DemandFactor


Residential: Househas3- rooms Househasmorethan5rooms Lighting,Refrigerator Washingmachine 0.60.8 0.450.65 0.9 0.6

Table Diversity Factor for Categories of Load

Elementofsystem betweenwhichdiversity factorsarestated: BetweenIndividualUsers BetweenTransformers BetweenFeeders BetweenSubstations FromUserstoTransformer FromUserstoFeeder FromUserstoSubstation Residential Lighting

DiversityFactorsFor: Commercial Lighting General power 1.45 1.35 1.15 1.1 1.44 1.95

LargeUser 1.05 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.32 1.45

1.3 1.15 1.1

1.3 1.15 1.1 1.46 1.9 2.12 2.4

2 2.6
3.0 3.29


2.24 2.46

[1]RecommendedPracticeforElectricPowerDistributionforIndustrialPlants,IEEEStd1411969. [2]TextBook