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Metilasi DNA melibatkan penambahan gugus metil pada posisi 5 dari cincin pirimidin sitosin atau jumlah 6 nitrogen

purin adenin cincin (sitosin dan adenin adalah dua dari empat basa DNA). Modifikasi ini bisa diwariskan melalui pembelahan sel. Metilasi DNA biasanya dihapus selama pembentukan zigot dan re-dibentuk melalui pembelahan sel yang berurutan selama pengembangan meskipun penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa kelompok metil hidroksilasi terjadi bukan penghapusan lengkap dari kelompok metil zigot. Metilasi DNA adalah bagian penting dari perkembangan organisme normal dan diferensiasi selular pada organisme yang lebih tinggi. Metilasi DNA stabil mengubah pola ekspresi gen dalam sel sehingga sel dapat "ingat di mana mereka telah" atau mengurangi ekspresi gen, misalnya, sel-sel diprogram untuk menjadi pulau pankreas selama perkembangan embrio tetap pankreas pulau sepanjang kehidupan organisme tanpa sinyal terus mengatakan kepada mereka bahwa mereka harus tetap pulau. Selain itu, metilasi DNA menekan ekspresi gen virus dan elemen merusak lainnya yang telah dimasukkan ke dalam genom host dari waktu ke waktu. Metilasi DNA juga membentuk dasar struktur kromatin, yang memungkinkan sel untuk membentuk karakteristik segudang penting bagi kehidupan multiselular dari urutan berubah tunggal DNA. Metilasi DNA juga memainkan peran penting dalam pengembangan hampir semua jenis kanker. Metilasi DNA melibatkan penambahan grup metil untuk DNA - misalnya, untuk karbon 5 jumlah cincin pirimidin sitosin - dalam hal ini dengan efek spesifik mengurangi ekspresi gen. Metilasi DNA pada posisi 5 dari sitosin telah ditemukan di setiap vertebrata diperiksa. Dalam jaringan dewasa somatik, metilasi DNA biasanya terjadi dalam konteks dinukleotida CpG; non-CpG metilasi adalah lazim dalam sel batang embrio. Metilasi merupakan reaksi organik yang menambahkan gugus metil pada molekul substrat. Metilasi merupakan salah satu bentuk alkilasi

Definisi Metilasi DNA: jenis kimia modifi kasi yang melibatkan penambahan metil kelompok pada karbon-5 dari sitosin pirimidin cincin. Ini modifi kasi menghambat transkripsiinisiasi dan telah terlibat dalam menghambat sel pertumbuhan dan diferensiasi . Ini telah menghasilkan tes DNA ing metil trans ferase inhibitorsebagai anti kanker agen dan diferensiasi agen s. In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group to a substrate or the substitution of an atom or group by a methyl group. Methylation is a form of alkylation with, to be specific, a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogenatom. These terms are commonly used in chemistry, biochemistry, soil science, and the biological sciences. In biological systems, methylation is catalyzed by enzymes; such methylation can be involved in modification of heavy metals, regulation ofgene expression, regulation of protein function, and RNA metabolism. Methylation of heavy metals can also occur outside of biological systems. Chemical methylation of tissue samples is also one method for reducing certain histological staining artifacts.

Epigenetics

Methylation contributing to epigenetic inheritance can occur through either DNA methylation or protein methylation. DNA methylation in vertebrates typically occurs at CpG sites (cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites, that is, where a cytosine is directly followed by a guanine in the DNA sequence). This methylation results in the conversion of the cytosine to 5-methylcytosine. The formation of Me-CpG is catalyzed by the enzyme DNA methyltransferase. Human DNA has about 80%-90% of CpG sites methylated, but there are certain areas, known as CpG islands, that are GC-rich (made up of about 65% CG residues), wherein none are methylated. These are associated with the promoters of 56% of mammalian genes, including all ubiquitously expressed genes. One to two percent of the human genome are CpG clusters, and there is an inverse relationship between CpG methylation and transcriptional activity. Protein methylation typically takes place on arginine or lysine amino acid residues in the protein sequence.
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Arginine can be methylated once (monomethylated arginine) or twice, with either both

methyl groups on one terminal nitrogen (asymmetric dimethylated arginine) or one on both nitrogens (symmetric dimethylated arginine) by peptidylarginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Lysine can be methylated once, twice or three times by lysine methyltransferases. Protein methylation has been most-studied in the histones. The transfer of methyl groups fromS-adenosyl methionine to histones is catalyzed by enzymes known as histone methyltransferases. Histones that are methylated on certain residues can act epigenetically to repress or activate gene expression. type of post-translational modification.
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Protein methylation is one

Cancer
The pattern of methylation has recently become an important topic for research. Studies have found that in normal tissue, methylation of a gene is mainly localized to the coding region, which is CpGpoor. In contrast, the promoter region of the gene is unmethylated, despite a high density of CpG islands in the region. Neoplasia is characterized by "methylation imbalance" where genome-wide hypomethylation is accompanied by localized hypermethylationand an increase in expression of DNA methyltransferase.
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The overall methylation state in a cell might also be a precipitating factor in


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carcinogenesis as evidence suggests that genome-wide hypomethylation can lead to chromosome instability and increased mutation rates. The methylation state of some genes can be used as
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a biomarker for tumorigenesis. For instance, hypermethylation of the pi-class glutathione Stransferase gene (GSTP1) appears to be a promising diagnostic indicator of prostate cancer.

In cancer, the dynamics of genetic and epigenetic gene silencing are very different. Somatic genetic mutation leads to a block in the production of functional protein from the mutant allele. If a selective advantage is conferred to the cell, the cells expand clonally to give rise to a tumor in which all cells lack the capacity to produce protein. In contrast, epigenetically mediated gene silencing occurs gradually. It begins with a subtle decrease in transcription, fostering a decrease in protection of the CpG island from the spread of flanking heterochromatin and methylation into the island. This loss

results in gradual increases of individual CpG sites, which vary between copies of the same gene in different cells.
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Bacterial host defense


In addition, adenosine or cytosine methylation is part of the restriction modification system of many bacteria. Bacterial DNAs are methylated periodically throughout the genome. A methylase is the enzyme that recognizes a specific sequence and methylates one of the bases in or near that sequence. Foreign DNAs (which are not methylated in this manner) that are introduced into the cell are degraded by sequence-specific restriction enzymes. Bacterial genomic DNA is not recognized by these restriction enzymes. The methylation of native DNA acts as a sort of primitive immune system, allowing the bacteria to protect themselves from infection by bacteriophage. These restriction enzymes are the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) testing, used to detect DNA polymorphisms.