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KILAS BALIK 40 TAHUN PENELITIAN PEI

POTRET SEBUAH PERJALANAN

TIM

Nurindah

Rika

NovriNelly

Yaherwandi

Akhmad Rizali

Lia

Damayanti Buchori

Sumber Makalah (LIA: perbaiki ini ya)

Prosiding kongres entomologi II (1983)

Kumpulan makalah kongres entomologi IV (1992)

Prosiding seminar nasional (1997)

Prosiding seminar nasional (1999)

Prosiding simposium (2000)

Prosiding seminar nasional (2004)

Prosiding seminar nasional (2005)

Prosiding seminar nasional XIII (2005)

Konferensi nasional (2007)

Kongres VII dan seminar entomologi Indonesia (2007)

Prosiding seminar nasional (2008)

Rincian Makalah

Total 761 makalah dari proseding seminar tahun 1983 – 2008

Peneliti Indonesia: 736 makalah

Peneliti Indonesia + Asing: 32 makalah

abstrak

1970:…

1980:…

1990:…

2000:…

2010:…

ENTRY

Kelompok/Tema Penelitian

Biodiversity (Keanekaragaman)

Pestisida dan Efikasi

Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT)

Pengendalian Hayati

Biologi Taksonomi

Morfologi dan Fisiologi

Behaviour (Perilaku)

Polinasi

Entomologi Kesehatan

Kelompok Serangga dan Habitat

Kelompok Serangga:

Herbivor

Parasitoid

Predator

Vektor

Polinator

Kelompok Habitat:

Hutan

Pertanian: Pangan, Hortikultura

Perkebunan

Air

TUJUAN: Terbentuknya Database Riset Entomologi di Indonesia

Kategori

Topik

Kelompok Serangga

Habitat

Subkategori

….

MENGAPA?

Mengapa kita perlu database?

Mengapa kita perlu melihat sejarah dan perkembangan penelitian serangga?

The significance of information on this research:….

Saling melengkapi penelitian di bidang entomologi

memperkuat hasil penelitian di bidang yang sama

Menghindari duplikasi – buang waktu, biaya & energi.

Memulai penelitian yang topiknya belum banyak dilakukan implikasi untuk mendukung terbentuknya “better environment”

PERJALANAN PENELITAN ENTOMOLOGI

PRA PEI: MASA PENJAJAHAN

Sejarah Penelitian Entomologi

Sangat erat kaitannya dengan pertanian

Abad 18 19 th (Belanda):

kopi (masuk tahun1696 dari India), tebu, kelapa sawit (1848), kakao (1665) large scale plantation emerge

The need for pest management to protect investment thus:

Research: geared toward applied science

• The need for pest management to protect investment thus: • Research: geared toward applied science

History of Research Lia:

indonesiakan ya

Started with the creation of the Botanical Garden in 1817

Early research on insect started in 1883. The emphasize of research was on biology, ecology, taxonomy, which supported pest management.

•

Until WW II: dual nature of agriculture: “underdeveloped” indigenous agriculture (rice) and the “highly developed” estate/plantation crop.

Dutch Occupancy era:

Publication of IDEA

Journal: since 1800- 1950
Journal: since 1800-
1950

Breakthrough research

Breakthrough research • Van der Goot:1918-1921: white stem borer on rice ( Scirpophaga innotata : Lepidoptera:

Van der Goot:1918-1921: white stem borer on rice (Scirpophaga innotata: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae):

thorough research on basic and applied aspects, from taxonomy, ecology, until control method

Stemborers

Distribution: limited when compared to other borers, but have been known to cause widespread famine when it broke. Java, Sumatra, S. Sulawesi,Kalimantan, Sumbawa

It occurs in lowland (up to 200 m) region with pronounced dry season.

Diapause: last larval instar attack rice that enters reproductive stage (+shortening of the daylength: April-August)

stemborer

Diapause: obligatory, termination: 10 mm rainfall. The longer the resting period lasts, the faster the prepupa and pupa develop

Pest management: based on the ecology and population dynamic. Principles that were used were: global as well as detailed observation of population (daily and weekly) and level of instars in the field, natural parasitism were also observed

Breakthrough Research

Van der Vecht: Artona catoxantha (Lepidoptera:

Zygaenidae) attacking coconut : the biology, ecology and taxonomy was thoroughly studied.

Between outbreaks the insect is rare or absent from the plantations; (confined to localized areas?).

Severe infestations occur in dry weather and end soon after the start of the wet monsoon. 1925: development surveillance and monitoring system. ETL:established by integrating the population level of the larval moth, and the presence of parasites and hyperparasites.

The complex of parasites and hyperparasites of coconut:about 30 species of natural enemy complexes In

The complex of parasites and hyperparasites of coconut:about 30 species of natural enemy complexes

In fact, this was the first study done which actually implemented the IPM concept (before the birth of the term IPM).

Breakthrough research

Kalshoven : study the termites Neotermes tectonae (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) (teak wood - -> one of the few species in the world to attack living wood

tectonae (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) (teak wood - -> one of the few species in the world to

Other research include:

Helopeltis antonii (Hemiptera: Miridae) on tea and cacao in plantation. First recorded: 1841. 1916: Leefmans studied Helopeltis biology and ecology,

major breakthrough: the discovery of the black ants (Dolichoderus bituberculatus) tending the mealy bugs Pseudococcus hispidus and that these two species appeared to have reciprocal relationship with Helopeltis

mealy bugs Pseudococcus hispidus and that these two species appeared to have reciprocal relationship with Helopeltis

Helopeltis:

Helopeltis: • • Together these two insects disturb Helopeltis adults to such an extent that their

Together these two insects disturb Helopeltis adults to such an extent that their feeding and reproduction on cacao are considerably impeded basis for control (1917)

Where are we now? Jaman Kemerdekaan

Indonesia’s role in tropical ecology research:???

Intellectual gap when the Dutch left and the introduction of Green revolution (1950-1960)

Green Revolution in Indonesia

Introduction of new rice varieties

Extensive uses of fertilizers

Extensive uses of pesticides

Our knowledge on ecology at that time was very limited

Pandangan bahwa semua tipe tanah sama

Penelitian bias pada interaksi serangga tanaman?

Studies on insect-plant interaction are weighted too heavily on economic entomology, with particular emphasis on herbivore damage and economic loss

(jalu bisakah ini diperkuat dengan data: apa yang bisa ditampilkan disini?)

• data publikasi penelitian ambang ekonomi yang hanya memperhatikan aksi herbivora tanpa memperhitungkan peran predator & parasitoid sebagai faktor mortalitas biotik yang efektif (even until now)

HASIL DARI 40 TAHUN PERJALANAN

TEMA/KELOMPOK PENELITIAN

TEMA PENELITIAN

TEMA PENELITIAN

TEMA PENELITIAN

TEMA PENELITIAN

TEMA PENELITIAN MENGENAI PENGENDALIAN HAMA

TEMA PENELITIAN MENGENAI PENGENDALIAN HAMA

LOKASI PENELITIAN

LOKASI PENELITIAN

TRENDS

Individual Research Topic

KELOMPOK SERANGGA

KELOMPOK HABITAT

SPECIAL TOPICS

INTERAKSI SERANGGA TANAMAN

KOMODITI PRIORITAS (food security dan devisa negara)

padi

Kakao

Sawit

Kapas

Sayuran?

PADI

Cacao:

Conopomorpha cramerella (Cacao pod borer) was first detected in 1895 and now thought to be an indigenous pest originating from Rambutan (host shift from Nephelium lappaceum).

Since insecticide are commonly used, studies on the natural enemies have not gained much information

What type of research should be conducted?

used, studies on the natural enemies have not gained much information • What type of research

Other research include:

Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on coffee: first found in1909. Studies were made on the life history and control of the insect by Leefmans (1923). 1980’s: introduced parasitoid Cephalonomia africa

on the life history and control of the insect by Leefmans (1923). 1980’s: introduced parasitoid Cephalonomia

Sawit

Kapas

Amrasca biguttulla Key pest :serangga hama yang ditemukan di semua wilayah pengembangan kapas. Studi tentang bioekologi telah dilakukan pada kapas introduksi dan telah dikembangkan teknik pengendalian dengan konservasi predatornya dan tanaman yang moderately resistant.

dan telah dikembangkan teknik pengendalian dengan konservasi predatornya dan tanaman yang moderately resistant.

Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Pada tahun 1930an bukan sebagai serangga hama yang merugikan, karena dapat dikendalikan oleh musuh alaminya:

Parasitoid: 43 spesies Predator: 62 spesies Patogen serangga: 9 jenis

spesies Predator: 62 spesies Patogen serangga: 9 jenis Penggunaan insektisida yang intensif pada menyebabkan

Penggunaan insektisida yang intensif pada menyebabkan serangga ini menjadi hama utama. Studi tentang bioekologi telah dilakukan dan dengan konservasi parasitoid dan predatornya statusnya berubah dari serangga hama utama menjadi serangga hama potensial

Pengendalian Hama

Pestisida kimiawi

Pestisida nabati

Pengendalian Hayati

Pestisida Kimia

Pestisida Nabati

Pengendalian Hayati

Apa kelemahan penelitian pasca kemerdekaan?

Penelitian integratif dan holistic: menurun

Banyak penelitian terapan tetapi sedikit yang menyentuh aspek penelitian dasar (besar di economic entomology) Whilst this is important, we have neglected many other important issues, particularly pollination, insects as vectors, and many fundamental issues of insect plant interaction

Evolution-phylogeny

PENELITIAN ARAH DEPAN

Studies on Pollination

Studies on Pollination 1. Apis cerana: activity and behavior in carrying pollen: 1927 by Heide continued

1. Apis cerana: activity and behavior in carrying pollen:

1927 by Heide continued by Tati who looked at the relationship between climate and activity

2. Pollinators of Crotalaria juncea and Tephrosia vogelii:

impact of climate toward activity

3. Tea and its pollinators: issues on low pollination

4. The largest study on insect pollintors is the introduction of Elaeidobius kamerunicus from Cameroon to increase the production of oil palm

Island Biogeography

Molecular Genetics

Molecular Genetics

Penelitian hubungan kekerabatan Trichogrammatoidea spp. Parasitoid Helicoverpa armigera – publikasi Bahagiawati dkk (2008) di Agrobiogen

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Serangga Transgenic

Nyamuk dan WOLBACHIA

Infeksi Wolbachia menyebabkan:

1. Partenogenensis

2. Kematian pada hewan jantan

3. Feminisasi

4. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

Wolbachia sebagai pengendali hayati (vektor)

pada hewan jantan 3. Feminisasi 4. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility • Wolbachia sebagai pengendali hayati (vektor)

DEMAM BERDARAH

Disebarkan oleh nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus

Bian et al., 2010 :

Wolbachia dapat menekan duplikasi virus demam berdarah dalam saluran makanan nyamuk

Wolbachia dapat menekan penyebaran virus demam berdarah ke bagian thorax dan kepala nyamuk

Wolbachia dapat menurunkan penyebaran virus demam berdarah oleh Ae.aegypti

Wolbachia dapat meningkatkan lama hidup Ae. Aegypti yang terinfeksi

14 hari setelah diinfeksi, wolbachia memblok penyebaran virus demam berdarah

Bian et al., 2010 PLoS Pathog 6(4)

14 hari setelah diinfeksi, wolbachia memblok penyebaran virus demam berdarah Bian et al., 2010 PLoS Pathog
Perbedaan Nyata pada 14 dan 21 hari setelah wolbachia diinfeksikan pada nyamuk Ae. aegypti Bian

Perbedaan Nyata pada 14 dan 21 hari setelah wolbachia diinfeksikan pada nyamuk Ae. aegypti

MALARIA

Di dunia membunuh 1 2 juta orang per tahun terutama anakanak di Afrika

Di Indonesia malaria menjadi penyebab utama kematian, diperkirakan 50 orang menderita malaria per 1.000 orang penduduk

Disebarkan oleh nyamuk Anopheles

Pengembangan nyamuk transgenik

penduduk • Disebarkan oleh nyamuk Anopheles • Pengembangan nyamuk transgenik Shigeto Yoshida,PLoS Pathog 3(12
Wolbachia Mating, Nature Reviews/Genetics

Wolbachia Mating, Nature Reviews/Genetics

Cytoplasmic Incompatibility, Mating Combination (Clark et al., 2002)

Cytoplasmic Incompatibility, Mating Combination (Clark et al ., 2002) Clark et al. MoD 111 ( 2002

LOOKING INTO THE FUTURE:

CHALLENGES

Changes in international trade and the appearance of new alien pests: new associations between alien pests and local plants, alien pests and indigenous natural enemies, non-indigenous BC agents and local indigenous insects

Climate change and insect-plant interaction

Land use change and habitat fragmentation

Land use change and insectplant interaction

Host shift: introduction of cacao and attacks of Conopomorpha cramerella (a local herbivore on rambutan-Nephelium)

Host shift: introduction of cacao and attacks of Conopomorpha cramerella (a local herbivore on rambutan- Nephelium

History of Exotic Species

In Indonesia, the problem of exotic species becomes more important due to the fact that it is an archipelago country—what will the impact be?

Before 1950:

Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia binotalis

Exotic species during the 1980’s and 1990’s

Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae) from Caribian on Leucaena leucocephala ‐‐1986

and 1990’s Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae) from Caribian on Leucaena leucocephala ‐‐ 1986

Exotic species during the 1980’s and 1990’s

Aleurodicus dispersus ( Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Central and South America— 1987 on guava, cassava among others

dispersus ( Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from Central and South America— 1987 on guava, cassava among others

Exotic species during the 1980’s and 1990’s

Perycima cruegeri (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) from Papua Nugini on Poinciana regia ‐‐1992

1980’s and 1990’s Perycima cruegeri (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) from Papua Nugini on Poinciana regia ‐‐ 1992

Exotic species during the 1980’s and 1990’s

Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera:Agromyzidae) on ornamental to vegetables.‐ ‐ 1994

the 1980’s and 1990’s Liriomyza huidobrensis ( Diptera:Agromyzidae) on ornamental to vegetables. ‐ ‐ 1994

Invasive species of plants

Introduction of herbivores: From 16 exotic plants, 44 herbivores have been introduced. What happened to it (monitor?)

of herbivores: From 16 exotic plants, 44 herbivores have been introduced. What happened to it (monitor?)
• C. odorata, C. connexa and its impact reduce fitness?

C. odorata, C. connexa and its impact reduce fitness?

New association: C. connexa and local parasitoid?

New association: C. connexa and local parasitoid? Braconidae Gronotoma sp.(Eucoilidae) Ormyrus sp. (Ormyridae)

Braconidae

association: C. connexa and local parasitoid? Braconidae Gronotoma sp.(Eucoilidae) Ormyrus sp. (Ormyridae) Eupelmus

Gronotoma sp.(Eucoilidae)

connexa and local parasitoid? Braconidae Gronotoma sp.(Eucoilidae) Ormyrus sp. (Ormyridae) Eupelmus sp.(Eupelmidae)

Ormyrus sp. (Ormyridae)

connexa and local parasitoid? Braconidae Gronotoma sp.(Eucoilidae) Ormyrus sp. (Ormyridae) Eupelmus sp.(Eupelmidae)

Eupelmus sp.(Eupelmidae)

FOOD FOR THOUGHTS

New association between exotic biocontrol agent with local natural enemies: what does this imply?

Additional hosts?

Increase population of natural enemies?

Host shift?

Increase pop of previous host (due to release from pressure)?

Potential new pest buildup?

Will exotic natural enemies affect local diversity?

CONSERVATION OF LOCAL DIVERSITY AND IMPACTS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Biocontrol agents are additional species that has established in its new environment:
Biocontrol agents are additional species that has
established in its new environment:
species that has established in its new environment: What is the Outcome of the Interaction? –

What is the Outcome of the Interaction?

Non target impact:

The ability to live and prolong living in other plants:

potential as pest buildup? i.e. as long as there are water hyacinth, the reproduction is ensured.

Food web subsidies change in energy flow in the food chain

subsidies change in energy flow in the food chain What does this scenario means in islands?
What does this scenario means in islands? Endemic species?
What does this scenario means in islands?
Endemic species?

type

association?

( - / ?)

type association? ( - / ?) ( - ) Insect community / local insect ? (

( - )

Insect community / local insect

?

( + )

non-target direct and indirect impact to local food web

Biological control agents

( + )

impact to local food web Biological control agents ( + ) ( - ) control Local

( - )

control

Local

plants

Invasive

plants

agents ( + ) ( - ) control Local plants Invasive plants Biotic homogenization new association

Biotic

homogenization

) control Local plants Invasive plants Biotic homogenization new association / extinction? Modification from Pearson

new association / extinction?

Modification from Pearson & Callaway (2003)

Invasive alien species in Small islands: what the consequences?

Local species diversity: -migration between small island and mainland

-High rate of biotic homogenization

island and mainland -High rate of biotic homogenization -Local extinction? Mainland - Food subsidies in islands

-Local extinction?

Mainland
Mainland

- Food subsidies in islands

-Local extinction? Mainland - Food subsidies in islands Modification of Predator prey model (island vs

Modification of Predator prey model (island vs mainland?)

Insect Conservation in island

High dispersion rate of invasive species

Low dispersion rate of natural enemies

Interesting cases to pursue

History of past biological control: what is the situation in the field?-established?/lost? What controls it now

Is there such thing as non-target biological control impact of past introduction?

El Nino: shortening of the cycle: what are the consequences, particularly for explosive species such as locusts?

Interesting cases to pursue (con’t)

Insect diversity

Habitat fragmentation and pollination success

Transgenic plants

If we look carefully

Research on insect-plant interaction in the tropics pose challenging questions: from taxonomy to ecology, behaviour, evolution and genetics. Many opportunity to conduct quality research

The constant problem of local invasiveness: why are BPH still a problem? biotypes or pest management?

pengembangan varietas hanya berorientasi pada produksi

pengembangan varietas tahan hanya berdasarkan interaksi antara tplant dan a single herbivore (bitrofik), complex interactions antara herbivores, plant dan musuh alami kurang dicermati/dipelajari.

Why DBD selalu menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat di musim musim tertentu? Perilaku serangga vektor (nyamuk) kurang didpelajari? diel pattern f