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DANICA JOY G.

COLLARGA 2nd YEAR IPIL-IPIL

1. What is K+12?
The K to 12 Program The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. The adoption of the program is in response to the need to improve the competitiveness of our countrys graduates as the tenyear basic education cycle is seen as inadequate for work and higher education. In fact, overseas Filipino workers are not automatically recognized as professionals[1] in other countries that view the ten-year education program as insufficient. The Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of only three countries[2] in the world with a ten-year basic education cycle. Salient Features 1. Universal Kindergarten Education.Kindergarten has now been integrated into the basic education system to ensure that all grade 1 students are ready for academic learning.[3] Universal kindergarten started in SY 20112012 with a budget of P2.3 billion and was made mandatory starting SY 20122013 through the signing of Republic Act No. 10157 entitled An Act Institutionalizing the Kindergarten Education into the Basic Education System and Appropriating Funds Therefor on January 20, 2012. In SY 20122013, an estimated 2.3 million five-year-old children will enter kindergarten, of which 1.7 million (74 percent) will be served by public schools. Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. The mother tongue will be the medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3. This includes the following: Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and Chabacano. Medium of instruction will be English and Filipino starting grade 4. Core Academic Areas.[7] The core academic areas include Math; Filipino; English; Araling Panlipunan; Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao; and Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH). These are based on the College Readiness Standards of the Commission on Higher Education and are equivalent to the courses offered under the General Education Curriculum of Higher Education Institutions. Science will be taught in grade 3, but its concepts will be integrated in other subjects like Health (under MAPEH), Math, and Languages in grades 1 and 2. Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan will be taught starting in grade 4. Technology and Livelihood Education and technicalvocational specializations, consistent with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority training regulations, will start in grade 7. Specializations. The additional two years (grades 11 and 12) or SHS will allow students to choose among academic, technicalvocational, or sports and arts tracks depending on their interest, the community needs, and the results of their skills assessment. The SHS will allow mastery of core competencies for lifelong learning and preparedness for work, higher education, middle-level skills development, or entrepreneurship.[8]

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Implementation and Transition Management Program implementation will be in phases starting this June for SY 20122013. Grade 1 entrants in SY 20122013 will be the first batch to fully undergo the program, and incoming first-year high school students (or grade 7) in SY 20122013 will be the first to undergo the junior high school curriculum.[9] To prepare teachers for the new curriculum, a nationwide summer training program for about 140,000 grades 1 and 7 public school teachers will be held in May. The Department of Education (DepEd) is also working with various private school associations to cover teachers in private schools.[10] To facilitate the transition from the existing ten-year basic education to 12 years, the DepEd will also implement the SHS Readiness Assessment[11] and K to 12 Modeling.[12]

Ensuring Sustainability of the Program Enhancing the basic education curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic education was adopted as a Common Legislative Agenda during the February 28, 2011 LegislativeExecutive Development Advisory Council (LEDAC) meeting. The administration-supported bills that aim to increase the number of years for basic education are Senate Bill 2713 (Recto), House Bill (HB) 4219 (Belmonte), and HB 4199 (Escudero). These bills are pending at the Committee Level. Government Interventions to Address Basic Education Input Gaps. The DepEd budget was increased by 15 percent from P207 billion in 2011 to P238.8 billion in 2012, which is being utilized to address the basic education input gaps, among others. Classrooms As of January 27, 2012, the following are the governments accomplishments on classroom construction: 2010 GAA 2011 GAA Target Classroom construction PercentageTargetClassroom construction Percentage 2,472 2,383 96.40 8,133 7,089 87.16 (2,218 complete; 165 ongoing) (4,447 complete; 2,642 ongoing)

Teachers As of February 29, 2012, 94.86 percent of the 10,000 CY 2011 new teaching positions[16] approved by the Department of Budget and Management has been filled. To fast-track the construction of classrooms, the Public-Private Partnership for School Infrastructure Project will be implemented from July 2012 to July 2013 with a project cost of P9.8 billion. A total of 9,332 classrooms will be constructed in 2,262 elementary and secondary schools in three pre-identified regions (I, III, and IVA) with the highest classroom shortages. Toilets Between 2010 and 2011, 978 of the targeted 1,396 toilets have been repaired.

Textbooks With the CY 2010 and 2011 procurement, the DepEd will be able to achieve a 1:1 student to textbook ratio in SY 20122013. By SY 20122013, the DepEd will have a zero backlog on textbooks. Seats Between 2010 and 2011, 1,301,506 of the targeted 1,461,963 school seats have been procured.

2. What is the Purpose of k+12?


Social Benefits of the Program The perceived benefits of the program include: i) placing the Philippine education system at par with international standards, following the Washington Accord and the Bologna Accord; and ii) contributing to the development of a better educated society capable of pursuing productive employment, entrepreneurship, or higher education disciplines.

3. What is Food Preservation?


Food Processing and Preservation, branch of manufacturing that transforms raw animal, vegetable, or marine materials into tasty, nutritious, and safe food products. The industry has its roots in ancient times, as humans have always needed to obtain food and store a portion for later use. Prehistoric humans may have dried fruits in the sun and stored meat in cold areas, such as caves. The modern food processing and preservation industry was born in 1809, when French chef and inventor Nicolas Appert, searching for a better way to provide food for Napoleons army, devised a method for sterilizing food in tightly sealed glass bottles. 4.

Give at least 15 unfamiliar words regarding food preservation.

Canning Canning is used to preserve a wide variety of foods, including soups, sauces, fruits, vegetables, juices, meats, fish, and some dairy products. Canning preserves food by heating it in airtight, vacuum-sealed containers. The can is filled with food, and air is pumped out of the space remaining at the top of the can to form a vacuum. The container is sealed, heated in a cooker called a retort, and then cooled to prevent overcooking of the food inside. This process removes oxygen, destroys enzymes involved in food spoilage, and kills most microorganisms that may be present in the food. Burial Most people dont immediately associate food and burial, but it just goes to show you that assumptions dont get you anywhere useful in life. The constant temperatures, darkness, and humidity levels associated with burial are ideal for preventing spoilage of root crops in particular, but also foods like onions and cabbages and foods that have been previously dried. The root cellar, a wonderful way to preserve root vegetables and other hardy vegetables such as cabbages, is one form of burial. Cache pits used by Native Americans is a form of food preservation via burial (image from lewisandclarktrail.com) Other forms of burial storage include the storage clamp and the cache pit. Storage clamps recreate the conditions found in a root cellar where top soil is scraped to create a shallow, rectangular depression, food such as potatoes are piled into a ridge-shaped heap, then covered with about six inches of straw or hay. Candying Candying fruits, also known as Glac or crystallized fruit, involves placing whole or pieces of fruit in a heated syrup, then draining it, and repeating this cycle using increasingly strong concentrations of syrup over weeks or even months. It is the intense saturation of the fruit in sugar that enhances desiccation and creates an environment unfavorable for bacterial growth. Plus, its tasty! Curing Curing involves using salt (sometimes in combination with sugar) to preserve meats and fish. Curing is one popular way to make sure meat is available in winter for the home larder. Salt at different concentrations inhibits the growth of dangerous food bacteria such asListeria, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. Salt can be added to meats as a liquid brine (strong enough to float an egg), or as a dry cure, such as with sausage making. Dry salting is also known as corning, because in early British history Anglo Saxons preserved meats with corns (coarse pieces) of salt. Irish corned beef is the most famous example of this, but any meat can be corned in this way for preservation.

Drying There are several ways to dry food, and drying food is arguably the most efficient, and oldest, method to preserve food. It is not uncommon to find dried fruits and vegetables in Egyptian tombs that are thousands of years old, and still edible. Dehydrating food removes enough moisture to prevent decay. The secret to good drying include heating the food so the moisture is eliminated quickly enough to not affect food flavor, but not so hot that it cooks the food. But getting the heat to the right point is important; if the temperature is too low bacteria can grow, yet if its too high the food may harden on the surface before the inside has had a chance to dry. Air circulation is also paramount when it comes to properly drying foods. Fermenting This might be one of the all-time favorite methods of preserving natures bounty! From beer to wine, fermentation can be our friend. But most people dont realize that there is a huge array of food preservation via fermenting; even sourdough starter is considered a fermented, preserved food (it lasts for hundreds of years)! Alcohol is just one form of fermentation, but fermentation by different types of bacteria includes lactic acid, alkaline, and acetic fermentation. Jellying Pickling, such as these hot peppers, can be accomplished with vinegar, oil, or alcohol. Jellying does not refer to the making of sweet fruit jelly (thats a form of canning). Instead, jellying is a form of food preservation where the food to be preserved is cooked in a substance that forms a natural gel, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth by decreasing oxygen levels. The gelatinous substance is typically something like gelatin, arrowroot, or agar. Aspic is probably the best known form of jellying, where meat is potted (see below) in a combination of gelatin and meat broth. Pickling Pickling is the use of an anti-microbial brew to preserve produce and meats. Typical pickling liquids include vinegar, brines, alcohol, and oils, and additional ingredients to flavor the food include salts, herbs, and spices. (Note: pickling in oil is not recommended for canning.) Pickling can be a form of fermentation for foods such as kimchi and sauerkraut, but in these cases the food itself is the preservative. Popular forms of pickles include just straight-up cucumber pickles, but also delectable dishes from all over the world, such as the Italian giardiniera, pickled onions and eggs in British fish and chips shops, pickled herring in Scandinavia, and Achar in India, a pickle made from mangos, lime, vegetables, and an assortment of other ingredients. Potting Cooked meats were sometimes placed in hot earthenware crocks and pressed to eliminate as much oxygen as possible to preserve them. Then the meat was covered with a hot fat that hardened at room temperature, such as lard. The fat prevented oxygen from reaching the meats. Duck confit, potted shrimp, and Pt are forms of potting, though potted meats traditionally were eaten by the British. It is crucial that as much oxygen as possible is eliminated from the meat, or bacteria will grow. Smoking fish, such as this herring in Denmark, is one of the oldest methods of meat preservation. Smoking No discussion on food preservation would be complete without smoking, where meats and fish are cure-smoked with smoldering wood, which also serves to add a layer of desiccation to the preserving qualities of the smoke itself. Smoking is one of the oldest food preservation methods along with drying and burial, when food was cooked over open fires. Smoked meats traditionally were sliced thin and placed over a fire where three modes of preservation took place: The heat of the fire killed harmful microorganisms, some of the chemical compounds in the wood being used for smoking had an anti-microbial actions, and dehydration prevented degradation. Home-Canned Foods Fruits, vegetables, and jams and jellies are preserved shortly after harvest by home canning, which can preserve food for several months. Most canned food is pre-cooked, then placed hot in a glass canning jar and partially sealed. The seal is tightened by placing the jar in boiling water. French chef and inventor Nicolas Appert devised this method of preserving food in 1809, marking the beginning of the modern food processng and preservation industry.

Food Mold Mold is a type of fungus that often grows on food. Some molds grow on the surface of food, such as the fuzzy growths on this loaf of bread. Other molds grow deep inside food where they cannot be seen. People who are allergic to mold may become ill if they eat or inhale too much mold Fermentation A process in which microorganisms convert complex organic molecules into simpler molecules, is used in the production of cheese. Bacteria convert sugars found in milk into lactic acid, a compound that prevents the growth of other, harmful microorganisms and helps preserve the food. Pictured here is a cheese-making operation in a plant near Kiel in eastern Wisconsin. Pasteurization It involves heating foods to a certain temperature for a specific time to kill harmful microorganisms. Milk, wine, beer, and fruit juices are all routinely pasteurized. Milk, for example, is usually heated to 63 C (145 F) for 30 minutes. Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) pasteurization, a relatively new technique, is used to sterilize foods for aseptic packaging. In UHT pasteurization, foods are heated to 138 C (280 F) for 2 to 4 seconds, allowing the food to retain more nutrients and better flavor. Genetic engineering Genetic engineering is aimed at improving the food supply even before harvest or slaughter by improving yields, engineering refers to any deliberate alteration of an organisms DNA. Genetic manipulation has been practiced for thousands of years, ever since humans began selectively breeding plants and animals to create more nutritious, better tasting foods. In the past two decades, genetic engineering has become increasingly powerful as scientific advances have enabled the direct alteration of genetic material through the use of recombinant DNA. Genes have been cut and pasted from one species to another, yielding, for example, disease-resistant squash and rice, frost-resistant potatoes and strawberries, and tomatoes that ripenand therefore spoilmore slowly. However, genetic engineering is controversial, as some critics argue that its possible environmental impact has not been sufficiently studied. Irradiation Irradiation is a process in which food is passed through a chamber where it is exposed to gamma rays or X rays. These high-energy rays are strong enough to break chemical bonds, destroy cell walls and cell membranes, and break down deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the substance that carries genetic information in all cells. Irradiation kills most bacteria, molds, and insects that may contaminate food. Irradiation also delays the ripening of fruits and sprouting of vegetables, permitting produce to be stored for longer periods of time. Because irradiation involves minimal heating, it has very little effect on the taste, texture, and nutritive value of food. 5. Give personalities who become successful in food preservation.

Ben & Jerry's - The Men Behind the Ice Cream Ice cream is a sweet treat that few can resist. Although vanilla is the most popular flavor in the U.S., there are a seemingly endless number of varieties and manufacturers. One of the best-known purveyors is Ben & Jerrys, the brand synonymous with funky flavors like Cherry Garcia and Chunky Monkey and a groovy Vermont vibe. Background: Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield were childhood friends born four days apart in Brooklyn, New York, in 1951. You could say that ice cream runs in their veins. During his senior year of high school, Ben drove an ice cream truck. After high school, he attended and dropped out of various colleges in the Northeast, eventually leaving his studies altogether to teach pottery on a working farm in New York's Adirondack region, where he also dabbled in ice cream-making. Jerry started on a more traditional path. After graduating high school, he attended Oberlin College to study medicine. Jerry worked as an ice cream scooper in the schools cafeteria. Upon graduating, Jerry returned to New York to work as a lab technician, while applying to medical school without success. During his lab tech days, he shared a Manhattan apartment with Ben. After moving to North Carolina for a few years, Jerry reunited with Ben in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., and they decided to go into the food business together. At first the pair thought about making bagels but decided the necessary equipment was too expensive. Instead, they settled on ice cream. They decided Burlington, Vt., was an ideal location for a scoop shop because it was a college town without an ice

cream parlor. They took a $5 course on ice-cream making and in 1978 opened the first Ben & Jerrys in a converted Burlington gas station. Growth: The original scoop shop became a community favorite thanks to its rich ice cream and creative flavors. Ben and Jerry also made it a point to connect with the community, hosting a free film festival and giving away free scoops on the first anniversary of the store, a tradition that still continues. In 1980, the duo began making pints to sell to local grocers. In 1981, they expanded this operation. Business increased significantly. In 1983, the company opened its first non-Vermont franchise in Maine, and signed a deal with a Boston distribution company. Signature flavors were unveiled during the 1980s including New York Super Fudge Chunk and Cherry Garcia and by 1987 sales were at $32 million. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan named Ben and Jerry the U.S. Small Business Persons of the Year, and by the years end the company was operating shops in 18 states. Creative Flavors: One reason for the quick popularity of Ben & Jerrys was its unique flavor combinations. All new flavors were invented by Jerry, usually without any test marketing. Some 1980s flagship flavors include Chunky Monkey, Rainforest Crunch and Economic Crunch, scoops of which Ben & Jerrys served up for free on Wall Street following the stock market crash of Oct. 19, 1987. Growing Pains: The companys path hasnt always been as smooth as its ice cream blends. Ben & Jerrys faced off with Hagen-Dazs over distribution rights, leading to lawsuits against Hagen-Dazs parent, the Pillsbury Company, in the mid-1980s. As the companys rapid growth continued, it became obvious to the founders that they would need someone with more business acumen to keep the business running. After allowing customers to apply for the job in the Yo! Im Your CEO contest, the company in 1995 selected Robert Holland, a veteran of McKinsey & Co. Ironically, Holland was found by a search firm, not through the contest. Hollands hiring brought the company to a crossroads. Ben and Jerry had become the brands icons. There was concern that the company would lose its informal hierarchy and unique culture under Hollands leadership. Ben & Jerrys had always had a strict pay scale ratio for its management, which it had to break when hiring Holland. Furthermore, Ben & Jerrys was going through a trying time in the marketplace. Although the company had made its name with wacky flavors and chunky mix-ins, the most popular ice cream flavor in America was and remains plain vanilla. The firm had released a line of Smooth, No Chunks! flavors to capture that segment of the market that preferred less funky flavors. While the super-premium ice cream market was growing, so was the competition. Hagen-Dazs and Dreyers were major players. Ben & Jerrys had outsourced some its production to Dreyers in order to reach customers in the western U.S. Now that Dreyers was becoming more of a competitor, Ben & Jerrys had to worry about its dependence on a competitor for manufacturing and distribution. Holland stepped down in 1996. The following year, Perry Odak became the new CEO, and sales that year were about $174 million. In late 1999, the firm announced it had received notice of interest from other large firms, and in 2000 international food giant Unilever purchased the Ben & Jerrys brand for $326 million, although the deal called for Ben & Jerrys to be operated separately from Unilevers other ice cream brands.