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THESIS PROPOSAL NAME NIM FACULTY MAJOR TITLE : HERI SUPIANTO : TE. 090343 : TARBIYAH : ENGLISH DEPARTMENT : THE INFLUENCE OF USING PODCASTS TOWARD STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES IN SPEAKING AT MAN MODEL OF JAMBI CITY

A. Background of the Study

As a foreign language, English has many essential roles toward human lives. Conveying information, for instance, is one of the roles that people can find in their daily lives. Start from reading English newspaper, watching CNN or Hollywood movies, or just listening to music become their routine as they get along with the others. People seem that they cant avoid themselves from their needs of either conveying or receiving information. Being able to speak English (Speaking skill), which is one of the main English skills that people should have in order to be able to connect each other, becomes the prior of their needs. It becomes prior due to English is as a Lingua Franca where almost the whole world uses this unique language. For a speaking English country, of course, it wont be a serious problem because the people always use it every day. However, a non-speaking English country, Indonesia, for instance, the people fairly will have a problem for gaining such skill. According to Stevick (in Fauziati, 2002: 126) speaking refers to the gap between linguistic expertise and teaching methodology. Linguistic expertise concerns with language structure and language content. Teaching speaking is not like listening, reading, and writing. It needs habit formation because it is a real

communication. Speaking requires practice as often as possible. It is not writing or reading but it must be practiced directly in full expression. Students who are the highest number of people who learn English are supposed to be able to speak as early as possible. This aims how important verbal communication is. Once students can express what in their mind is orally or are able to convey information to the other students or people, they will be more confident and motivated to widen their knowledge. And from that reason, students will get some benefits from their skill. The more they can speak fluently, the better future they will get. However, there are some inhibitions and obstacles in learning English process, especially in speaking. Grammar errors, miss-pronunciation, idiomatical expressions, and the influence of mother tongue are the most common problems that occur in learning process. Then students are often afraid of making mistakes when they want to respond or answer the question from their teacher. Moreover, the media that can support learning process, for example, projector, audio CDs, laboratory and so on, is sometimes not available in some schools. It is no wonder that lots of students can not speak English well yet. Teachers, who have the authority in leading their students in learning process, definitely play an important role. The presence of the teacher is absolutely needed in order to reinforce the students. Teachers probably are the ones who know the students characteristics a lot. Therefore, they are demanded to apply the suitable methods for their students while doing the teaching process. From the method that is used, after firstly finding out the students characteristics, hopefully will work as what they have intended or programmed. Teachers role is not, of course, the only variable that can influence students Learning outcomes in speaking. There are a couple of other variables, such as learning media, students motivation, classroom condition, can influence it too. The use of learning media, for instance, fairly has good impact on the result of students speaking learning as it offers effectiveness and efficiency. Media, in

addition, can make the learning atmosphere tend to be more vivid rather than the one which the media doesnt exist on it. Media can also make the students enthusiastic and eager to speak. New technologies have continued to both create excitement and cause concern for educators, as they explore effective ways to use and integrate them into curricula. The use of Internet-based education technologies (e-learning), such as webcasting (i.e., streaming audio or video broadcasts over the Web), has become pervasive in our learning institutions and now educators are exploring the use of mobile technologies to improve communication and learning access for many student populations. Mobile learning (m-learning), therefore, uses wireless technologies (including all forms of mp3 players, mobile phones, and PDA devices) to make educational activities more portable and, assumedly, more accessible in terms of time and place.

One of the technological media that can be used is Podcast. Using podcasts, which has been hot since 2005, in learning process can be an alternative to improve students speaking skill. A podcast is simply an audio program that is usually distributed on the internet and can be downloaded from a website or a school server and listened to on a computer or a portable MP3 player. It can also be a recording created by a teacher to enhance the learning and teaching process within and beyond the classroom or a podcast or radio program created by pupils. Increasingly the term is also being applied to video as well as audio recordings. Podcasts can help the students improving their speaking skill as the content of podcasts cover a wide range of subject matter, such as conversation with scripts, jokes, news, vocabulary or idioms, stories and so on. With such contents, podcasts can trap the students interest into learning. In short, podcasts can make the students enjoy the learning process without getting bored on the subject.

Podcasts, once placed on the Web, can be accessed by anyone around the world. With the ease of accessing podcasts, teachers are effortless to find them and then use them in the classroom. In additional, using podcasts are helpful increasing the knowledge of the students because of their various contents. Based on the phenomenon that is revealed above, the writer is interested to conduct an action research which is entitled: The Influence of Using Podcasts toward Students Learning Outcomes in Speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city

B. Problem Statement

Based on the background, the writer formulates the problem as follows:


1. How high the score of students Learning outcomes in speaking by using

podcasts at MAN Model of Jambi city is?


2. How high the score of students Learning outcomes in speaking without

using podcasts at MAN Model of Jambi city is?


3. How high the significant score of the influence of using podcasts toward

students Learning outcomes in speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city is?

C. Limitation of Study

In order to make the research focuses on the study and to avoid misinterpretation among the readers, the study is limited as follows: 1. The subject of the research is the students in the 2nd grade of Science Program at MAN Model of Jambi city 2. The Learning outcomes of the students is the Learning outcomes in cognitive range which is gained from the result of the test at MAN Model of Jambi city

3. The influence of treatment can be proved after the analyzation of the distinction between the two treatments (experiment class) and (controller class) is undertaken. Such distinction is analyzed through correlation (phi coefficient correlation)

D. Purpose of Study

Based on the problem statement, the purposes of the research are stated as the following: 1. To count how high the score of students Learning outcomes in speaking by using podcasts at MAN Model of Jambi city 2. To count how high the score of students Learning outcomes in speaking without using podcasts at MAN Model of Jambi city 3. To count How high the significant score of the influence of using podcasts toward students Learning outcomes in speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city

E. Benefit of the Study

The benefits of the study are stated as follows: 1. To prove any influence of using podcasts toward students Learning outcomes in speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city 2. As a consideration for the teachers who use learning strategies to improve students Learning outcomes in speaking 3. As an orientation for the school instancy in enriching the manner applying of students learning 4. As one of the requirements for the writer to obtain Bachelor Degree in English Department.

F. Theory Frame

1. Podcast a. Conceptual Definition A podcast is simply an on-demand media file that can be automatically downloaded from the web to a computer or portable media player, such as an iPod, for listening offline. The use of these portable devices are emerging as a major technology to create and publish on-demand media such as an audio MP3 file has been with us from the advent of the internet, the recognition and uses for podcasts within higher education are relatively new.1 The popularity of podcasts has exploded over the last two years probably due to widespread availability of broadband and increasing access to the internet at home, with more than 100000 podcasts listed on the iTunes Store as of August 2007 (Apple, 2007b). Mainstream media such as the BBC now publish many of their radio shows as on-demand podcasts. The popularity of the iPod has certainly contributed to this, with over 100 million iPods sold since 2001 (Apple, 2007a). However, it is also the creation of podcasts that has become easier to achieve. Software such as Apple's GarageBand and other audio editors such as Audacity have made the process of recording and editing audio much easier, thereby allowing enthusiasts with access to the internet (including students and lecturers) to create and publish their own podcasts. With the advent of this new technology in teaching and learning a clear strategy is needed to enable the appropriate use of podcasts to maximise their potential.2 Podcasting as a popular medium has grown dramatically since it was introduced by Adam Curry, an ex-MTV VJ and now commonly known as the Podfather, who exploited the technology to enable audio broadcasts to be downloadable onto mobile technologies such as the iPod (Campbell, 2005). Though there have been mixed statistics concerning the growth of podcasting (BBC, 2005), according to TDG research (2005) the number of people receiving
1

Tim barry, School Of Sport. University of Cumbria. A strategy for Using Podcasts for teaching and Learning in the Bioscience. page 1 2 Ibid. Page 1

podcasts is forecast to grow to 56 million by 2010. Though it should be noted that there is still a high percentage of the population who are unsure about what podcasting actually is (Neilsen/NetRatings, 2006).3 Campbell (cited in Brown 2006) notes five reasons why podcasting has grown so rapidly:4 1) Internet activity is pervasive and a common activity throughout the World 2) Broadband technologies have grown rapidly allowing large media files to be downloaded 3) The multimedia personal computer has become commonplace 4) The distinction between streaming and downloading material has begun to blur 5) Finally theres been the rapid growth of iPod and MP3 adoption. Podcasts are audio (sometimes video) programs on the Web which are usually updated at regular intervals. New episodes can be listened to on the computer, or downloaded to an MP3 palyer or iPod for later listening. Although audio programs have existed on the Web for a few years already, What makes podcasting unique is its capacity for subscription: through an RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed, listeners can subscrive to their favorite podcasts. Their computer will then receive alerts when new episodes have been posted.5 A podcast differs from other multimedia files in three ways: a podcast may be pushed to users via a syndication feed (RSS), podcast episodes are downloaded (not streamed), and podcast episodes may be transferred to and consumed on a mobile device. A series of short podcast episodes may provide a flexible means to support student learning, taking into account the average human

Crispin Dale. Strategies for Using Podcasting to Support Student Learning. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education. Vol. 6, No. 1. Page 50. 4 Ibid. page 50 5 Paul Man-Man SZE. Developing Students Listening and Speaking Skills through ELT Podcasts. Department of Curriculum and Instruction, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Education Journal Vol. 34, No. 2, Winter 2006. page 116.

attention span, lecturer and student time constraints, and potential bandwidth limitations.6 A podcast refers to any automatically downloadable audio or audio/video file (commonly in mp3 format). Whereas webcasting generally refers to streaming or broadcasting real-time audio or video footage over the internet, podcasting goes a step beyond by making audio or video footage available for downloading on a computer or digital media device. Futhermore, the option of subscribing to updated files that are automatically downloaded via a really simple syndication (RSS) feed separates podcasting from previous pinnacles of convenient dissemination of materials (e.g., posting files to a website or course management system like Blackboard).7 Although the primary use of podcasts has been for personal entertainment or information, there is a burgeoning interest in its potentail value for more formal educational purposes. Universities across the globe are implementing podcasting technology with increasing frequency, investing significant resources and money to provide an array of file types to students for educational uses. Examples of podcasting uses appear across a wide variety of domains, including nursing and general healthcare, astronomy and general science, geography and teacher education, computer science, and tourism.8 Podcasting can empower students by giving them opportunities to create and publish for a real audience and facilitate recording and distributing news broadcasts, developing brochures, creating or listening to teachers notes, recording lectures distributed directly to students MP3 players, recording meeting and conference notes, supporting student projects and interviews, and providing oral history archiving and on-demand distribution.9

Steve Clark, Mark Westcott and Lucy Taylor. Using Short Podcasts to reinforce Lecture. Symposium Prsemntation. 2007. page 22 7 Stephen M. Walls, John V. Kucsera, Joshua D. Walker, Taylor W. Acee, Nate K. McVaugh, Daniel H. Robinson. Computer & Education. the University of Texas at Austin, United States. Elsevier Ltd.. 2009. page 371 8 Ibid, page 371 9 Lara Ducate and Lara Lomicka. Podcasting: An effective tool for Honing Language Students Pronunciation?. Language Learning & Technology, October 2009, Vol. 13, Number 3. page 68

Podcasts have been incorporated into the curriculum in variety ways to meet a range of learning objectives. The most commonly reported use of podcasts involves recording of face-to-face lectures. Other researchers have reported using podcasts to record tutorials and deliver short recordings or episodes of core or supplementary material. Podcasts have also been used to provide glossaries of key terms and as a feedback mechanism for lectures to communicate with individuals and groups on assessment tasks.10 There is a range of potential technical and pedagogical uses for podcasting in higher education. Podcast episodes may be audio-only (either voice only, or voice with music or other sounds), enhanced (audio with some static visual elements, such as slides), or vodcasts (video on demand episodes). Podcast developers may choose the appropriate format to use depending on their purpose or the technology available. Pedagogically speaking, the uses are largely only limited by the chosen technological method and the teachers imagination.11 Podcasts available on the Web fall broadly into two types: radio podcasts and independent podcasts. Radio podcasts are existing radio programs turned into podcasts, such as those produced by BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) and RTHK (Radio Television Hong Kong). Independent podcasts are Web-based podcasts produced by individuals and organizations.12 An early decision on what type of podcast users wish to make is needed. There have been a variety of podcasts used across the Higher Education sector and

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Chester, A., Buntine, A., Hammond, K., & Atkinson, L. (2011). Podcasting in Education: Student Attitudes, Behaviour and Self-Efficacy. Educational Technology & Society, 14 (2), page 236 11 Steve Clark, Mark Westcott and Lucy Taylor. Using Short Podcasts to reinforce Lecture. Symposium Prsemntation. 2007. page 22 12 Paul Man-Man SZE. Developing Students Listening and Speaking Skills through ELT Podcasts. Department of Curriculum and Instruction, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Education Journal Vol. 34, No. 2, Winter 2006. page 117.

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Table 1 differentiates between those that are either tutor or student initiated Different types of tutor and student initiated podcasts.13 Table 1 Different types of tutor and student initiated podcasts Tutor Initiated Podcasts Entire lectures Visiting lecturer Pre lecture material Seminar discussion Supplementary topics that you may not have time to cover in the lecture Supplementary topics explaining difficult/complex areas of course Authentic audio materials Feedback to students on assignments Summary of journal articles on a research topic Record interviews with specialists in a specific field Provide information for field trip activities Provide administrative information Interactive podcasts with tasks/questions and links to URL sites Provide pronunciation of technical language or relevant sounds (e.g. Korotkoff sounds
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Student Initiated Podcasts Reflections on an activity Summary of key idea/theory Discussion between two or more students of a pertinent issue/idea/theory Assignment work presentation, field report or project Interview a specialist in a specific field Interview other students Podcast to encourage peer evaluation

Tim barry, School Of Sport. University of Cumbria. A strategy for Using Podcasts for teaching and Learning in the Bioscience. page 2

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when measuring blood pressure)

Podcasting can offer an innovative way to support learning. Since Duke University in the United States successfully piloted the use of iPods with all their first year students during 2004 (Duke, 2005), a number of other institutions have subsequently followed suit in adopting iPods and podcasting as an educational medium (Blaisdell, 2006). Previous research into the use of Podcasting within education has revealed some interesting findings. As podcasts can be shared across academic communities this has been found to be effective in developing social networking and collaborative learning (Alexander, 2005; Ratctham and Zhang, 2006). Alexander (2005) notes how the use of podcasts can reach those with different learning styles, and it is particularly good for students who learn on the go (Lim, 2005)14 ELT podcasts cover a wide range of subject matter. A brief survey of ELT podcasts reveals the following content types:15 Comprehensive (e.g., http://www.englishteacherjohn.com/podcast/) These are podcasts that cover a wide range of content types, such as traditional listening comprehension activities, interviews, and vocabulary. A well-known
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Crispin Dale. Strategies for Using Podcasting to Support Student Learning. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education. Vol. 6, No. 1. Page 49. 15 Paul Man-Man SZE. Developing Students Listening and Speaking Skills through ELT Podcasts. Department of Curriculum and Instruction, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Education Journal Vol. 34, No. 2, Winter 2006. Page 118

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comprehensive podcast is the one quoted above, created by Teacher John, who teaches ESL in Japan. Whole lessons (e.g., http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/) These are whole lessons based on a podcast. The podcast quoted above, for example, makes use of a news story in each episode. The text of the news story is provided, and is accompanied by the audio file. There is then a lesson plan with accompanying worksheet materials. In effect, these are ready-made lessons based on podcasts which teachers can use in the classroom directly. Vocabulary, idioms, etc. (e.g., http://englishteacherjohn.com/) This is a popular type of podcast, probably because it is easy to produce. In this kind of podcast, the host chooses some vocabulary items and explains their usage. The example presents a few idioms in each episode. Conversations with script (e.g., http://www.e-poche.net/ conversations/) These podcasts contain conversations between native speakers. To help less proficient learners, each episode is accompanied by the script, for learners to refer to while listening to the conversation. Jokes (e.g., http://www.manythings.org/jokes/) These are podcasts containing jokes. Because they usually play on language, they encourage careful listening by the learner. Songs (e.g., http://englishpodsong.blogspot.com/) These podcasts contain songs for ESL learners. The songs are either traditional childrens songs, or authentic popular songs for teenagers. They are also often accompanied by the text of the lyrics. Phonetics, pronunciation (e.g., http://phoneticpodcast.com/) Podcasts are obviously highly suited for teaching phonetics and pronunciation. These podcasts are lessons which focus on specific phonemes and pronunciation problems in English.

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Stories (e.g, http://www.englishthroughstories.com/) These are usually story read-alouds. They may or may not be followed by listening comprehension questions.

Listening comprehension (e.g., http://mylcpodcasts.blogspot.com/) These podcasts provide conventional listening comprehension practice.

b. Operational Definition Based on the definitions about podcast above, it can be concluded that podcast is an audio format (usually in mp3 format) whose its contents can be various subject matters, such as news; conversations; songs; jokes and so on, which can be listened over and over through several devices, such as computer, iPod, or Mp3 player. Using podcast in the classroom can make the atmosphere more vivid. It can also make the students motivated to learn as they are curious about what the topic is being talked. Steps of how to use podcast in the classroom are briefly stated below: 1. Choose the subject matter that is going to talked or discussed. Then find it in the links that are provided above. 2. Print the full script of the subject matter to make the students know every detail of the subject. 3. Provide several questions for students group (each group may have 3 to five questions) related to the subject matter. 4. Have the students make their own group. Each group may consist of three to four students. 5. Play the podcast two times without script and one time with script. 6. Have the students to take the questions in random. 7. Ask the students based on the questions that they have and set the time (normal time is 2 minutes).

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The learning outcome which is gained can be some knowledge of the students which is shown with the changes of the students behavior. That is they can answer the questions of the test given and the actual achievement that they obtain is better than the previous one which is stated in the range 0 to 100. Table:

Based Competency

Indicator Mention supporting details of the subject matter

Number of Questions

Amount

1,2,4,5

State the subject matter that is being discussed

Quote some speakers statements Retell the podcasts by students own words Total Amount

3,6,7,8,9

10

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2. Learning Outcomes a. Conceptual Definition Learning outcomes are the result of an act of learning and teaching acts. In terms of teachers, teaching concludes with an evaluation of the student learning outcomes, learning outcomes are the end pieces, and the top of the learning process. Mastery of learning outcomes is not an exercise but a change in behavior. Behavior change as a process called learning.16

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Djamarah. Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. 2006. Page 105

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According Hamalik learning outcomes will look at every aspect of change in knowledge, understanding, habits, skills, appreciation, emotional, social relationships, physical, ethical, or moral character and attitudes. If someone had just done studying it will show a change in one or several aspects of these behaviors.17 Learning outcomes is one of the teaching-learning process of about a material successfully acknowledged if the learning goal can be achieved.18 Learning outcomes can be measured in terms of changes in knowledge, attitudes and skills, changes better than before, for example, from which can not be.19 Learning outcomes according to some expert opinion on the above it can be synthetized by the authors that the results obtained by studying the ability of students from a criminal act of teaching and learning are reflected in behavioral changes that could affect the outlook and way of approaching a problem in every issue. b. Operational Definition Learning occurs when the stimulus situation along with the contents of memory affects the way that the students actions changed from the time they had to time their situation after experiencing extremes. Some people think that learning is merely collecting or memorizing facts presented in the form of information or subject matter. In addition, there are some people who understand learning as just an ordinary practice as shown in the practice of reading and writing. Learning outcomes is the benchmark or benchmark that determines the success rate of students in knowing and understanding a subject matter. Learning outcomes can provide a subject matter. The results of a study can
17 18

Oemar Hamalik. Proses Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. 2001. Page 36 Ibid. Page 30 19 Martinis Yamin. Strategi Pembelajaran Berbasis Kompetensi. Jakarta: Gaung Persada Pers. 2003. Page 87

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provide information to teachers, parents, and students about the level of ability or success in teaching students. Learning outcomes can be seen from the changes in knowledge, changes that may be something new appears in the behavior of real and can also be a refinement of something that never happened. Learning outcomes which the authors mean in this research is the test results are given.

G. Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a temporary answer toward the problem statement where such problem statement has been stated in interrogative sentence.20 The hypothesis of this research is stated as follow: Ha: There is influence of using podcasts toward the students learning outcomes in speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city Ho: There is no influence of using podcasts toward the students learning outcomes in speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city Ro > rt (roberservasi > ttabel)
H. Research Procedure

Ha acceptable

1. The Research Approach and Range a. The research approach The approach that is going to be used in this research is Quantitative Approach. This research is aimed to find the influence between the two variables, relatively, independent and dependent variable. The one which is as independent variable is Using Podcasts and the other is Students Learning Outcomes in Speaking b. The research range
20

Sugiyono. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R & D. Bandung: Alfabeta. Page 64

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This research is conducted at MAN Model of Jambi city. This range is a study about the influence of using podcasts toward Students Learning outcomes in speaking.

2. Sources of Data a. Primary data Primary data is the research data obtained directly from genuine sources (not through an intermediary).21 Primary data is data that is collected or obtained directly from respondents during the fieldwork, data obtained in the form of information or particulars concerning and directly related to the problems above.

b. Secondary Data Secondary data is the source of research data obtained by investigators indirectly through its medium (obtained and recorded by others).22

Such data are: History and geography MAN Model of Jambi City The organizational structure The situation of teachers, students, and administrative staff Curriculum Facilities and infrastructure

3. Population and Sample a. Population The population is composed of the generalization that the object or subject that has certain qualities and characteristics are determined by the
21 22

Muchammad Fauzi, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Semarang: Walisongo Press. 2009. Page 165 Ibid, page 166

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researchers

to

learn

and

then

drawn

the

conclusion.23

The population in this study were all students of class XI IPA numbered 62 people.

b. Samples Sample is a portion of that population. The population in this study does not take a whole, the sample in this study is the class XI of science program of MAN Model of Jambi city. To determine the sample is done by tests of normality and homogeneity test.24 Samples may be taken if a state subject in the population completely homogeneous. So that the samples taken are representative of means to represent the actual population. The sampling technique in this study using random cluster sampling technique. Where sampling in this study did not directly but in a class all students group or cluster. The author will take two classes in the class XI of science program randomized experiment of class as a class and one class of control again as a class.

4. Research instrument a. Observation Observation is a complex process, a process which is composed of a variety of biological and psychological processes. Two of the most important are the processes of observation and memory.25 In this study the authors make observations directly to students, school infrastructure and state of MAN Model od Jambi city.

b. Documentation

23 24

Sugiyono, op Cit, page 297 Sugiyono, op Cit, page 297 25 Sugiono. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R & D. Bandung: Alfabet. Page 64

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The documentation is intended to obtain data directly from the research, including relevant books, regulations, reports on activities, photographs, documentary films, and data relevant to the study.26

c. Interview The interview is a way of collecting data used to obtain information directly from the source.27 Interviews in this study are used to complete the acquisition of data is a history of the school, the state teachers, students and so state. This interview was conducted by asking the informant directly related to the problems that the authors raise.

d. Test The test is a set of stimuli given to a person whose intention to get a response that can be used as the basis for settler score points.28 The Tests used in this study is in the form of multiple-choice test of 20 questions. Before the tests were conducted to sample it first tested the validity and reliability of the matter and considering the level of difficulty and the different questions, the test used is written in the form of objective tests. to see whether the test is good or not, so the test must meet the requirements as follows:

1. Validity Test Validity is a state that describes the level of the relevant instrument capable of measuring what will be measured. For that matter in assessing the validity of research using point biserial correlation formula as follows:
26 27

Ibid. page 77 Ridwan. Belajar Mudah Penelitian Untuk Guru, Karyawan, dan Peneliti Pemula. Bandung: Alpabeta. 1010. Page 74 28 Amirul Hadi. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: Pusataka Setia. Page 139

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rpbi =

Description:

rpbi

= point biserial correlation index numbers

Mp = mean (arithmetic mean value) scores achieved by the test participants (testee) the correct answer, which is being sought correlations with overall test. Mt = total mean score, which was achieved by all participants of the

test (testee). SDt = total standard deviation (standard deviation of total score) p = proportion of test takers who answered the question very well against the grain that is being sought kolerasinya the overall test. q = proportion of test takers who answered one of the items being sought about the correlation with the overall test.

2. Reliability tests The formula that the writer uses is the Kuder Richardson formula (KR-20) as follows: r11 = ( Where: R11 = the reliability of the instrument n = Number of items question 1 = constant Numbers ST2 = total variance. )(

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P = proportion of test items answered correct item in question Q = proportion of jawabanny one testee

3. Level of difficulty About the good is a matter that is not too easy or too difficult. Difficulty index is a number that indicates a difficult and easy questions. Difficulty index formula Where: P = index of difficulty B = Banyaknyua students who answer questions correctly JS = The number of tests Classification: Problem with P = 0.00 to 0.30 is a difficult problem Problem with P = 0.30 to 0.70 is about average (not too hard) Problem with P = 0.70 to 1.00 is a matter of simple 4. Distinguishing features. Distinguishing features is the ability of a matter to distinguish between students who are good (high capacity) with the stupid students (lowcapacity). By the formula: D= = PA - PB P=

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Where: D = The number of tests JA = A lot of the group participants Jn = Many of the group participants BA = A lot of the group participants who answered the question correctly Bn = A lot of the groups of participants who answered the question with one PA = proportion of the group participants who answered correctly PB = the proportion of participants who answered the wrong group

The different classifications: D = 0.00 to 0.20 is ugly D = 0.20 to 0.40 is sufficient D = 0.40 to 0.70 is good D = 0.70 to 1.00 is good
I.

Data Analysis Data processing is the main activity carried out by a researcher. Away,

because the results do not exist without preceded by data processing. Data analysis is intended to perform the testing of hypotheses and answer the problem formulation has been proposed. But before further data analysis of the first test for normality and homogeneity test. 1. Test for normality Purpose test for normality is to look at the sample is normally distributed or not. Testing the normality of the data is by using the formula Liliefirs, according Sudjana (2001:95) with the following steps: 1. Score the results obtained and the study of data compiled from the smallest to the largest. 2. Calculate the average of each class of samples 3. Calculate the standard deviation of each group of samples

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4. Looking for raw scores from raw scores using the formula: Zi = 5. By using the standard normal distribution lists, odds are calculated by the formula: F(Zi) = P (Z < Zi)

6. By using the proportion of Z1, Z2, Z3, ........., Zn is less than or equal to Zi is expressed by: S(Zi) = S(Zi) =

7. Compute the difference F (Zi) - S (Zi), then determined the absolute price. 8. Take the largest of the absolute difference in price, the price is called L0's largest 9. Comparing L0 (L count) at a price that is critical to the table L with 95% confidence level, the test criteria are: a. If LO <Ltabel then the data are normally distributed b. If LO> Ltabel then the data are not normally distributed. 2. Test of homogeneity Homogeneity test is performed to see whether the two groups of samples have homogeneous variance or not. Test of homogeneity of the authors use the Bartlet test by using a table f. Step calculation: a. Enter the numbers statistic to test the homogeneity of the Bartlet test table b. Calculate the variance using the formula: S2 =

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c. Calculating log s2 d. Calculating the value of B = (log s2 e. Calculating the value of f. Compare = (log 10 [ )) ]

with the value of

and degrees of freedom (db) = k-

1, with the testing criteria as follows: if if , is not homogeneous , the homogeneous

3. Testing the hypothesis In addition to learning the results of the test data obtained through the tests that have previously been tested reliability, validity and data analysis was then performed using the t test for small samples of each other is irrelevant. The data used were the t test with the following conditions: 1. The samples came from populations distributed 2. Both classes have a homogeneous variance The formula to find t or t0 to modern day small sample (N less than 30) are as follows: T0 = Description of the formula: T0 = The degree of difference in the two samples kelomok M1 = Mean group 1 in the variable X M2 = Mean group 2 on the variable Y SEM1-M2 = Standard Error Mean difference in two samples

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Measures to be implemented: 1. Finding the Mean for Variables I M1 = M +

2. Looking Mean for variable II M2 = M +

3. Finding the Standard Deviation Variables I SD1 =

4. Finding the Standard Deviation variable II SD2 =

5. Variable Mean Standard Error Finding I: SEM1 =

6. Finding Standard Error Variable Mean Difference Variables I and II by the formula: SEM2 =

7. Finding Standard Error Variable Mean Difference Variables I and II by the formula: SEM1-M2 =

8. Looking t0, with the formula: T0 =

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9. Interpretation If t0 tTable rejected the null hypothesis means between the two variables there are significant differences. If t0 tTable accepted the hypothesis of zero between the two variables does not mean there are significant differences. After data analysis using the t test, further analysis of the influence of Phi correlation for a large sample of one another are not interconnected, with the steps: a. First formulate its Ha and Ho. b. Determine the range (R) R=HL+1 c. Determine many classes

d. Determine the length of class interval i= e. Create a frequency distribution table f. Determine the average or mean rat (M) M = M + i (

g. Determine the median (Mdn) Mdn = 1 + [ h. Seek mode (Mo) Mo = 1 + * ++ . i ]. i

i. Make a correlation table Phi (Phi correlation coeffisien) j. Finding the value of Phi correlation with the formula:

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k. interpret If the null hypothesis is rejected means that there are significant effects implementation of the use of podcasts for student learning outcomes in speaking at MAN Model of Jambi city If the null hypothesis is accepted then it means there is no significant effect of application of the use of podcasts terhadapa student learning outcomes.

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REFERENCES

Tim barry, School of Sport. University of Cumbria. A strategy for Using Podcasts for teaching and Learning in the Bioscience. Paul Man-Man SZE. Developing Students Listening and Speaking Skills through ELT Podcasts. Department of Curriculum and Instruction, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Education Journal Vol. 34, No. 2, Winter 2006. Steve Clark, Mark Westcott and Lucy Taylor. Using Short Podcasts to reinforce Lecture. Symposium Prsemntation. 2007. Stephen M. Walls, John V. Kucsera, Joshua D. Walker, Taylor W. Acee, Nate K. McVaugh, Daniel H. Robinson. Computer & Education. the University of Texas at Austin, United States. Elsevier Ltd.. 2009. Lara Ducate and Lara Lomicka. Podcasting: An effective tool for Honing Language Students Pronunciation?. Language Learning & Technology, October 2009, Vol. 13, Number 3. Chester, A., Buntine, A., Hammond, K., & Atkinson, L. (2011). Podcasting in Education: Student Attitudes, Behaviour and Self-Efficacy. Educational Technology & Society, 14 (2). Crispin Dale. Strategies for Using Podcasting to Support Student Learning. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education. Vol. 6, No. 1. 2006. Djamarah. Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. 2006. Hamalik, Oemar. Proses Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. 2001. Yamin , Martinis. Strategi Pembelajaran Berbasis Kompetensi. Jakarta: Gaung Persada Pers. 2003. Fauzi Muchammad. 2009. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif. Semarang: Walisongo Press Sudjana Nana. 2009. Penelitian Hasil Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya

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Riduwan. 2010. Belajar Mudah Penelitian Untuk Guru-Karyawan Dan Peneliti Pemula. Bandung: Alpabeta. Hadi Amirul. 2010. Metodologi Penenlitian Pendidikan. Bandung: Pustaka Setia