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TENSES

PRESENT S + V1 (s/es) SIMPLE


- Kebenaran Umum - Kebiasaan

Question Word
FUTURE S + will /shall+ V1 S + is/am/are going to+ V1
- Kejadian yg akan dilakukan tetapi bersifat spontan - Kejadian yg akan dilakukan dan sudah direncanakan

PAST S + V2
- Peristiwa lampau Yesterday, last night, two days ago, etc.

S + is/am/are + V-ing CONTI NOUS PERFECT


- Sekarang sedang berlangsung

S + was/were + V-ing
- Sedang berlangsung dimasa lampau

S + is/am/are + V-ing
- Sesuatu yg akan terjadi bersamaan/bentrok This time next week

S + have/has + V3
- Telah/sudah > akibat/hasil

Auxiliary: kata kerja bantu


Primary Auxiliaries Be Do Have Modal Auxiliaries Present am, is, are Do / does Have / has Can May Must Will Shall Past was, were did Had Could Might Ought to Would Should

Dapat Boleh, mungkin Harus Akan Akan

Jika suatu kalimat tanya (intrrogative sentence) diawali dengan kata kerja bantu (auxiliary). Maka jawabannya hanya Yes / No Example: 1. Does she study english ? 2. Is Mbah Surip a singer ? Yes, she does / No, she doesn,t Yes, he is / No, he isn,t 3. May I borrow your motor cyle? 4. Must we work hard ? No, You may not Yes, we must Note: Will not = wont Will untuk semua subjek Shall hanya untuk subjek I & We Must = have to, tetapi have to bukan auxiliary

1. Who : Siapa untuk menyakan orang (subjek/pelaku) Example: Who teach you english? Whom : Siapa untuk menanyakan orang (objek/ orang yang dikenai pekerjaan) Example: Whom do you love? Whose : Milik siapa untuk menanyakan kepemilikan. Example: Whose book is it? 2. What : Apa untuk menyanyakan nama, benda, pekerjaan. Atau untuk menanyakan selain orang baik unsur subjek dan atau objek. Example: What are you eating? What made you devasted) What is your name? Which : Yang mana untuk menanyakan suatu pilihan. Example: Which subject do you like? Which girl do you love? 3. Where : Dimana untuk menanyakan lokasi/tempat. Example: Where are you going now? Where is Mbah Surip from? 4. When : Kapan untuk menanyakan waktu terjadinya suatu peristiwa, keadaan atau aktivitas. Example: When you visit your uncle? 5. Why : Mengapa untuk menanyakan alasan atau sebab. Example: Why she is keep crying? Why havent you finished the job? 6. How : Bagaimana untuk menanyakan keadaan atau cara Example: How is your mother? How do you go to school? Kata tanya how dapat juga diikuti kata sifat (adjactive) atau kata keterangan (adverb) yang langsung mengikuti kata tanya tersebut dalam kalimat. Apabila kata tanya how kata sifat atau kata keterangan, maka rtinya bukanlagi bagaimana tetapi memiliki arti seberapa How + Adjective / Adverb + be (am, is, are, was, were) + Noun + ... ? Example: How long is the Bengawan Solo river? Exercise! 1. Mr. Setiawan has written more than ffifty books until present time. a b c e d

a. ........................................................................................................................... b. ........................................................................................................................... c. ........................................................................................................................... d. ........................................................................................................................... e. ........................................................................................................................... 2. Perdana took me to 21 theatre to watch a very nice movie last night. a b c d e f g a. ........................................................................................................................... b. ........................................................................................................................... c. ........................................................................................................................... d. ........................................................................................................................... e. ........................................................................................................................... f. ........................................................................................................................... g. ...........................................................................................................................

sister is in the first yearof SMA, and Tiara is still in SD. They all love one another. 2. Teks Procedure: Teks yang menjelaskan atau memberi petunjuk cara/langkah langkah membuat atau melakukan sesuatu. Generic Structure: Aim/Goal - Materials/Tools - Steps/Methods Aim/Goal, misalnya: How to make Brownies Cake Materials berisi: bahan - bahan dan atau alat - alat untuk membuat Brownies tersebut Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps/Methods berisi: langkah - langkah membuat Brownies Contoh Teks Procedure: How to make Lemonade Ingredients: For each glass use: - 2 tablespoons of lemon juice. - 2 tablespoons of sugar. - 1 glass of water Methods: 1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup. 2. Take out the seeds. 3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass. 4. Add sugar 5. Add water and stir well 6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right 7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade 3. Teks Narrative: Teks yang berisi tentang sebuah cerita atau dongeng dan di dalamnya terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti dengan penyelesaian. Generic Structure: Orientation - Complication Resolution Orientation berisi: Pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita Complication berisi: Puncak masalah/konflik dalam cerita Resolution: Pemecahan masalah Contoh teks Narrative: The Boy who cried Wolf There was once a shepherd-boy who kept his flock at a little distance from the village. Once he thought he would play a trick on the villagers and have

MACAM-MACAM TEKS
NARRATIVE, RECOUNT, REPORT, PROCEDURE, dan DESCRIPTIVE.
1. Teks Descriptive: Teks yang mendeskripsikan benda, orang, tempat, secara spesifik. Generic Structure nya: Identification Description Identification berisi: Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan, misalnya: I have many pets, but my favourite one is a cat. Description berisi: deskripsi rinci tentang bagian - bagiannya, misalnya tentang physical appearance (ciri - ciri fisik), sifat - sifatnya (characteristics)dll. Contoh judul teks deskriptif: Hi friends! This is my friend Miranda. She comes from Sulawesi. She was born in Makasar on June 12, 1980. her hobbies are singing and swimming. She also likes planting flowers very much. She lives at 12 Jalan Jaya. She lives together with her parents and two sisters. They are Mr. and Mrs Yudhatama, Sherina and Tiara.Miranda studies at SMP 7. Her older

some fun at their expense. So he ran toward the village crying out, with all his might, "Wolf! Wolf! Come and help! The wolves are at my lambs!" The kind villagers left their work and ran to the field to help him. But when they got there the boy laughed at them for their pains; there was no wolf there. Still another day the boy tried the same trick, and the villagers came running to help and got laughed at again. Then one day a wolf did break into the fold and began killing the lambs. In great fright, the boy ran for help. "Wolf! Wolf!" he screamed. "There is a wolf in the flock! Help!" The villagers heard him, but they thought it was another mean trick; no one paid the least attention, or went near him. And the shepherd-boy lost all his sheep. Moral value:That is the kind of thing that happens to people who lie: even when they tell the truth no one believes them. 4. Teks Recount: Teks yang berisi kejadian/ pengalaman di waktu lampau. Generic Structure: Orientation - Even(s) Orientation berisi: Pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu. Event (s) berisi: Kejadian/Peristiwa - peristiwa yang terjadi. Re-orientation(Optional/Tidak harus ada): Ungkapan pribadi penulis atau penutup dari cerita. Contoh Teks Recount: CLASS PICNIC Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic. First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two oclock we left for school. We had a great day. 5. Teks Report: Teks yang isinya menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana. Generic Structure: General Classification Description General Classification berisi: Klasifikasi suatu fenomena (binatang, public places, tanaman, dll) yang akan didiskusikan/ dilaporkan secara umum .

Description berisi: Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian bagiannya, kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup, kegunaannya jika non natural. Contoh Teks Report: The heart is the most important part of the body. It is the center of life. However, the heart is only as big as a closed hand. The heart is a muscle and it beats about seventy times per minute throughthout a persons life. The heart pumps blood from your heart to all parts of your body. The heart is made up of four chambers or small rooms. The top chamber are called the right and left auriclesand the botttom chambers are the right and left ventricles. When blood enters the heart. It is in dark reddish color because it countains carbon dioxide. The blood enters the right auricle and then the right ventricle. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood to the lungs where the blood receives oxygen. It then goes to the left auricle. The heart contracts again, and the blood goes to the left ventricle and is then forced out into the body. The blood gathers carbon dioxide and returns to the heart, and the process begins again.