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Alhamdulillah, all praise be to Allah, the Merciful and Charitable. His guidance, blessing, and affection makes the writer finish the proposal. The writer also wants to send Shalawat and Greeting to her Prophet, Muhammad SAW, as the messenger of Allah who has showed the lightness era. The writer would like to express her deepest gratitude to Ibu Riza Elfana, M.A for her suggestion and correction in the process of completing this proposal. Special thanks goes to her beloved Father (M.Sholeh) and Mother (S.Rukayah) for all their support, material and pray. All of her friend in Darmis boarding house (Jl.Tlogomas Gg.15c No.15a), thanks for their motivation, helping and support.

Malang, April 2012

Retno Fitri Alfianti



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 1 TABLE OF CONTENT. 2 CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study 3 1.2 Research of Problem... 4 1.3 Research Objective. 5 1.4 Scope and Limitation.. 5 1.5 Significance of The Research. 5 1.6 Key Term 5 CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Sociolinguistics.. 7 2.2 Language Varieties 7 2.3 Dialect 8 2.3.1 Regiolect (Regional Dialect)... 8 2.3.2 Sociolect (social Dialect). 9 2.4 The Description of Research Object. 9 2.4.1 Sidoarjo Dialect... 9 2.4.2 Tulungagung Dialect... 10 CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design. 12 3.2 Research Subject.12 3.3 Research Instrument.. 13 3.3.1 Observation.. 13 3.3.2 Interview.. 13 3.4 Data Collection... 13 3.5 Data Analysis.. 14 Biblography15


1.1 Background of Study Communication is an activity of sending and receiving information or messages between two or more people in an effective way, so that the messages are understandable. In society, people always communicate to establish a relationship. Without communication, people cannot understand each other. In order to have good communication in society, people need a media which can be used to express their ideas or feeling. One of the media which can launch communication is language. Language is a communication tool for people to interact with other humans. Therefore, human can express their ideas, emotions, feelings and can exchange information about anything. The world has a thousand of languages. Even language has been an identity of a nation. Different country has different languages. Though not all the languages are different but only a few languages are same and not entirely have the same pronunciation. Language is not only different in each country, even in one country there are many languages of the region, or commonly called the local language. Indonesia is a rich country. It has many ethnics, culture and local languages. Every region in Indonesia has its own local language. Every local language has its own dialect. Dialect itself is a part of language, which is spoken by a group of community and understood by others. Though in one regional, there are many dialects. For instance in East Java, Madiun dialect is different from Banyuwangi dialect. The same case occurs in Sidoarjo and Tulungagung, in spite of in one regional, sidoarjo and Tulungagung have many vocabulary and sound pattern differences. There are two types of dialects. The first is regional dialect. Regional dialect has a characteristic that is restricted by area. People who come from outside area have small

possibility to understand the dialect. The second is social dialect. Social dialect is a dialect which is used by a certain social community. For instance, people from keraton (palace) are have different dialect with people are not from keraton. In this study, the writer prefers to choose Sidoarjo and Tulungagung because when the writer talked to her friend who comes from Tulungagung, the writer found the vocabulary differences that cannot be understood by the writer. Moreover, these cities are located in one regional or province, that is East Java, but they have some differences of vocabularies and sound patterns. Therefore, the writer chooses this title as a material of the research. This title is chosen because there is no researcher did this research in the previous time. Actually many researcher conducted the same field, such as Elpa Nauli Raila (2007) who studied about dialect differences between Banjarmasin and Amuntai of Banjrese and Nurul Qadryanti (2006) who studied about dialect varieties used by Sumenep people in Maduranese regional language.

1.2 Research Problem Based on the background study stated above, the writer distributes it in some research questions. They are: 1. What are the kinds of vocabulary and sound pattern differences between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung? 2. What are the factors influence the vocabulary and sound pattern differences between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung?


1.3 Research Objective The research objectives of the study are directly related to problem of research. They are as follows: 1. To know the kinds of vocabulary and sound pattern differences between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung. 2. To know the factors influence the vocabulary and sound pattern differences between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung.

1.4 Scope and Limitation In this study, the writer focuses on vocabulary and sound pattern differences found between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung Javanese dialect. The limitation on this study is only focusing on dialect of Sidoarjo and Tulungagung in East Java.

1.5 Significance of The Research The writer expects that the research result will contribute for students of English Department who are interested in linguistics research dealing with sociolinguistics study of language variety regional dialect. Besides, this study will give additional information for other researcher to sociolinguistic research. Furthermore, the result of this study is also expected to enlarge the knowledge of the reader.

1.6 Key Terms The writer would give the definition of key terms to avoid misunderstanding in this study. They are as follow


a. Dialect Dialect is a linguistic system that is used by a society to distinguish from other communities b. Vocabulary Vocabulary is a set of words that are known and can be used by someone in a language. c. Sound Pattern Differences between sets of sound and the way in which sound arranged.



In this chapter, the writer presents reviews of related literature. Various kinds of theories will be explained. The writer needs to choose the appropriate theory in order to have a clear understanding on how the data will be analyze. Theories are needed because they will be used as the basic foundation in conducting the analysis the data. This study is divided into three main headings. They are as follows: 2.1 Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistic is a study of language in relation to its sociocultural context. According to Trudgill (1990), sociolinguistics is the part of linguistics, which concern with language as an interaction in social and cultural phenomenon. While Trask (1999) says sociolinguistics is the branch of linguistics which studies the relation between language and society. Hudson (1996) says that sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to society. In sociolinguistics, we study language and society in order to find out as much as we can about what kind of thing language is From those definition, it means that every aspects of language in the society can be scientifically studied, and not only learn about language, but also learn about ourselves, people who use it, live with it and live in it.

2.2 Language Varieties People do not always speak in exactly the same way. They can speak very formally or informally. Sometimes they speak in different pronunciation. Some of them speak in high tone, and some of them speak in low tone. Some are speaking in either fast or slow intonation.


Indonesia has a large number of languages. According to Prof. Dr. Krisyani, M. Hum. In her blog (, downloaded on March 26th 2012, at 20.15, says that Indonesia ranks in second position in terms of the number of languages. In the first position is Papua New Guinea which has 867 languages, while Indonesia has 731 languages. This case causes emergence various dialect. Those diversities are known as language varieties. Many people think that varieties of language are just incorrect ways of speaking, but actually they are not, they are just different. The varieties have their own ways of pronouncing words, their own special vocabulary and even their own grammatical rules.

2.3 Dialect Dialect is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. Trask (1999) said that dialect is a more or less identifiable regional or social variety of a language. It statement means that diversity of dialect can be identified by looking at the social side and regional side. 2.3.1 Regiolect (Regional Dialect) Regiolect or regional dialect is a variety of a language spoken by a certain regional. Regiolect is not a distinct language but a variety of a language spoken in a particular area of a country. Some regional dialects have been given traditional names which mark them out as being significantly different from standard varieties spoken in the same place. In regiolect, the varieties are shown from the pronunciation, choice of words, and syntax. For example, Kediri and Lumajang located in one area or one regional, that is East Java, but some their dialects are different. When people in Kediri want to say Besok (in Bahasa) or tomorrow (in English), they will say sesok, in the other hand, Lumajang will say kesok.

2.3.2 Sociolect (Social Dialect) According to Yule (1996), social dialect is varieties of languages used by group defined according to class, education, age, sex, and a number of other social parameters. From the definition above, we can conclude that sociolect or social dialect is a variety of a language spoken by a certain social class.

2.4 The Description of Research Object In this part, the writer will describe the dialect of Sidoarjo and Tulungagung. 2.4.1 Sidoarjo Dialect According to, downloaded on March 26th, 2012, at 21.04, Sidoarjo is a regency of East java, Indonesia. Sidoarjo is bordered by Surabaya city and Gresik regency to the north, by Pasuruan regency to the south, by Mojokerto regency to the west and by the Madura Strait to the east. It has an area of 634.89 km, making it the smallest regency in East Java. Below are the boundaries which use Suroboyoan expected to the region: Southern Territory: Perak (Jombang, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto, regency instead of Tanjung Perak in Surabaya). Northern Perak territory still use Surabaya dialect, while Southern Perak has been used Kulonan dialect. Malang (some areas in the district and the city of Malang also use this dialect). Northern Territory: Madura (Some people can use the dialect Madura actively). West Territory: Gresik region

East territory: It is not certain, but along the central coast of East Java (Pasuruan, Probolinggo to Banyuwangi) The dialect is also widely used. From the boundaries above, Sidoarjo dialect is the same as Surabaya dialect or more







to, downloaded on March 26th, 2012 at 21.06, Surabaya dialect or more commonly known as Suroboyoan language is a dialect of Javanese spoken in Surabaya and its surroundings. These dialects developed and used by most of Surabaya and its surrounding communities. Sidoarjo is including in Surabaya surrounding, it means Sidoarjo is also use Suroboyoan language. Suroboyoan language can be considered as the most abusive Javanese language. Many people called this language as basa etanan (bahasa timuran) or in English is East Javanese language. 2.4.2 Tulungagung Dialect According to (, downloaded on March 26th, 2012, at 21.33, Tulungagung is a regency of East Java, Indonesia which is located 154 km (96 mi) southwest of Surabaya, the capital city of East Java Province. The other regencies and areas surrounding Tulungagung are:

North : Kediri Regency South : Indian Ocean East : Blitar Regency West : Trenggalek Regency

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Although Tulungagung located in one province with Sidoarjo, but the dialect of them is different. Tulungagung and its surrounding are use Kulonan dialect or basa Kulonan. Kulonan dialect is smoother than etanan dialect. This dialect is much influenced by central Java as the standard of Javanese language.

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In this chapter, the writer presented the method of gaining and processing the data under the study. It covers the research design, research object, and research instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis. 3.1 Research Design According to this study, the writer employs descriptive qualitative approach. In descriptive research, the data that are used consist of words and not numbers. Descriptive research studies are designed to obtain informant concerning the current status of phenomena and directed toward determining the nature of situation as it exists at the time of the study (Ary 2002). The writer used descriptive design because the writer tried to describe and analyze dialectical differences in vocabulary and sound pattern between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung. 3.2 Research Subject This research was not done like other social sciences in general that need a large number of sample, but this research were done by taking a few informants only. But all of the informants are native speakers of Sidoarjo and Tulungagung. The objects of the research are six persons, the details are as follows: a) 3 persons are native speakers from Sidoarjo. One of them is the writer herself. All of the informants are speaking in Sidoarjo dialect in daily conversation. b) 3 persons are native speaker from tulungagung, and they use Tulungagung dialect in their daily conversation.

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3.3 Research Instrument In conducting this research, the writer herself was the main instrument in collecting the data. It means that she planned everything dealing with the research. The writer collects, classifies, and analyzes the study by herself without any help from other people. The instruments used by the writer are interview and observation. 3.3.1 Interview According to Ary (2006), interviews are used to gather data on subjects opinions, beliefs, and feelings about the situation in their own words. The interview is one of the most widely used methods for obtaining qualitative data. 3.3.2 Observation Observation is a method of data collection in which the situation of interest is watched and the relevant facts, actions and behaviors are recorded. Ary (2002) says qualitative observation goal is to complete the description of behavior in a specific natural setting. It means that there is no manipulation of the subjects behavior. This observation was participants observation. It means that the writer went inside to get information. 3.4 Data collection In conducting the research, the writer has some steps in collected the data 1. Conducted observation by making notes on the dialect that were used by the informants 2. Made conversation with the informants 3. Making informal interview and asked the meaning that they used. 4. Took notes and recorded the interview in the recorder. 5. Collecting the vocabularies from Sidoarjo dialect and Tulungagung dialect in expressing the same ideas. 6. Comparing all of the data from their differences and similar features.
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7. Take all the data in other documents. 8. Selected the data into the list of data.

3.5 Data Analysis In this study, the writer have some steps to analyze the data, they were: 1. Identified and analyzed the vocabularies of Sidoarjo and Tulungagung dialect. 2. Arranged the data in the form of table and showed the meaning. 3. Make the conclusion of the vocabulary and sound pattern differences between Sidoarjo and Tulungagung.

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Trask, R.L. 1999. Key Concept in Language and Linguistics. London: Routledge. Hudson, R.A. 1996. Sociolingistic 2nd edition. London: Cambridge University press. Trudgill, P. 1990. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. Middlesex. England: Penguin Book. Ary, D, et. Al. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education 6th edition. New York: Wadsworth Thomson Ary, D, et. al. 2006. Introduction to Research Education 7th edition. USA: Wadsworth Thomson.

pengaruhnya-terhadap-mata-pelajaran-bahasa-jawa-di-sekolah, downloaded on March 26th 2012, at 20.15)

(, downloaded on March 26th, 2012, at 21.04) (, downloaded on March 26th, 2012 at

21.06) (, downloaded on March 26th, 2012, at 21.33)

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