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Time study Select : 2. Select work for work measurement.

Record : Obtain and record all relevant information about job, operator and the surrounding conditions. Record complete work description. 3. 4. Divide : Examine : Breakdown operation into elements. Examine the detail breakdown. Ensure the most effective method and motions being used. Determine sample size. 5. Measure : Use time measuring device like stop-watch to measure and record the time taken by the operator in performing the elements of the job. Assess the effective speed of working of the operator as compared to standard rate in the perception of observer. Compile the basic cycle-time for operation or work cycle.

6.

Observe:

7. 8.

Compile:

Determine: Determine the standard time by adding relaxation and personal allowances in base time. Define : Define the total procedure of performing an activity along with time standards. involved in purchasing process

9. Steps

1. Purchase Requisition: A form known as Purchase Requisition is commonly used as a formal request to the purchasing department to buy materials specified therein. The requisition is received from certain authorised persons. They are storekeeper, purchase planner, plant engineer, department heads. A a. purchase It sets requisition the has purchasing the process following in purposes: motion

b. It is a written record of details like quantities, any speciation etc.

c.

It

provides

date

for

reference

i.e.,

date

when

materials

are

required.

Dates are important in case responsibility for stoppage in production due to shortage of materials is to be determined. 2. Selecting the Supplier: When the purchase department receives a duly authorised purchase requisition, the

department invites tenders for the supply of materials. A comparative statement known, as schedule of quotation should be prepared so that supplier may be selected. The important rule here is to buy best quality materials at the lowest possible price after giving due consideration to delivery dates and other terms of purchase. 3. Purchase order: When the supplier is identified, the most common procedure is the preparation of a purchase order. The purchase order is the form used by the purchase department authorising the supplier to supply the specified materials at an agreed price and terms. 4. Receipt of Materials: Receiving Department receives all incoming materials. When the packages are received, the receiving official gets them and makes a detailed verification of the contents. The details of the materials received are entered in a Goods received note. Five copies of the note are prepared. Receiving department keeps one copy. The remaining copies are routed to the purchase department, the department originating the purchase requisition, the stores department and the accounting department. 5. Checking and Passing of Bills for Payment: Invoice gives details of goods supplied and the amount to be paid. Account department receives the invoice from the purchase department. Then, account department checks the authenticity as well as the arithmetical accuracy. The quantity and the price mentioned in the invoice are checked with reference to goods received note and the purchase order respectively. The inspection report and goods returned note should be compared with the invoice. It is also necessary to check extensions and totals. After comparing these documents with the invoice, if it is found that the invoice is in order, the purchase manager will sign it and pass it to the accounts department for payment. Functions and duties of storekeeper The main functions of storekeeper are receipt, storage and issue of materials. Apart from these main functions, there are quite a few other functions, which are incidental to these. Various functions and duties of storekeeper are as follows:

a. Receive materials into the stores after checking them with the contents of the Goods Received Note; b. Store the materials in the allotted places; c. Maintain proper record of receipt, issue and balance of all items of materials d. Employ location coding and stores coding for easy identification of every item of stores e. Maintain the Stores department in a tidy manner f. Protect material from losses due to fire, theft, evaporation, obsolescence etc., g. Issue stores, against proper authorization, in right quantity of right specification, and at the right time h. Ensure that the stock neither exceed the maximum level nor go below the minimum level at any point of time i. Prevent unauthorized persons entering into the stores j. Co-ordinate the work of staff in the stores department k. Periodic comparison of bin card balances with physical quantities in the bins l. Advise management of obsolete and slow moving stocks

Process planning

. Awareness of opportunities and problems: The first step in planning process is the awareness of business opportunity or the problems to provide for in future. Present and future opportunities must be found out so that planning may be undertaken to take advantage of them. 2. Collecting and analysing information: The next step is to gather adequate information and data relating to the planning to be made. The facts and figures collected will help in framing realistic plans. Further, the information gathered has to be analysed for proper interpretation. 3. Establishment of clear-cut objectives: After collecting and analysing information, the management should lay down in clear-cut terms, the objectives of the enterprise as a whole as well as objectives of every section of the enterprise. 4. Determining planning premises and constraints: Planning is always based on certain assumptions regarding the future which are known as planning premises. Thus it is a forecast of conditions like trends in population, political and economic environment, production costs, advertisement policy, availability of labour, material, power, etc. Further there will be constraints like Government control which affect the plans. Plans should be formulated by the management in the backdrop of such premises and constraints. 5. Finding out the alternative courses of action Generally, in every situation there is more than one possible course of action. As such, in the light of the analysis of the information gathered, the possible alternative course of action should be ascertained. 6. Evaluation of alternatives and selection The next step is to evaluate all possible alternatives with reference to cost, speed, quality, etc., and selecting best course of action. 7. Determinig secondary plans: After selecting the best course of action, the management has to formulate the secondary plans to support the basic plan. For example, after developing the basic production plan, a number of secondary plans for the purchasing of raw materials, acquisition of plant and machinery, training of workers, arranging for adequate finance etc. have to be prepared for the successful operation of the basic plan 8. Providing for follow-up and future evaluation:

In order to see that the plans are proceeding along the right lines, it is necessary for the management to device a system for continuous evaluation and appraisal of the plan.