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Biology 12 Unit Review:

1. Define the following terms... a) pulmonary circulation: b) systemic circulation:

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Name Date Block

Circulatory & Respiratory Systems

2. State the role of the following structures involved in pulmonary circulation... a) atrium: b) valve: c) chordae tendinae: d) ventricle: e) septum: f) coronary arteries g) coronary veins: h) nodal tissue: i) sinoatrial node: j) atrioventricular node: k) purkinje fibres: l) medulla oblongata: m) adrenal medulla: 3. Describe the following components of a heart beat... a) systole: b) systolic blood pressure: c) diastole: d) diastolic blood pressure:

4. Label the diagram of the heart below and put the letters in order of blood flow Letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M E C A Blood Flow Letter Order: ________________________________________________ I G Part Name K M L J H F D B

5. State what each wave describes in the electrocardiogram to the right Letter A B C 6. Describe the following circulatory disorders a) heart attack: b) hypotension: c) hypertension: causes: i) ______________ ii) ______________ iii) _____________ iv) ______________ d) aneurism: e) angina: f) stroke: g) thrombus/embolus/embolism: A C Description B

7. Fill in table differentiating the 5 types of blood vessels and label them on diagram below Wall Thickness Sphincters? Valves? Gas Exchange? (Composition) Arteries (Arterioles) Veins (Venules) Capillaries

8. Label the blood vessels on the diagram below Part Name A B C D E F G H I J K L M Q N O P Q H P J K E F I N O L M Part Name A B C D

9. Describe what is happening at 2 ends of capillary bed shown below in terms of blood pressure vs. osmotic pressure

a) arterial end: b) venous end: 10. Label what the graphs below are describing and explain the appearance of the graphs Feature Graph Describes A B C Appearance Explanation A B A

11. Label the 4 special features of fetal circulation in the diagram below and state their function A1

A2

B Feature A1 A2 B C D

D Function

12. State 3 functions of blood...

13. Describe the following components of blood... a) plasma (parts, roles): i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) b) formed elements (label diagram, describe types of cells, roles): Type of Blood cell (subtypes) A B C i)___________________ ii)___________________ iii)__________________ iv)__________________ v)___________________ ii, iii,iv)______________ ____________________ i) ___________________ v) __________________ __________________ Role

14. Describe the role of the following components of immunity... a) antigen: b) antibody: 15. Describe the role of each of the following components in the inflammatory response a) bradykinin: b) histamine: c) neutrophils/eosinopils/monocytes: d) capillaries: e) pus:

16. Describe the blood clotting process... a) enzyme activation: ___________________________________________________________ b) enzyme action: ______________________________________________________________ c) protein preparation: __________________________________________________________ 17. State 3 functions of lymph...

18. Describe how lymph is circulated around the body...

19. Contrast the concentration of lymph and plasma... 20. Describe the role of the following lymphatic system components... a) tonsils, thymus, bone marrow, spleen: b) right lymphatic duct & thoracic duct: c) lymph nodes: d) lymph veins (valves): e) lymph capillaries: 21. Define breathing in terms of air movement and conscious control

22. Contrast inspiration and expiration

23. Describe the role of the pleural membrane

24. Label the respiratory system diagram to the right, describing appearance & function for each part Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 Name Appearance/Function 1

25. Describe the appearance and role of the following... a) mucus: b) cilia: 26. Fill out the table below summarizing breathing mechanics Diaphragm (contract/relax) Inspiration Expiration Intercostals (contract/relax) Lung Volume (/) Lung Pressure (/)

27. Describe negative pressure....

28. Describe nervous system control of breathing by answering the following series of questions a) What nervous system component detects high levels of which gas in which blood vessels? b) Where in the brain does the gas detector send a signal to? c) What signal does the brain send to initiate inspiration? d) Which nervous system component detects what to stop inspiration? e) What signal is sent by the brain to initiate expiration? 29. Define the following terms... a) tidal volume: b) vital capacity: c) residual volume: 30. State the location of the following types of respiration: a) external: ___________________ b) internal:_____________________

31. Describe 3 structural features of the hemoglobin molecule

32. List 3 molecules that can be carried by hemoglobin: ________, ________, ________ 33. Write the external respiration reactions involving the following molecules... a) reduced hemoglobin: b) bicarbonate: c) carbaminohemoglobin: d) deoxy/oxyhemoglobin:

34. Write the internal respiration reactions involving the following molecules... a) reduced hemoglobin: b) bicarbonate: c) carbaminohemoglobin: d) deoxy/oxyhemoglobin: 35. State which of the reactions above the enzyme carbonic anhydrase is involved in and state its role in these reactions

36. Fill out table below describing optimal conditions for uptake/release of oxygen by hemoglobin pH Oxygen Uptake (lungs) Oxygen Release (tissues) Temperature