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To: Dr Paul Anderson From: mei-kiu.chiu Shared with permission from mei-kiu.

Advanced therapeutic 2 assignment

Abbreviation definition: A=Action; AF=Affinity; CI=Contraindication; SE=Side effect I=Internal use; E=External use Achillea millefolium (Yarrow): leaf (I/E) A: Bitter tonic/aromatic bitter, wound healing, Antiseptic, Antifungal, Astringent, Astringent, Styptic, Stimulating diaphoretic, Anti-inflammatory, Anodyne AF: Urinary system, Venous system, Mucous membranes CI: Pregnancy (internal), allergic contact dermatitis (topical) SE: Safe, but may vomit, stomach/GI cramps, retention urine, vertigo, tremors, renal damage (rarely/in severe case only) Aconitum napellus (Aconite): root (I/E): use low dose A: Analgesic/pain reliever, antipyretic/reduce fever, local anesthetic AF: Nervous system (incl. trigeminal), Musculoskeletal system (r/t rheumatic pain) CI: not for self prescription SE: Neurotoxic, Intake 0.2-0.5 g root containing 1% aconitine cause death Actea/Cimicifuga racemosa (Black cohosh): root (I) A: Female reproductive tract tonic, Hormone modulation, Anti-inflammation/ Anti-arthralgia, Antispasmodic, Sedative, Diaphoretic, Digestive stimulant, Mild expectorant, Peripheral vasodilator, Hypotensive AF: female reproductive system, Endocrine system, Musculoskeletal/Nervous systems CI: Pregnancy SE: in large/toxic doses only, slow heart, hypotension, bradycardia, N/V, injected conjunctiva, flushed face, dilated pupils, light headed, frontal bursting HA, stiff/trembling limbs, joint pain, (endangered plant) Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chestnut): seeds & bark (I/E) A: Venous tonic/Contract Veins, Decreases capillary permeability, Astringent, Anti-exudative, Anti-edematous, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic AF: Vascular system (venous), urinary system (spasm), respiratory system (spasm) CI: Pregnancy, children under age 4, acute kidney inflammation, GI ulcers, aspirin & Anticoagulatants use, bleeding disorders SE: Safe in herb form but hepatotoxic in isolated form (escin/aescin) & increased bleeding time (aesculin); may also cause N/V/D, inflammed membrane, weakness, dizziness, incoordination, paralysis, increased temp., strabismus, vertigo, amblyopia, torticollis, mental stupor & coma, depression, nervous twitching, hemolysis, mydriasis, fever

Allium cepa (Onion): bulb (I/E) A: CV tonic, Antibacterial/Antimicrobial, Antihyperglycemic (inhibit insulin b/d), Anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antasthmatic, mild anti-HTN, diuretic, cholesterol & TG reduction, platelet aggregation inhibitory, antioxidant AF: Respiratory system, GI system, CV/endocrine system; Musculoskeletal system:bruise, sprains, boils, insect bite or hair loss (externally use) CI: None SE: Safe but may trigger reflux Allium sativum (Garlic): cloves (I) A: Anti-(bacterial/fungal/parasitic/viral), Antitumor, CV tonic, Hypotensive/ Natriuretic/Diuretic, Anti-coagulant, Antithrombotic, Lower cholesterol & TG, Increase HDL, Decrease plague, Carminative, Antispasmodic, Hypoglycemic, Diaphoretic, Cholagogue, Hepatoprotective, Immunomodulator/Immune support AF: CV, GI, hepatic, urinary, endocrine & immune systems CI: hot constitutions, acute inflammation, insomnia, dehydration, hypoglycemia, Brittle diabetes, pemphigus, impending surgery, organ transplants, anticoagulant use, HIV taking protease inhibitors, DM taking sulfonylureas (need close monitoring); SE: Safe but may decrease uptake of iodine by thyroid if consuming large dose garlic Aloe vera/barbadensis L. (Aloe): Mucilaginous part of gel or latex (I/E) A: Demulcent (vulnerary/anti-inflammatory/antipruritic), Antidiabetic, Immune modulate, Lower cholesterol, Cholagogue/Choleretic/Stomachic in gel form; Laxative, Emmenagogue in latex form AF: GI, Immune, CV, endocrine, musculoskeletal systems CI: Pregnancy, nursing, children under age 12 with water/electrolyte loss & Abdominal pain, cardiac glycoside use (Adonis, Convallaria, Digitalis, Helleborus, Strophanthus, Urginea), UC, Crohns disease, inflamed hemorrhoids SE: (Leaf): deplete electrolytes, (Overdose): V, intestinal spasms, bloody diarrhea, Kidney inflammation Althea officinalis (Marshmallow): root ; may be leaf (I/E) A: Demulcent (mucilage); Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Mild diuretic AF: mucous membranes of GI, respiratory, urinary tracts, skin(wound/burn/ulcer) CI: intake oral drug/herb at the same time (delay absoption) SE: Safe Angelica archangelica (Angelica): root, seed (I) A: Stomachic/Aromatic bitter, Carminative, Antimicrobial, Emmenagogue, Diuretic, Expectorant, Antispasmodic AF: GI (stimulate stomach & pancreatic secretion) systems CI: use of blood thinning agents, pregnancy SE: (with UV-A light): low risk of photoxic/photosensitivity of furanocoumarins

Angelica sinensis (Dong quai): root (I) A: Antiplatelet aggregation, Promote blood circulation, Immunomodulator, Warming female tonic, Hormone modulator (regulate/normalize menses & cycle), Antispasmodic (volatile oil), uterine stimulation (non-volatile oil content), Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Antibacterial, Hypotensive, Calcium channel blocker, Diuretic, Mild laxative, Sedative, Hepatoprotentant AF: gyn & urinary & CV & Immune systems CI: use of blood thinning agents, pregnancy, heat ssx SE: may increase risk of sunburn, GERD Arctium lappa (Burdock): root (I) A: Digestive stimulant/Bitter, Liver tonic, Choleretic, Antimutagenic, Antitumor, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Alterative, Promote blood & lymph circulation, Mild laxative, Diuretic (seeds) AF: Skin, Musculoskeletal, lymphatic, female reproductive systems; may be (respiratory/asthma & kidney) CI: Pregnancy, long-term or excessive dose use SE: Safe but long-term or excessive dose use may cause urinary tract irritation Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Uva ursi): leaves (I) A: Urinary tract antiseptic, Astringent, Diuretic, Increase renal circulation, Stimulate tubular function AF: Urinary tract CI: Pregnancy, Hypoglycemia SE: Overdose: N/V, difficult breathing, convulsions & loss of consciousness Arnica montana (Arnica): flower heads or Fresh whole plant (E) A: Vulnerary, Immune enhancing/modulating, Anti-inflammtory, Bactericidal, Mild analgesic activity, Stimulate circulation, Anticoagulant, Topical counter-irritant AF: Musculoskeletal (topically only) CI: Pregnancy, Toxic on Open wound or long time use SE: edematous dermatitis c pustules, eczema, necrosis (long time use even externally); Not for internal use: damage to liver, kidneys, heart, causing gastroenteritis, Dyspnea, or cardiac arrest/toxic Artemisia annua (Qing hao): leaf, aerial parts prior to & during flowering (I) A: Antimalarial, Antiparasitic (worm), Anti-coccidiosis & schistosomiasis, Antioxidant AF: Immune system CI: not yet found SE: Safe in herb form but extracted endoperoxide, artemisinin c low toxicity; (rarely) may cause neurotoxicity, brain stem neuronal damage, OTC prolongation, & drug induced pyrexia

Aspidosperma quebracho (White quebracho): Bark (I) A: Respiratory stimulant, stimulating expectorant, aphrodiac AF: Respiratory system (cold, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, emphysema, coughs); CI: Self-prescription SE: Caution use: high dose (cause GI irritations c N/V) Astragalus membranaceus (Astragalus): Root (I) A: Immunomodulating (polysaccharide) Adoptogenic, Antitumor, Anti-inflammatory, Antiviral, Promote tissue regeneration, Protect kidney function, Cardiotonic, Diuretic, Hypotensive, Protect against WBC drops during chemo, Antioxidant Hepatoprotective AF: Immune, CV, urinary, adrenal systems CI: unavailable SE: Safe Atropa belladonna (Belladonna): Leaf, Root (I) A: Antispasmodic, Antisecretory, Anticholinergic in GI AF: GI, GU/female reproductive systems, Upper respiratory system CI: Tachycardia, glaucoma, retention of urine due to prostate hyperplasia, obstruction, Pregnancy SE: Toxic (for prescription only) Avena sativa (Oat): fruit or grain (I/E) A: Demulcent, Nervine, Antiadditive, Antihyperlipidemia, Anti-inflammatory AF: Internally: GI, GU, nervous systems Externally: skin CI: gluten intolerance SE: Safe Baptisia tinctoria (Wild indigo): Fresh root (I) A: Immune stimulating, Antimicrobial (alkaloid), Bitter, Choleretic, Choagogue, Lymphagogue, Alterative, Promote cellular metabolism AF: Immune system systemically, (Vascular & GI & tonsil septic condition); CI: Pregnancy, self prescription SE: toxic in high dose: cause N/V/D, ptyalism, tachycardia, respiratory paralysis, death (for prescription only in low dose use) Berberis/Mohonia aquifolium (Oregon grape): Root (I/E) A: Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, Antitumor, Alterative, Vulnerary, Astringent, Cholagogue, Choleretic, Stomachic, Mild laxative, Antioxidant, Promote elimination of catabolic residues AF: Respiratory, GI, urinary system, liver, gallbladder, Externally use for skin (psoriasis/ dry aczema/ acne/ rheumatism) CI: Pregnancy SE: Safe Berberis vulgaris (Barberry): Root bark, bark (I/E): Similar characteristic as B. aquifolium

Borogo officinalis (Borage): Fixed oil from seed(I/E); Aerial whole herb (not for I but E use only) A: Oil (GLA-biosynthesis prostaglandins1): Immunomodulatant, Anti-inflammatory, Vasodilatory, antiHTN, cholesterol reducing, platelet aggregation inhibitory, Brochodilatory, Stimulating smooth-muscle contraction in GI tract AF: Internally: female reproductive, CV, Respiratory, Musculoskeletal systems Externally: skin (atopic eczema & inflammation) CI: infant under 1 year old, use of phenothiazine antipsychotic/ antihistamine drugs SE: may cause N, impaired digestion, HA, skin rash; (not for self prescription) A: Aerial whole herb (UPAs): Emollient, Anti-inflammatory, Astringent AF: Externally for skin only as wet compress or poultice h.p. CI: Internal use & self prescription SE: Internal: hepatotoxic, carcinogenic due to UPAs(unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid) Boswellia serrata (Boswellia): leaves (I) A: Inflammation modulating or Anti-inflammatory (resin), Antimicrobial, Anticarinogenic activity AF: Musculoskeletal (arthritic) Immune & GI (UC) systems CI: unavailable SE: Safe but (rarely- may cause GI complaint or allergic reactions) Bryonia alba (Bryony): Root (I/E) A: Analgesic, Counterirritant, purgative, diuretic, Antidyscratic (blood purifier-rheumatic complaints) AF: Musculoskeletal (if external use for bruise/rheumatic pain), Vascular, GI, Urinary, CI: Pregnany, lactation, high dose SE: Toxic-high dose cause N/V/heavy D & kidney damage; (use low dose only) Calendula officinalis (Calendula): Flower (I/E) A: Antiseptic, Antiviral, Anti-inflammatory, Lymphagogue, Choleretic, Demulcent, Vulnerary, Antitumor AF: Skin (wounds), Immune, lymphatic & biliary systems CI: Pregnancy SE: Safe Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherds purse): Aerial herb (I) A: Hemostatic or Antihemorrhagic, Tonifying pelvic organs, Diuretic Antihistamine (help inhibit increase in capillary permeability) AF: Female reproductive, GU, GI, CV & may be for gout CI: Pregnancy SE: Safe

Capsicum frutescens (Cayenne): Fresh or dry pods/fruit with seeds (I/E) A: Internally: Antiseptic, Stimulate circulation, Diaphoretic, Hypotensive, Reduce cholesterol, Antiatherosclerotic & antiplatelet aggregation; Stimulate appetite in small dose, decrease vascular permeability; Antibronchospasm, Gargle for sore throats Externally: (Topical vasodilator, Counter irritant; Neural stimulant & depression: for neuralgia) AF: nervous, CV, respiratory systems & gastric CI: with duodenal ulcers, broken skin (topical), pregnancy, use of theophylline, With sensitive muscous membranes SE: topical use may cause burning, stinging, redness, Internal use may cause or exacerbate coughing Cassia spp. (Senna alexandrina): Leaves, uncrushed pods (I) A: Laxative, Cholagogue AF: GI system CI: pregnancy, nursing mothers, damaged kidneys, inflammed kidneys Children under 12, chronic use, taking cardiac glycosides SE: Safe but overdose may cause nephritis, V, intestinal spasm, bloody diarrhea Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue cohosh): Root (I) A: Female reproductive tract tonic, Emmenagogue, parturifacient, Nervine, Diuretic, Diaphoretic, Expectorant, Anti-inflammatory (arthritis) Cerebrospinal trophorestorative (epilepsy), AF: Female reproductive tract, nervious & urinary system, Male reproductive tract (orchitis, impotence) CI: pregnancy, heavy menses, angina, cardiac insufficiency SE: May inhibit ovulation, overdose may cause N/V, HA, thirst, dilated pupils, Muscle weakness, incoordination, contrict coronary blood vessels, CV collapse, convulsions; may cause CHF in baby if parturifacient Ceanothus americanus (Red root): Fresh root (I) A: Lymphagogue (lymphatic, splenic, liver congestion), Expectorant, Astringent, Reduce cysts, Increase platelet count AF: Lymphatic & Respiratory systems, spleen, liver CI: unavailable SE: unavailable Cenella asiatica (Gotu Kola): Whole plant (I/E) A: Inflammation modulation, Antiseptic, Adaptogen, CT tonic, antifibrotic, Vulnerary, Adaptogen, Analgesic, Diuretic, Laxative, Anti-stress (elevate GABA) Circulatory stimulant (improve memory, sluggish digestion) AF: Internally: Immune, CV, nervous, urinary, hepatobiliary, GI systems, CT, hair & nail growth; Externally: skin (wounds, burns, ulcers) CI: Pregnancy SE: unavailable

Chamaelirium luteum or Helonius dioica (False unicorn): Rhizome/root (I) A: Reproductive tonic for both sexes, hormonal modulation, estrogenic, Diuretic, Cerebrospinal trophorestorative AF: Reproductive systems (both sexes), Gynecological & endocrine systems, CI: pregnancy SE: unavailable Chelidonium majus (Greater Celandine): Entire fresh plant (I/E) A: Strong cholagogue, Choleretic, Hepatoprotective, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Antispasmodic, Weak analgesic, Weak CNS sedative, Stimulate digestive enzymes, Eases digestive disturbances, Anti-warts/HPV (topical) AF: Internally: Hepatobiliary, Respiratory, splenic, Nervous systems; Externally: skins CI: pregnancy SE: Safe but may cause cholestatic hepatitis (celandine) if single herb use (check liver enzymes if not to use in combination c other stronger cholagogue herbs) Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon): Bark (I) A: Astringent (arrest menstrual bleeding), Antibacterial, Antifungal, Aromatic, Gastrointestinal tonic, Carminative, Demulcent, Antioxidant, Sympathomimetic, Mild tonic (for low sex drive & ED & fatigue), may Antitumor, Lower blood sugar AF: reproductive tracts of both sexes, Immune & GI systems, Upper respiratory tract, Nervous system CI: Hypersensitive to cinnamon SE: unavailable Coleus forskohlii (Coleus): Root or whole plant (I/E) A: Adenylate cyclase activator (increase cAMP-inhibit eczema/psoriasis/allergy), Platelet aggregation inhibitor, PAF antagonist, Lypolysis, Cardiotonic, Positive inotropic activity, Hypotensive, Arterial relaxant, Antispasmodic, Enhancement of thyroid activity(for hypothyroid), Enhancement of insulin secretion, Enhancement of sex hormone production, Gastric stimulation, Sialogogue, Anti-inflammation, Immune stimulation, Anti-CA metastasis Topically: reduce intraocular pressure AF: CV, Immune, respiratory, GI, urinary, female reproductive systems, thyroid CI: anything against beta-agonist SE: unavailable Commiphora myrrha/molmol (Myrrh gum): Resin (I/E) A: Antiseptic, Antifungal, inflammation modulation, bitter, Carminative, Expectorant, analgesic; a gargle for sore mouths & gums; Topically: as a wash for sores & wounds AF: Respiratory, urinary, all mucous membranes, skins CI: pregnancy SE: Safe but large dose cause irritation of kidneys & diarrhea, Liquid extract precipitate in water and stick to container & glass

Convallaria majalis (Lily of the Valley): Rhizomes or leaf (I) A: Diuretic, Cardiac tonic (Cardiac glycoside similar to digitalis but non cumulative), Ganglionic trophorestorative, Increase coronary circulation, Increase myocardial action AF: CV& urinary systems CI: pregnancy, self prescription SE: Toxic dose cause N/V, cardiac arrhythmias, HTN, restlessness, trembling, Confusion, weakness, depression, circulatory collapse, death. Crataegus oxyacantha/laevigata (Hawthorne): Fruit, Flower, leaves (I) A: Diuretic, Antiarrhythmic, Cardiovascular tonic, Cardioprotective, Trophorestorative for the heart, Antioxidant, Nutritious, Astringent (leaf) AF: CV, CT of heart/blood/lypmphatic vessels CI: unavailable SE: very safe but need decrease cardiac glycosides drug dose (digitoxin, digoxin) & Decrease other cardiac glycosides herb doses (Adonis, Convallaria, Digitalis, Helleborus, strophanthus, urginea) Curcuma longa (Turmeric): Rhizome (I/E) A: Anti-inflammatory, Antiarthritic, Anticancer or Tumor-preventing, Antioxidant, Anti-atherosclerotic, Lower cholesterol, Cardioprotective, Hypotensive, Anticoagulant or platelet aggregation inhibitor, Vulnerary, Cholagogue, Choleretic, Hepatoprotective, Stimulate digestive enzymes, Carminative, Emmenagogue, Antifertility action; Topically: antibacterial, antifungal AF: Immune, Musculoskeletal, CV, GI, hepatobiliary, female reproductive systems; Topically: skins (wounds) CI: pregnancy or women trying to get pregnant & bile duct obstruction SE: Safe Cynara scolymus (Artichoke): Leaf (I) A: Hypolipidemic, Hypocholesterolemic, Antiatherosclerotic, Antioxidant, Increase endothelial nitric oxide production, Antithrombotic, Bitter, Cholagogue, Choleretic, Hepatic, Hepatoprotective, Antihepatotoxic, Antispasmodic AF: CV, hepatobiliary, GI systems CI: unavailable SE: Safe but may cause contact dermatitis in susceptible individuals Datura stramonium (Jimson weed): Leaf (I) A: CNS depressant or Anticholinergic, Sediative, Antispasmodic, Antisecretary AF: Respiratory system (lungs) CI: Smoking of jimson weed SE: Toxic, smoking jimson weed could cause severe intoxications & death

Digitalis purpurea (Digitalis): Leaf (I) A: Increase contractility of heart muscle (positive inotropic), Slow the rate of heartbeat (negative chronotropic), Decrease conductivity of heart muscle (negative dromotropic), Increase excitability of heart muscle (positive bathmotropic), (Cardiac glycosides-do accumulate): Increase CO, renal blood flow, diuresis & Decrease cardiac filing pressure, heart size, venous & capillary pressure & edema Use for atrial fibrillation/flutter, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia AF: CV & urinary systems CI: self prescription SE: Toxic (it is a very low dose herb); high dose cause irregular pulse, N/V/D, Use c quinidine, calcium, potassium depleting diuretics (Hhydrochlorthiazide) or Laxatives or glucocorticoids cause increased effectiveness or side effects Dioscorea villosa (Wild yam): Root (I) A: Antispasmodic, Carminative, Diaphoretic AF: Nervous system (autonomic relaxant), GI, Biliary, female reproductive systems, Use for low progesterone/high estrogen-related problems CI: unavailable SE: Safe Echinacea angustifolia/pallida/purpurea (Echinacea): Root mostly but also seeds & flower (I) A: Anti-inflammatory, Antiviral, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Immune stimulating, Enhance phagocytosis, Stimulate leukocytes, Slight stimulate adrenal cortex, Inhibit hyaluronidase, Sialagogue AF: Immune, Respiratory, GI, female reproductive systems, swollen glands & Gum CI: AID pt (who should take whole plant liquid extracts s arabinogalactan), Long-term use; autoimmune conditions (may be) SE: Parenteral use could cause N/V & fever reactions Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng): Root, Root bark, Cortex (I) A: Immunomodulator, Anti-cancer, Adaptogen, Mild CNS stimulator, Anticoagulant-platelet aggregation inhibition, Cholesterol lowering, Antioxidant AF: Immune, GI, urinary, CV, Adrenal, Endocrine, Nervous systems CI: use with antibiotics & hexobarbital(due to inhibition of breaking them down) SE: Safe

Ephedra sinica (Ma huang): Stem of branches (I) A: Alpha & Beta adrenergic agonist, Release norepinehrine from sympathetic neuron, Diuretic, Diaphoretic, Antispasmodic, Decongestant, Bronchodilator, Antitussive, Anti-inflammatory, Hyperglycemic, Uterine stimulants Strong vasopressor (keep BP from dropping too low in delivery) AF: Respiratory, Nervous, CV, urinary systems & uterine, thyroid, Increase metabolic rate of adipose tissue CI: use with aspirin & methylxanthines (caffeine & theophylline) due to increase action Of Ephedra; organic heart disease, HTN, DM, Hyperthyroidism, enlarged prostate, Raynauds disease, individuals taking MAO inhibitors, pregnancy, lactation, Anorexia, Insomnia, Stomach ulcer SE: Large dose: heart palpitation, HTN, raise blood sugar, nervousness, HA, insomnia, Dizziness, skin flushing, tingling & vomiting Equisetum arvense (Horsetail): Sterile spring stems (I/E) A: Diuretic, Increase CT tone & resistance or CT tonic, Vulnerary, Styptic, Astringent; External use: reduce stretch marks AF: all structures with collagen (bone, cartilage, hair, nails, skin, muscous membrane), GU (passive urinary tract bleed, Hematuria, enuresis, incontinence, renal calculi, Infection of bladder & urethra, enlarged & inflammed prostate gland) CI: pregnancy, long-term use SE: loss potassium, result in Beri Beri due to deplete thiamin Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus): Leaf (I/E) A: Expectorant (bronchial secretagogue), Antiseptic, Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic(tea), Astringent (tea), Rubefacient (Eucalyptus volatile oil) AF: Internal use as tea: mainly Upper respiratory but also GU & GI tracts; External use as wash, wet compress: minor wounds, ulcers, burns; External use as mouthwash, gargle: mouth & throat AF: Internal use as oil for cough drop or inhalation (Upper respiratory); External use as oil (liniment & ointment) for inflammation of URT & rheumatic pain; Also as tooth pastes & mouthwashes for mouth CI: infant, pregnancy, lactation, inflammatory of GI & biliary tracts, severe liver disorders, use c other medications, bronchial asthma, whooping coughs, (avoid rub oil on face & nostrils but on chest & throat) SE: Safe if properly use Eupatorium perfoliatum (Boneset): Aerial herb part in bud or flower (I) A: Immune stimulating, Stimulating diaphoretic, Cholagogue, Choleretic, Antispasmodic, Diuretic, Emetic & laxative in large dose AF: Biliary, urinary, Immune & respiratory systems (intermittent fevers, Rheumatism, influenza, pulmonary inflammation-pleurisy with cough & sore chest) CI: Allergic hypersensitivity, contact dermatitis SE: unavailable

Eupatorium purpurea/purpureum (Gravel root): Root (I) A: Prevent precipitation of urates/high uric acid (prevent kidney stone/gout), Diuretic, Increase excretion of solid materials in urine, Emmenagogue AF: GU (including general pelvic weakness/atonic & Chronic kidney/bladder with blood in urine or painful urination) CI: pregnancy, lactation, excessive dose, long-term use (>6 weeks/yr); SE: could cause hepatotoxic due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (UPA) Euphrasia officinals (Eyebright): Aerial herb parts (I) A: Inflammation modulation or Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Antihistamine, Decongestant, Expectorant, Astringent AF: Upper respiratory tract (sinus, nasal), eyes (include external/internal conjunctiva) CI: unavailable SE: Safe Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel): Fruit, Seed (I) A: Carminative, Mild expectorant, Galactagogue, Phytoestrogen, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic (vasodilation, bronchodilation, relaxation of intestine, uterus, bladder), (Seed): diuretic, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, for indigestion, gas, coughs AF: GI, GU, female reproductive, respiratory, CV systems CI: pregnancy, overdose SE: overdose of essential oil: N/V, seizure & pulmonary edema Galium aparine (Cleavers): Fresh aerial parts in flowering or seed-forming stage (I) A: Relaxing diuretic, Nutritious, Vulnerary, Hypotensive, Lymphagogue, Immune support, Anti-inflammatory (benign prostatic hypertrophy/eczema), Correct inability to pass catabolic wastes (reduce stones/fibrocystic tissue) AF: Urinary (bladder & kidney) CI: unavailable SE: Safe Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium): Root (I); only combined c other herbs A: Sedative (strong), Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Atropine-like effect AF: Nervous system (neuralgic pn/HA, trigeminal neuralgia), Musculoskeletal (rheumatic pn), URT (bronchial asthma) GU (dysmenorrheal, irritable bladder c urinary incontinence) CI: pregnancy, lactation, fatigue, low BP, self-prescription SE: highly toxic, (high dose): depress CV & depress respiratory system then die

Gentiana Lutea (Gentian): Root (I) A: Stimulating bitter, Cholagogue, Anti-inflammatory, Stomach tonifier, Stimulating digestive organ, mucous membrane, portal circulation AF: GI system (for atonic/subacid states & promote peristalsis/absorption) CI: Large dose for long time (harm digestion & induce frontal HA), Acute gastric inflammation/irritation; Caution c pregnancy SE: Safe Geranium maculatum (Geranium): Root (I) A: Astringent, Styptic (passive hemorrhages), Mucous membrane tonic AF: Mucous membranes (for atonic tissue c discharge), GI & Venous systems CI: Unavailable SE: Safe Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo): Leaf (I) A: CV tonic, Nootropic, Increase blood flow peripherally to the limbs & brain, Anti-inflammatory (inflammation modulator), Antiatherosclerotic, Antithrombotic, Antagonist to PAF, Cognitive enhancement in dementia, Hepatoprotect/Antioxidant Decrease time for reinnervation of muscles following traumatic nerve damage AF: CV (intermittent claudication, Raynauds dis, varicose vein, diabetic skin lesions), Nervous system (tx tinnitus, vertigo, cochlear deaf, altitude sickness), Eyes (diabetic retinopathy, retinal insufficiency, macular degeneration, cataracts), Respiratory (bronchial asthma & sepsis syndrome due to PAF antagonist), Liver CI: Hemophilia, Heavy menstruation SE: may cause GI upset, increased bleeding time, increase menstrual flow, Create anovulatory menstrual cycles due to PAF antagonist (fromj Ginkgolide B) Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice): Root (I) A: Demulcent, Antimutagen/Anti-tumors, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulator, Anti-allergic, Adrenal modulator, Antibacterial (tooth decay), Antiviral, Expectorant c secretolytic & secretomotor activity, Spasmolytic, Mild laxative, Nutritive, Antioxidant, Phytoestrogenic, Hepatoprotective, Hypertensive Reduce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal fat accumulation AF: Mucous membranes (throat, lungs, stomach, intestines), adrenal & GI system, Respiratory (coughs, bronchial irritation, sore throat), urinary (irritation), Immune (chronic hepatitis c high liver enzymes, HIV, mononucleosis, Autoimmune) CI: HTN, heart failure, LVH, kidney dis, liver cirrhosis & cholestatic liver disorders, SE: (Toxic level): HTN, edema, hypokalemia, vertigo, HA, (Interaction): potentiate activity of anthraquinone (cascara & buckthorn) Potentate toxicity of cardiac glycosides (digitalis due to potassium loss), Additive effect c thiazide diuretics; interfere c breakdown corticosteroid Dose of 3 or more gram/day not be taken > 6 weeks unless c practitioner advice

Grindelia robusta (Gumweed): Budding tops (I) A: Inflammatory modulator, Mucolytic, Expectorant AF: Respiratory (coughs, bronchial congestion, asthma), Skin topical (poison oak rash) CI: Large dose (produce kidney & stomach irritation) SE: Safe Hamamelis virginiana (Witch hazel): Leaf or Bark (I/E) A: Astringent, Styptic (passive hemorrhages/hemorrhoid), Anti-inflammatory AF: CV (venous laxity & congestion like hemorrhoids & varicosities), Mucous membrane (irritation like gum ulceration, sore throat, weeping eczema, Leg ulcers); Skin (local inflammations, wound c protective coat); Eyes (topical as a compress for eye inflammations); GI (Diarrhea) CI: sensitive to Hamamelis (may cause stomach irritation); overdoses (d/t tannins) SE: Rarely (cause liver damage d/t tannins); otherwise is safe Harpagophytum procumbens (Devils claw): secondary storage roots (I) A: Bitter tonic, Anti-arthritic, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic AF: Musculoskeletal (arthritis, bursitis, gout, generalized aches/pn); Nervous system (neuralgia, HA) CI: gastric/duodenal ulcers, gall bladder disease, pregnancy SE: Safe Humulus lupulus (Hops): Strobile (I) A: Phytoestrogenic, Bitter, Nervine, Sedative-hypnotic, Anti-inflam./modulator, Antispasmodic, Anodyne, Stomachic, Anaphrodisiac for men, Anti-tumor, Antimicrobial AF: GI (indigestion, colic in babies), female reproductive (dysmenorrheal, menopause), nervous (nervous exhaustion, anxiety, promote sleep, for neuralgias) CI: increase sleeping time induced by drug pentobarbital SE: Safe Hydrastis canadesis (Goldenseal): Root (I/E) A: Astringent, Styptic, Antimicrobial (berberine), Alterative, Adrenolytic, Bitter tonic, Choleretic, Laxative in small doses AF: EENT (colds, flu, sore throat, acute/chronic middle ear infections, conjunctivitis), Mucous membranes (vaginitis, atonic chronic mucosal problems, Subacute mucosal membrane problem c red/engorged tissues), GI (tonify gastric tissue, normalize action of liver & gall bladder, less passive bleed), Immune (tx bacteria, yeast, protozoa, giardia cholera, amebiasis infection & also For visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis) CI: Fresh plant (may cause mucosal irritation), pregnancy, (it is a endangered plant) SE: may exacerbate adrenal burnout symptoms (hypoglycemia, shakiness, hypotension)

Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane): Herb or leaf (I/E); low dose herb A: Anticholinergic/Parasympatholytic, Antispasmodic, Antisecretory, CNS depressant, sedative AF: I for G (IBS, spastic constipation, peptic ulcers, vomiting, motion sickness); I for Urinary tract (bladder pn, stone-induced spastic pn); E for Nervous system (for neuralgic pn) CI: Pregnancy, bowel obstruction, retention of urine due to prostatic hyperplasia, Glaucoma, tachycardia, self-prescription SE: Toxic; extract need to be standardized to hyosciamine/atropine content & alkaloids) Hypericum peforatum (St. Johns wort): Fresh flowering tops, mixed buds & open flowers; (I/E) A: Antiviral (HPV & HIV), Antibacterial, Antineuralgia, Antidepressant, Nervine, Sedative, Nerve trophorestorative, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Hepatoprotective, Vulnerary, Astringent AF: Nervous system (nerve pn, shingles, night terrors, toothache, neurasthenia, Facial neuralgia after dental extractions, depression, fear, Insomnia, anorexia, anxiety, feeling of worthlessness, SFD) GI (gastric inflammation & ulcers; oil as retention enema for colon inflammation); E for Musculoskeletal (burns, bruise, muscular pn) & skin (diaper rash, cradle cap), E over belly for GI (indigestion or GI inflammation) CI: Pregnancy, (combine use of Serotonin uptake inhibitor/Hypericum c MAO inhibitors Due to causing dangerous rises in BP); As an inducer of Cytochrome P3A4, P1A2, P2C9, P-glycoprotein, affect these drugs: HIV protease inhibitors; HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; Graft antirejection drugs; Blood thinner; Anticonvulsants; OCT; SSRIs & related drugs; triptans; Enhance sleeping time of narcotics; reserpine antagonize SE: May cause photosensitivity in fair skinned people Inula helenium (Elecampane): Root; (I) A: Strengthening & cleaning to respiratory tract mucous membranes; Tonifying to lungs & digestive system; Bitter/digestive tonic; demulcent; Carminative, Antiseptic, Antiparasitic, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulating, Expectorant, Alterative, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogue; (may antitumor); Antiulcer (due to hemostatic & vermifuge effects) AF: Respiratory (persistent bronchial catarrhs c irritable coughs, chronic bronchitis, Sinusitis, TB, silicosis, asthma, emphysematous conditions); Immune (Antimycobacterial); GI (ulcer) CI: Pregnancy SE: very large dose (may cause vomiting, diarrhea, gastric spasms, Ssx of paralysis & allergic hypersensitivity)

Iris Versicolor (Blue Flag): Root or rhizome (I/E) A: Strong cholagogue, Lymphogogue, Bitter tonic, Laxative, Diuretic, Rubefacient (fresh), Counterirritant, Antidyscratic (bllod purifier) AF: I for Biliary tract (inflammatory, chronic cholecystitis, nonobstructive gallstones); I for GI (impaired digestion, sluggish bowels, constipation, HA, nausea); I for skin (chronic eczema of internal origin) & MS (chronic rheumatic complaint); E for musculoskeletal (rheumatic pn, bruises, sprains); E for skin (eczema, psoriasis, wounds, ulcers) CI: pregnancy, biliary obstruction SE: high dose of fresh root (cause GI irritations c N/V/D) Juglans nigra (Black walnut?): Fruit (I) A: Antiparasitic AF: GI & skin CI: unavailable SE: Safe Juniperus communis (Juniper berry): Berries (I) A: Antiseptic, Antimicrobial, Inflammation modulator or prostaglandin inhibitor, Strong stimulating diuretic acting on the glomerulus to increase filtration rate, Renal vasodilator, Carminative, Stomachic, Hypoglycemic AF: GU (chronic bladder & kidney infection c atony, edema from renal suppression, Renal congestion, amenorrhea or dysmenorrheal from atonic); GI (sluggish conditions, liver/digestive atony); MS (arthritis, gout, sciatica) CI: acute/chronic kidney inflammation, pregnancy SE: overdose (may cause kidney damage); should use small dose & combine c demulcent Such as marshmallow to counter urinary tract irritation, Excrete only little sodium & no K+ wasting (not beneficial as diuretic in HTN) Larrea tridentata (Chaparral): Leaf & Stem or Herb (I/E) A: Antimicrobial, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-tumor (inconsistent), Antioxidant, diuretic AF: I for respiratory tract (bronchitis, common cold); GI (diarrhea, liver congestion); I for GU (cystitis or UTI), E for skins (inflammation, wound, mosquito repellent) & MS (rheumatic pn, arthritis) CI: pregnancy, liver & kidney disorders, allergic hypersensitivity to it, self-prescription SE: may cause hepatotoxicity or idiosyncratic non-viral hepatitis

Leonurus cardiac (Motherwort): Aerial parts in bud stage (I) A: Bitter, Nervine, Antiarrhymic, Antispamodic, Diuretic, Female tonic, Emmenagogue, Antioxidant AF: female reproductive (premenstrual cramps c delayed menstruation, dysmenorrheal, Congestive amenorrhea, premenstrual nerve tension); CV (HTN due to stress, heart inflammation: endocarditis/pericarditis, Chronic atrial fibrillation, decrease blood viscosity & fibrinogen volume; Increase antiplatelet aggregation); Endocrine (ssx of hyperthyroidism); Nervous (insomnia d/t stress, nerve pn from herpes zoster & herpes simplex) CI: pregnancy SE: Safe Leptandra virginica (Culvers root): Root (I) A: Bitter, Hepatoprotective, Relaxing hepatic, Cholagogue, Mild laxative, Cathartic, Antiseptic AF: Liver (liver congestion, sluggishness, non-obstructive jaundice, hepatitis); Biliary (cholecystitis); GI (rectal prolapsed, hemorrhoids) CI: pregnancy (tertogenic, abortifacient), acute gallstone attacks, bile duct obstruction SE: (Fresh root): violently cathartic Ligustrum lucidum (Glossy privet or Tree privet?): Fruit (I) A: Immune modulator, Adaptogen, Anti-inflammatory, Hepatoprotective AF: Immune system (depressed immune, CA) CI: unavailable SE Safe; combine well to use c Astragalus Ligusticum porteri (Osha): Root (I) A: Immune stimulating, Antiviral, Antimicrobial, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Carminative AF: Respiratory (respiratory infection/dis c much mucus/congestion, Chronic viral infection, help keep sinus/lung clear in air pollution); GI (digestive irritation); Urinary tracts CI: unavailable SE: Safe Lithospermum ruderale (Western stoneseed?): Root (I) A: Thyrosuppressive, infertility (reduce fertility) AF: Thyroid & reproductive systems CI: high dose, self prescription SE: containing UPA

Lobelia inflate (Lobelia): Herb or leaves & tops (I) A: low dose 3-5gtts (respiratory stimulant, stimulating expectorant, antispasmodic); high dose 15-30gtts (relaxant, emetic, nicotine effect) AF: Respiratory/URI (spastic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, croup, whopping cough, Pleurisy, help quit smoking); GI tract CI: pregnancy, lactation, nervous prostration, shock, paralysis, pneumonia, Fluid around lungs, heart disease, HTN, self precription SE: high dose (N/V & tachycardia); Toxic dose (respiratory depression & death); Stomach discomfort; contact c leaves may cause dermatitis Lomatium dissectum (Lomatium): Root (I) A: Antimicrobial, Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antiviral, Immunomodulator AF: Respiratory (colds, flu, viral/fungal/bacterial infections); Urinary tract CI: use c blood thinner d/t its coumarins exacerbate blood thinner effect SE: Ingestion of fresh plant root/products (cause skin rash) Lycopus virginicus/europaeus (Bugleweed): Aerial parts or Herbs (I) A: Thyrosuppressive or Antithyrotropic; Antigondatropic, Antiprolactin, Mild vasocontrictive, Mild gastric tonic, Tonifying astringent, Sedative(heart) AF: CV mucous membranes (for tachycardia, arrhythmias c insomnia esp digitalis fails; For premature atrial contractions, atrial fibrillation, sinus tachycardia, Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia; help equalize circulation; Nervous (help balance autonomic nervous system) CI: moderate to severe CAD, nontoxic goiter, hypothyroidism, pregnancy, lactation SE: may interact c thyroid hormones Matricaria chamomilla/recutita (Chamomile): fresh flowers (I/E) A: Mild bitter, Carminative, Sedative, Antispasmodic, Anti-inflammatory/mod., Anti-allergenic, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antiseptic, Antifungal, Antibacterial (strep pyogenes) AF: I for GI (indigestion, gas/pn, gastritis, gastric ulcers; baby colic/teething); I for female reproductive (menstrual cramp/pn); E over spine for Immune (viral meningitis) CI: hypersensitivity to chamomile SE: (Rare): contact dermatitis, anaphylaxis, allergenic sensitivity; otherwise safe Medicago sativa (Alfalfa): Aerial parts or Herb (I) A: Phytoestrogen, Nutritive, Antiatherosclerotic, Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic AF: Female reproductive (stimulate lactation/breast milk, help lower breast CA risks); CV (help decrease cholesterol & regression of atherosclerosis) CI: in those c infertility, pregnancy (d/t uterine stimulant); Its vitamin K may be antagonist to blood thinning agents SE: Safe but may exacerbate ssx of lupus