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ENERGY

1.What energy sources, traditional and alternative, are used in your country? Of which is there a shortage?
If we analyse energy production in Spain, we see that the energy sector in our country is about 2,5% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) but, its importance goes beyond that in the total production. One element that has reduced the economic development of Spain has been the shortage of energy resources, in particular the lack of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons and the poor quality and lack of coal that exists. The scarcity of resources has always condemned the national energy system to deficit and dependence elsewhere Primary energy consumption is mainly from fossil fuels: oil (almost 50%), natural gas (25%) and nuclear and renewables about 10% each. The country's main source of energy produced is nuclear (45,9%), closely followed by renewable energy (41,1%), according to 2009 data. Primary Energy Consumption
Energy source Coal Oil Natural Gas Nuclear Renewable Energy -Hidraulic -Other Renewable Energies *Wind *Biomass and Waste R.S.U. Biomass Biogas *Biofuel *Geothermal *Solar Photovoltaic Thermoelectric
Thermal

2008 (ktoe) 13983 68182 34782 15368 10942 2004 8938

2008 (%) 9,8 47,9 24,4 10,8 7,7 1,4 6,3

2009 (ktoe) 10353 63673 31104 13750 12325 2258 10067

2009 (%) 7,9 48,8 23,8 10,5 9,4 1,7 7,7

2009/2008 (%) -26 -6,6 -10,6 -10,5 12,6 12,7 12,6

2795 5162 390 4545 228 620 8 353 219 6


129

2 3,6 0,3 3,2 0,2 0,4 0 0,2 0,2 0


0,1

3196 5088 393 4475 221 1058 9 716 523 38


156

2,4 3,9 0,3 3,4 0,2 0,8 0 0,5 0,4 0


0,1

14,4 -1,4 0,5 -1,5 -3 70,8 11 102,6 139,1 512,8


21,1

TOTAL

142308

100

130508

100

-8,3

Source: ESS (Ministry of Energy)

The distribution of energy consumption by sector is as follows:


2008 (ktoe) Industry Transportation Various uses TOTAL 36625 39920 29071 105615 2008 (%) 34,7 37,8 27,5 100 2009 (ktoe) 32521 37926 27330 97776 2009 (%) 33,3 38,8 28 100 2009/2008 (%) -11,2 -5 -6 -7,4

Source: ESS (Ministry of Energy)

Energy production in Spain in 2009 was 29,971 ktoe (*). The breakdown by primary energy sources and evolution with respect to 2008 is shown below:
Energy Source Coal Oil Natural Gas Nuclear Hydraulics Other renewables Total renewable energy TOTAL Production 2008 (ktoe) 4374 127 14 15368 2004 8938 10942 30824 2008 (%) 14,2 0,4 0 49,9 6,5 29 35,5 100 Production 2009 (ktoe) 3778 107 12 13750 2258 10067 12325 29971 2009 (%) 12,6 0,4 0 45,9 7,5 33,6 41,1 100 2009/2008 (%) -13,6 -15,7 -14,3 -10,5 12,7 12,6 12,6 -2,8

Source: ESS( Ministry of Energy )

Regarding the degree of self-sufficiency is the ratio between energy produced and imported energy to meet our energy needs..
2008 (%) Coal Oil Natural Gas Nuclear Hydraulics Renewable Energy TOTAL 31,3 0,2 0 100 100 100 21,7 2009 (%) 36,5 0,2 0 100 100 100 23
Source: ESS (Ministry of Energy)

According to the Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDEA), in Spain by 2020 the share of renewables in our country will be 22,7% of final energy and 42,3% of electricity. The Spanish Plan 2011-2020 presents renewable energy cosumption and its contribution to final energy, which is reflected in the following tables:

Final Consumption fo Renewable Energy (ktep) Renewable energy for electricity generation Renewable energy for transportation Total Renewable Energy

2008 5342 3633 601 9576

2012 8477 3955 2073 14504

2016 10682 4740 2786 18208

2020 13495 5618 3500 22613

Source: Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving of energy (IDEA)

Final Energy Consumption (ktoe) Final gross energy consumption Renewable Energy/Energy Final

2008 101918 10,5 %

2012 93321 15,5 %

2016 95826 18,8 %

2020 98766 22,7 %

Source: Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDEA)

1 toe = 41.868.000.000 joules = 11.630 kWh

(*) A ton of oil equivalent (toe) is a unit of energy. Its value is equal to the energy in a ton of oil, taking as reference value:

The ktoe, is one of their multiples and equals one thousand tonnes of oil equivalent atmosphere produced by the burning different fuels:

1 toe of natural gas = 2,1 tons of CO ; 2 1 toe of coal = 3,8 tons of CO ; 2 1 toe = 2,9 tons of diesel fuel CO 2