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EXAMINE THE COSTS AND BENEFIT OF CORRUPTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Shahril Budiman
Introduction Corruption, which is problematic issues talking about that in many countries even the big country like United States America, England and China facing the bribery case involved the government, legislative, and probably judiciary also. In developing countries, the concept of good governance has been established to decrease the number of corruption but that nowadays just blur idea. The mentality and system of environment of bureaucracy also the most reason why corruption growing rapidly. Although, at the last decade has seen a very significant increase in the international policy communitys interest in corruption. From 1998 to present 38 countries have ratified the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (Benjamin,Rahini:2011). There is just small intervention for corruption but they are still alive like mushrooms in the rainy season, the actor, system even more the law agencies who has responsibility for eradicate corruption in these days joined to made the way of corruption keep going on. However, behind that all of corruption, does we thinking about is that really corruption only make pros or disadvantages affect? .Or otherwise, this thing was delivery benefit even we did not aware, blame or embrace to say that. Corruption an problem or a blessing in development countries Corruption is disease or an endemic to government and society (C. J. Friedrich:167). The number of corruption in these day is growing well seen from the type, the player and the modus style. In the last 20 years corruption in the developing countries became a problem of serious economic concern. In spite of that, analyzing the other side effect of corruption such as the benefit of corruption are one of the study has been taken toward identify what is driving factors of corruption. Moreover, the cost and benefit of corruption it must be account and seek for future effect. Probably, there are some usefulness to prevent the corruption cases.

The negative impact of corruption in developing country


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In this part, would be talking about what is the disadvantages or pros effect were increasingly by corruption. There is several evidence from developing countries whether the public sector, relation of public with private sector and probably the activity that were giving affect according the social welfare. A significant consideration in this discussion must be the impact of corruption Bangladesh The first country will be discuss is Bangladesh, based on the data corruption is widely recognised to be a major problem in Bangladesh. In Transparency Internationals Corruption Perceptions Index, Bangladesh featured as the most corrupt country for five consecutive years (20012005). Political actors in the country have recognised the problem as essential and have attempted to address it. (U4 Report 2011:47) Nevertheless, corruption remains pervasive and systemic, posing a huge threat to the development of the country. By clear the condition of Bangladesh see appendix I about Global Integrity report. A part of that, For example, a sample of corruption cases studied by Transparency International Bangladesh in 2007 describes political influence as part of the corruption problem in the power sector (Khan, Rasheduzzman, and Nahar 2007) and the port of Chittagong (Mahmud and Rossette 2007). As these constitute the heart of the economy of Bangladesh, corruption in these sectors has severe economic consequences for the public purse and for the population. Corruption has been take the rights of society get the social welfare, access of education also account the higher number of children did not touching the education. Moreover, corruption in Bangladesh made the movement of economic development relatively unstable, many of poor people, jobless. Other way of finding about the level of corruption in a given society could be by monitoring the media as the results, the evidence how the corruption affects society as personally and the majority of the country is the power supply: The electricity supply in Bangladesh now is just awful. Currently, Bangladesh can only meet about 60% of demand for electricity, so the supply is rationed around the country, one hour here, one hour there, maybe two hours so no matter how hard anybody, in any sector tries to improve their own life or the lives of the people around them, you can only do so much because anything that relies on using electricity, you just cant rely on. (source: http://deepinthedesh.wordpress.com) That is just little bit an example of the effect of corruption but in other side make big impact to society. Therefore, awareness of society, NGO and importantly role of law enforcement,
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the commission of eradicate corruption are always looking the movement and supervision to government.

Indonesia The negative impact of corruption in developing countries also could we see in Indonesia. The efforts to combat corruption in Indonesia must be rooted in context and the interests of the nation. In short, the study about effect negative because of corruption has been looking of many university in Indonesia. Such as Paramadina University had been working with CSRC (Center for the Study of Religion and Culture) UIN Syarif Hidayatullah to collect the massive impact of corruption such as : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Slowdown the movement of economy Increasing number of poverty Potentially high Crime Demoralization Destruction of the bureaucracy system Disruption of politics & government Blurring the Future of Democracy The collapse the Rule of Law

In Indonesia, the everyday corruption most firms face involves interaction with local officials, who administer regulations and indirect taxation. These are district (kabupaten) level officials, where a district is similar in geographic scope to northeast US counties. In 2007, the countrys main audit agency reported that 60 percent of Indonesian schools has misappropriated state funds devoted to improving and repairing school facilities. Moreover, Indonesian Corruption Wacth (ICW) has accused several government-run schools in Jakarta of allegedly embezzling as much as $633 million in funds awarded by the state for operational assistance. In addition, the minister of education, Muhamad Nuh, at that time said the government planned to change the way regional educational offices receive funds to cut out red tape, which he blamed for the cash loss (Sara Schonhardt: December 9, 2010). The cost of corruption in developing countries in above, occurred also in many country there is only little example. If the spread amount of corruption and still remain move slightly so in the future we will see the number of poverty, access of education, mitigation or public interest could be loose. In the other hand, both the individual and society as a whole increasing greed and avarice of the asset and wealth mastery of corruption will also cause loss of sensitivity and concern for others. Mutual trust which is one of the main social capital will be lost. As a result, appears phenomenon of distrust society, that people who have lost a sense of trust, both among each
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other individuals, as well as against state institutions. Feeling safe will be replaced with feelings of insecurity. Benefit of corruption an analysis Does corruption have benefit to others? That is the biggest question while other areas achieve the massive impact of corruption. This call the externality of corruption, the influenced is direct or indirect. Therefore the distinguish of benefit will be divide in two areas. Firstly, the advantages for the actor and secondly is institution. Most of the people who had been doing corruption, at the first one the results is the advantages, for instance : Take the case of a businessman who has imported goods that are being held up at the port. Every day of delay causes a huge loss to the businessman. In such a situation, a little grease can speed up the transaction. It can be said that everyone, the businessman, the corrupt official, and the national economy are better off because of the corruption. The officer will enjoy with the money and achieve the externalities of salary, could have better life than those not doing corruption. Afterward, for the institution like company corruption give the benefit such as they can shortcut the bureaucracy or procedure for doing business in one area. Based on my own experience giving external money to get the project and our company will be win in the eprorecruitment. Moreover, corruption also making easy for institution especially private sector to get more security when they have link with military. That is occurred when I go to some place and also friend who has military officer had been doing this. The money will use to buy external equipment when not produce by government or not longer again. They are sometimes making confuse, corruption in one side when doing business for economic development give benefit impact to grow local state for instance they did not get fund allocation from national state. But in the other hand, the massive impact is corruption integral with civil servants in many aspect such as public service.

Conclusion Finally, the negative impact could conclude in several aspects such as: 1. Inhibit investment and economic growth. 2. Corruption weakens the capacity and ability of the government in implementing development programs. 3. As a result of the impact of the first and second, then corruption will hinder the fight against poverty and income inequality. 4. Corruption affects degradation of morality.
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In addition, benefit only deliver the happiness for small community rather than big population to enjoy that. In developing countries the number of corruption still higher. But that is not only internal factor but the behavior of foreign company giving gift could mean as bribery and means as corruption. APENDIX I

Source: Global Integrity, Washington, DC. http://report.globalintegrity.org/Bangladesh/2008

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REFERENCES [Historical and Cultural Conditions of Political Corruption among the Hausa]: Comment J. J. Van Klaveren, Comparative Studies in Society and History , Vol. 6, No. 2 (Jan., 1964) pp. 195-198 , http://www.jstor.org/stable/177906 Mark Thoma, Does Corruption Improve Economic Efficiency?

http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2006/06/does_corruption.html, Friday, June 23, 2006 Benjamin A. Olken, Rohini Pande, Corruption In Developing Countries, Working Paper 17398, National Bureau Of Economic Research

http://www.nber.org/papers/w17398, September 2011 Hechler Hannes, Zinkernagel Fenner, Gretta L, Koechlin L, Morris D, U4 REPORT: Can UNCAC address grand corruption?: A political economy analysis of the UN Convention against Corruption and its implementation in three countries C. J. Friedrich, A Man and His Government (New York, 1963), p. 167 The cost of corruption in Bangladesh (Retrivied :

http://deepinthedesh.wordpress.com/2007/02/22/the-cost-of-corruption-inbangladesh/) Published February 22, 2007 Sara Schonhardt, Corruption fight in Indonesia slowly marches on Protests in Indonesia as Transparency International releases corruption rankings. December 9, 2010 (Retrivied : http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/indonesia/101209/corruption-fightindonesia-slowly-marches)

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