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1/18/2012

1
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Andy Scanlon Symposium on
Serviceability and Safety of
Concrete Structures: Theory to
Practice, Part 4
ACI Fall 2011 Convention
October 16 20, Cincinnati, OH
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WEB SESSIONS
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WEB SESSIONS
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ACI
WEB SESSIONS
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ACI Conventions
1/18/2012
2
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
ACI Web Sessions
This ACI Web Session includes 2 speakers presenting at the
ACI fall convention held in Cincinnati, OH, October 16 20,
2011.
Additional presentations will be made available in future ACI
Web Sessions.
Please enjoy the presentations.
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Andy Scanlon Symposium on
Serviceability and Safety of
Concrete Structures: Theory to
Practice, Part 4
ACI Fall 2011 Convention
October 16 20, Cincinnati, OH
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Jonathan Hirsch, PE, is a Development Manager at
Bentley Systems, Inc. He is a member of PTI Committee
DC-20, Building Design. He earned his Bachelor of
Science in Civil Engineering from Old Dominion
University and Master of Science in Civil Engineering from the
Georgia Institute of Technology. He is a licensed Professional
Engineer in Georgia.
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
PracticalDeflectionPredictionof
ConcreteSlabs
JonathanHirsch
FloraCalabrese
EamonnConnolly
AllanBommer
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
InfluencingFactors
ConcreteProperties
Cracking/TensionStiffening
Creep
Shrinkage
Externallyrestrained
Internallyrestrained
LoadHistory
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
DeflectionPredictionMethods
Method1 2Dequivalentframeanalysisusing
effectivemomentofinertia
Effectivemomentofinertiaoverentireframe
width
Loadhistorystiffness
Multipliersforcreepandshrinkage
Summingofstripresults
1/18/2012
3
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
DeflectionPredictionMethods
Method2 Spreadsheetconsideringcracking,
creep,andloadhistory
Coefficientsforloaddistribution/tensionstiffening
CreepandshrinkageusingACI318/209curves
Ageofconcreteaccountedfor
Loadhistory
Summingofstripresults
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
DeflectionPredictionMethods
Method3 3Dfiniteelementanalysisusing
elementstiffnessadjustment
EC2tensionstiffeningmodel
Creepandshrinkagestrainstrackedand
superimposed
Loadredistribution
Restrainedshrinkage
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
TestSlabs
UniversityofNewSouthWales(Guo and
Gilbert)
215WestWashingtonStreet
Aqua
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
UniversityofNewSouthWales
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
UniversityofNewSouthWales
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
UniversityofNewSouthWales
1/18/2012
4
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
215WestWashingtonStreet
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
215WestWashingtonStreet
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Aqua
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Aqua
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS6
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
3-D Fi ni t e El ement pr edi c t ed def l ec t i ons ver y wel l no ex t er nal
r est r ai nt was model ed Spr eadsheet pr edi c t ed def l ec t i ons ver y wel l
Char ac t er i st i c s of t hi s t est :
No r est r ai nt due t o r ol l er s at t he c ol umn base
No c ol umn c r ac k i ng
Loads near sl ab c r ac k i ng l oads
Sl ab c r ac k s pr opagat ed over t i me
2-D Equi val ent Fr ames si gni f i c ant l y under est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons due t o under pr edi c t i on of c r ac k i ng
SlabS6
1/18/2012
5
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS7
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS7
Char ac t er i st i c s of t hi s t est :
Same sl ab l oad as S6
Rest r ai ned c ol umn base
Si mi l ar f i nal sl ab c r ac k pat t er n t o S6
2-D Equi val ent Fr ames si gni f i c ant l y under est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons due t o under pr edi c t i on of c r ac k i ng
Spr eadsheet over est i mat ed def l ec t i ons, t o a r easonabl e
degr ee
3-D Fi ni t e El ement (w i t h ex t er nal shr i nk age r est r ai nt
model ed) under est i mat ed def l ec t i ons, t o a r easonabl e
degr ee
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS4
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS4
Char ac t er i st i c s of t hi s t est :
Sl ab l oadi ng f ar i n ex c ess of c r ac k i ng l oad and sust ai ned
Rest r ai ned c ol umn base
Heavy sl ab c r ac k i ng w hi c h pr opagat ed over t i me
Ex t ensi ve c ol umn c r ac k i ng
Heavi er r ei nf or c ement t han S6/S7
2-D Equi val ent Fr ames si gni f i c ant l y under est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons due t o under pr edi c t i on of c r ac k i ng Spr eadsheet si gni f i c ant l y over est i mat ed def l ec t i ons 3-D Fi ni t e El ement pr edi c t i ons wer e ex c el l ent
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS5
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS5
Char ac t er i st i c s of t hi s t est :
Sl ab l oadi ng f ar i n ex c ess of c r ac k i ng l oad and r emoved
Rest r ai ned c ol umn base
Heavy sl ab c r ac k i ng w hi c h pr opagat ed over t i me
Same r ei nf or c ement as S4
2-D Equi val ent Fr ames si gni f i c ant l y under est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons due t o under pr edi c t i on of c r ac k i ng
Spr eadsheet over est i mat ed def l ec t i ons t o a r easonabl e
degr ee
3-D Fi ni t e El ement pr edi c t i ons (w i t hout c onsi der i ng ex t er nal
r est r ai nt ) wer e over est i mat ed t o a r easonabl e degr ee. Ef f ec t s
of ex t er nal r est r ai nt t o shr i nk age wer e over est i mat ed
1/18/2012
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ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS3
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
SlabS3
Char ac t er i st i c s of t hi s t est :
Sl ab l oadi ng si mi l ar t o S6/S7 sust ai ned, t hen r educ ed
Rest r ai ned c ol umn base
Same r ei nf or c ement as S4/S5
2-D Equi val ent Fr ames si gni f i c ant l y under est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons due t o under pr edi c t i on of c r ac k i ng
Spr eadsheet over est i mat ed ear l y sust ai ned def l ec t i ons, but
al so over est i mat ed el ast i c and c r eep r ec over y, gi vi ng
r easonabl e f i nal r esul t s
3-D Fi ni t e El ement pr edi c t i ons wer e r easonabl e, but el ast i c
and c r eep r ec over y wer e over est i mat ed
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Aqua
3D f i ni t e el ement (met hod 3) under est i mat ed shor t
t er m def l ec t i ons, w i t h si gni f i c ant i mpr ovement s w i t h
smal l of f set s i n t i me
2D Equi val ent f r ames si gni f i c ant l y under est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons
Spr eadsheet (met hod 2) si gni f i c ant l y over est i mat ed
def l ec t i ons
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
PerformanceComparison
2Dequivalentframes(method1)significantly
underestimateddeflectionsinallcases
Spreadsheet(method2)overestimated
deflectionsinallcases,dependentuponthe
actuallevelsofcracking
3Dfiniteelements(method3)predictedmost
ofthetestslabsreasonablywithexternal
shrinkagerestraintadjustment,
underestimatedrealworldslabs
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
DesignRecommendations
Maintainrealisticexpectations
Usespreadsheetmethodinsteadof
span/depthratios
Neverusefullframesectionsfordetermining
crackingandeffectivemomentsofinertia
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
DesignRecommendations
Beconservativewithcracking
Considerloadhistory
Considerusinglargerdeflectionmultipliersfor
creepandshrinkage
1/18/2012
7
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Questions
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
Robert L. Vollum, is a Reader in Concrete Structures in the Civil
Engineering Department at Imperial College London. He received his
M.Sc. and PhD degrees from Imperial College London. His research
interests are related to the design of reinforced concrete structures.
He is a member of British Standards Committee 525/2; Structural
Use of Concrete, the Concrete Society Design Group and fib task
force 4.2 which considers ultimate limit state models for the design of
concrete structures.
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
InfluenceofLoadHistoryonLong
termslabdeflections
DrRobertVollum
ReaderinConcreteStructures
ImperialCollegeLondon
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
40
Influenceofloadhistory
EC2doesnotaddressinfluenceofpreviousloadingon
deflection
Thisisimportantsincecrackingisirreversible
Aimofresearch
Todeterminetheeffectofpreviousshorttermpeaksinload
onlongtermslabdeflections
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
41
Influenceofearlyagestrikingandconstruction
loadingonslabdeflections
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
42
CardingtonEuropeanConcreteBuilding
1/18/2012
8
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
43
Cardingtoninsitu concretebuilding
The structure is 7 storeys high with 250 mm thick flat
slabs spanning 7.5 m in each direction. It was
designed in accordance with EC2.
















7500 7500 7500 7500
7500

7500
7500


















































ACI
WEB SESSIONS
44
DesignersbriefforCardingtonslabs


Slab thickness = 250 mm

Design imposed load: 2.5 kN/m
2

Superimposed dead load: 2 kN/m
2
ceiling,
services, access floor and partitions


ACI
WEB SESSIONS
45
TableformsatCardington
Backprops
Props
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
46
ConstructionofCardingtonslabs

- The Cardington slabs were constructed with
props and one level of backprops with the
exception of slab 4 where 2 levels of
backprops were used.

- Loads were measured with load cells in the
props and backprops in 2 bays.

- The slabs were essentially cast in a single
pour from around 8 am to 5 p.m.
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
47
Stage Time Operation
1 0 Concrete floor 1




2 2 Strike floor 1




3 2-12 Erect formwork and fix
reinforcement for floor
2






4 Backprop floor 1





5 13 Concrete floor 2

1
1
1
1
FloorcycleatCardingtonwithonelevelbackprops
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
48
Stage Time Operation
5 13 Concrete floor 2
6 14 Strike floor 2 and
remove backprops
floor 1






7 14-
24
Erect formwork and fix
reinforcement for floor
3








8 Backprop floor 2








9 25 Concrete floor 3

2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
1/18/2012
9
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
49
Stage Time Operation
10 27 Strike floor 3 and
remove backprops
floor 2







11 27-
38
Erect formwork and
fix reinforcement for
floor 4









12 Backprop floor 3








13 39 Concrete floor 4

3
2
1
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
4
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
50
LoadinghistoryforthirdflooratCardington
Time(days)
L
o
a
d

(
k
N
/
m
2
)
2
8.75
9
337
6
26 28 12 14
10.74
6.75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1 10 100 1000
Time from casting: days
L
o
a
d

k
N
/
m
2
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
51
LoadedareaforCardingtonslabs



















































Loaded area
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
52
SandbagsonCardingtonslabs
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
53
Slab deflections were measured by precise levelling:

- After striking
- At end of construction of building
- approximately 8 months after construction started

Further measurements were not taken until February 99 due
to a lack of funding. In March 1999, floors 1 to 6 were loaded
with sandbags to give a uniform load of 3 kN/m
2
between
grids 2 and 4.

The imposed load is at the upper end of that which might
occur in a typical office. The service load includes allowances
of 1 kN/m
2
for ceiling, raised floor and services and 1 kN/m
2
for partitions.

Measurementofdeflection
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
54
Comparisonofdeflectionsinexternalbays
offloors1to6atCardington

There was a significant variation in deflections
between floors as shown below. Why?

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
D
e
fle
c
tio
n
m
m
Time, days
Average def lection external panels
floor 1 floor 2
Floor 3 Floor 4
floor 5 Floor 6




1/18/2012
10
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
55
The table shows that the variation between the deflections
in each floor is not attributable to differences in the
reinforcement weight between floors.

Deflections
increase in
sequence
Weight
steel
(tonnes)
Max deflection
(~800 days)
Floor 1 16.9 18.04
Floor 4 18.9 (ave) 19.75
Floor 2 17.1 22.49
Floor 5 19.9 22.84
Floor 3 15.3 24.94
Floor 6 25.5 26.58

Influenceofreinforcementweighton
deflectionsinexternalpanelsatCardington
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
56
CalculationofcurvatureinEC2
Themeancurvatureisgivenby:
1/rm =(1/r2+1/r2cs)+(1 )(1/r1+1/r1cs)
where
1/r1 =M/EceffI1 =curvatureofuncracked section
1/r2=M/EceffI2 =curvatureofcrackedsection
whereE
ceff
=E
cm
/(1+|)
1/r1cs,1/r2csshrinkagecurvature
, =1 |(M
r
/M)
2
where|=1.0forshortterm
and0.5forlongtermloading
Load
Time
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
57
0
5
10
15
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
days from hydration
k
N
/
m
2

Idealized load-time history for Cardington concrete
building

- The problem is to predict the slab deflection under
the idealized load-history.

Definitionofproblem
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
58
Fundamentalbehaviour
Shorttermmomentcurvaturediagram
Increaseincurvature
Uncracked
response
Fullycrackedresponse
UltimatemomentM
u
Curvature1/r
M
o
m
e
n
t
Unloading
M
peak
M
perm
1 2 3
EC2
1,perm
2,peak
3,*
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
59
Influence of previous loading on deflection

EC2 uses ,= 1-|(M
r
/M)
2
to define the level of cracking.
If |=0.5, the level of cracking is governed by:

M
r
/M f
ct
/w =K

It follows that the degree of cracking in a slab can be
defined in terms of K where w = load and
f
ct
= tensile strength.

Hypothesis: The minimum value of K corresponds
to the greatest cracking and hence greatest deflection.


ACI
WEB SESSIONS
60
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
K (mm
-2
x 10
3
)
D
e
fle
c
tio
n
(m
m
)
330 mm slab fixed at one end
w = 11 kN/m
2
, \ = 2, \cs = 500 \ s


Theoretical influence of K on deflection according to
EC2

Linear relationship between
K and deflection for cracked
slab
K
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
330mmslab|=2,c
cs
=500s
RelationshipbetweenKandcurvature
ConstantM:varyf
ct
K=f
ct
/w
1/18/2012
11
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
61

Sequence of
deflection
increase
Kstrike

|=0.5
Kpeak

|=0.5
Klong
|=0.5
fcu28
Kmin

|=0.5
Max
deflection
(~800
days)
Floor 1 0.26 0.38 0.33 0.26 18.04
Floor 4 0.26 0.29 0.34 0.26 19.75
Floor 2 0.25 0.23 0.30 0.23 22.49
Floor 5 0.26 0.22 0.29 0.22 22.84
Floor 3 0.28 0.24 0.31 0.24 24.94
Floor 6 0.21 0.23 0.31 0.21 26.58

Lowest value of K critical
Relationshipbetweenslabdeflections
andKatCardington
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
62
Linearrelationshipbetweenslabdeflections
andKatCardington
R
2
= 0.7043
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
15 20 25 30
Deflection (mm)
K
m
i
n
Cardington
Linear (Cardington)
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
63

- Use a modified E value to account for
staged loading

- Calculate the mean curvature using the
greatest value of , from current or
previous loading.









Time
Load
t0
Proposedsinglestepprocedureforcalculation
ofslabdeflection
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
64
Laboratorybasedvalidation
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
65
Slabgeometry
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
66
Aimsoftestingprogramme
Theprimaryaimswereto:
Determinethevalidity ofthecalculationmethodderived
frombackanalysisoftheCardingtondata
Todeterminetherateoflossoftensionstiffeningwithtime
under:
i. Sustainedloading
ii. Shorttermconstructionloads
1/18/2012
12
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
67
Loadhistoryintests
Time
M
m
a
x
Time(days)
t
0
=9days
Slab1
Slab2M=M
2
Slabs1to3
t=100days
t=100days
Slab3M=M
2
t
0
=9
M
m
a
x
13
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
68
Influenceofconstructionloadingonslab
deflections
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Time (days)
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
S1
S2
S3
S2No
construction
loading
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
69
Loadhistoryintests
Slabs4to6
Time
(days)
Load
Peakloadtosimulate
constructionloadfrom
castingslabsabove
Slab4:M
peak
=M
perm
Slab5:M
peak
=1.3M
perm
Slab6:Nopeakload
AllslabshavesameM
perm
t
0
=7 ~1000 13 17
S5
S4M
peak
=M
perm
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
70
Variationofdeflectioninslab5
Slab 2
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Deflection (mm)
L
o
a
d
(K
N
)
T
o
t
a
l

l
o
a
d
20min
5days
60days
Deflectionnot
recoveredonunloading
17days
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
71
ComparisonofdeflectionsinS4toS6
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Time (days)
D
e
f
le
c
t
io
n

(
m
m
)
S4
S5
S6
ControlS6
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
72
RelationshipbetweencurvatureandK=M
r
/M
peak
at93days(relationshipislinearasatCardington)
y = -2E-05x + 3E-05
R
2
= 0.9971
0.0E+00
2.0E-06
4.0E-06
6.0E-06
8.0E-06
1.0E-05
1.2E-05
1.4E-05
1.6E-05
1.8E-05
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
k* = Mr/Mpeak
(
M
p
e
r
m
S
1
/
M
p
e
r
m
)
*
c
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e
S1 to S3
S4 to S6
Linear (S1 to S3)
LinearrelationshipbetweenKandcurvatureasatCardington
1/18/2012
13
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
73
Meanmomentresistedbyconcrete
betweencracks
Fromstrainmeasurements:
M
concm
=MT
sm
(dx
m
/3)
AccordingtoEC2themeanresidualmomentresistedby
concreteintensionbetweenthecracksisgivenby:
M
concm
=(1,)M
conc1
~|(M
r
/M)
2
M
=1 |(Mr/M)
2
0
dx
m
/3
Ts
m
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
M/Mr
M
c
o
n
c
m
e
a
n
/
M
r
4 days from peak
S5 unload
S4 unload
S3 unload
EC2 b=0.8
74
RelationshipbetweenM
concmean
andMjust
beforeandafterremovalM
peak
EC2
M
concm
=(1,)M
with|=0.8
M
peak
/M
r
(CM
peak
+(1,)M
peak
)/M
r
CM
peak
/M
r
AM/M
r
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
75
Calculationofcurvatureafterunloading
1/r
m
=,*1/r
2
+(1,*)1/r
1
where,*accountsforthepreviousloadhistory.
M
conc mean
=(1,*)M
perm
=M
peak
(1,
peak
)AM(1,
peak
/(1+C))
,*=,
peak
(1+CM
peak
/M
perm
)/(1+C)
whereAM=M
peak
M
perm
andC~1.
Take, indeflectioncalculationsasthegreatestof,*and
, calculatedwithw
perm
orw
sls
asappropriate.
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
76
Comparisonbetweenmeasuredand
predictedcurvaturesS3
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
77
Questions
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
78
Stage Time Operation
5 13 Concrete floor 2
6 14 Strike floor 2 and
remove backprops
floor 1






7 14-
24
Erect formwork and fix
reinforcement for floor
3








8 Backprop floor 2








9 25 Concrete floor 3

2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
1/18/2012
14
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
79
Questions
ACI
WEB SESSIONS
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SERVICEABILITY AND SAFETY OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
SP225-06: Deflection Control by Design
435R-95: Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures (Reapproved 2000)
201.1R-08: Guide for Conducting a Visual Inspection of Concrete in
Service
SP86-07: Deflections of Concrete Slabs Under Construction Loading
SP161-04: Deflection Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members Using
Finite Element Method
ACI
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