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# ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics

## Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-1 M. F. Rahman

University of New South Wales
School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

Solution of Tutorial 4

1.

V
d

R
i
o

V
o
C
i
L

L
+ v
L

D
i
d

+
v
oi

v
o

V
d
= 5 - 40 V; f
s
= 20 kHz; V
o
= 5 V; I
o
= 1 A

For just continuous conduction;

The likelihood of discontinuous conduction is higher for lower D.

min
5
D 0.125
40
= = when V
d
= 40 V

( ) ( )
min d o
s oB
D 0.125
L V V 40 5 109.3 F
2 f I 2 20000 1
= = =

(ii) Given
o d o
V 5V , L 109.3 H, V 12.5V , I 1A = = = =

Conduction is continuous.
OB d O O
s
5
D 0.397
12.6
D
I (V V ) 0.68A I
2 f L
= =
= = <

) V V (
L 2
DT
I I
o d
s
LB OB
= =
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-2 M. F. Rahman
For continuous conduction,

2
O S
O
2
S
V T ( 1 D) 1
0.01
V 8 LC
1 ( 1 D)
C 172 F
8 f L 0.01

= =

= =

Note: In this solution, we have assumed that
O
V is caused by C only. In practice, the voltage
drop across the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the capacitor may contribute significantly
to the
O
V . This drop has been neglected.

(iii) During T
on
:
d O L
V V di
0.0695A/ sec .
dt L

= =

During T
off
:
O L
V di
0.0457A/ sec .
dt L

= =

6 d O
L S
s
D 5 / 12.5 0.397
V V 1
i DT 0.397 0.0695 10
L f
1.38A

= =

= =
=

t
on
T
s
t
i
F0

0
- 45700 A/sec
i
L

L
1
i 1.38 / 2 0.69A
2
= =
t
- 0.69A
0.69A
45700A/sec
s
DT
69500A/sec
i
ripple
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-3 M. F. Rahman

During A
ON L
t , i 0.69 69500t = +

S
A
during off time
F0
L
1
i 45700 DT 0.69 45700 0.397 0.69 1.597
20000
i 1.597 45700t
= + = + =
=

S ON S
ON
T T T
2 2 2
Lrms L
0 0 T
S S
1 1
I i dt [ ( 0.69 69500t ) dt ( 1.597 45700t ) dt
T T
0.63A
= = + +
=

(iv)

(i) During turn on,
d O
V V di
dt L

=

d O O
1 O 1
d O
V V LI
t I and t
L V V

= =

Lpeak O
S
Lpeak d O 2 S
O
L( i I )
DT
i (V V ); t DT
L V

= = +

S
o S d O O O d O d O O
2 1
d O O
DT
V DT (V V ) LI V L(V V ) (V V ) I
L
t t
(V V ) V

(
+
`
(
)
=

S
O Lpeak O 2 1 d O O 2 1
DT Q 1 1 1
V ( i I ) ( t t ) (V V ) I ( t t )
C C 2 2C L

(
= = =
(

| | { }
S d O O S d O O O O d O S d O O
O
O d O
DT (V V ) LI DT (V V )V LI V (V V ) DT (V V ) LI
V
2LCV (V V )

+ (

=

i
Lpeak
T
s

t
on
= DT
s

s 1
T
i
L

t
1
t
2

t
0
I
o

ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-4 M. F. Rahman
Given:
O O d
I 0.4A V 5V , V 12.6V = = =

O
1
d 1
V D
1.52D
V D

= =
+

d S
O 1
V T
I 0.4 D
2L
= = (see Lecture notes or Mohan's equ 7.14)

1
1 3 6
12.6 D
2.889D
2 20 10 109 10

=

=

1
0.4 0.1384
2.889D D
= =

0.1384 0.1384
1.52D or D 0.3018
D 1.52
= = =

O
V 21.5mV =

2.

O O d S
5
I 0.2083A V 24V , V 8 16V f 20kHz
24
= = = = =

For
O
d
d
V 24 1
V 8V 3
V 8 1 D
= = = =

D 2 / 3 0.667 = =

2 O S
OB
V T
I D( 1 D)
2L
= (see Lecture notes or Mohan's equ 7.29)

From this, using
OB
I 0.2083A =

L 213 H, =

For
O
d
d
V 24 1
V 16V , , D 0.333
V 16 1 D
= = = =

R
+
i
D
T
+ v
L

i
L
V
o
C
V
d
i
c
D

I
o

i
d
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-5 M. F. Rahman

2
S O
OB
T V D( 1 D)
I 0.2083
2L
L 427 H

= =
=

To ensure that conduction is continuous, the desired L 427 H > . For this L, and D = 0.67,

A which is less than A
2
OB 6
24 0.67 ( 1 0.67 )
I 0.102 , 0.2083 .
20000 2 427 10

= =

Thus, with L = 427 H, conduction will also be continuous when V
d
= 8V. Note that if
discontinuous conduction is desired for all conditions of input, L < 213 H must be chosen.

For V
d
= 16V, D 0.33 = . If we choose L = 213 H

2
OB 6
24 0.33 ( 1 0.33)
I 0.40A 0.208A
20000 2 213 10

= = >

Discontinuous conduction will guaranteed when L is so chosen that conduction is
discontinuous when V
d
is 8V.

Hence, L 427 H must be chosen for operation in continuous conduction. If discontinuous
conduction is required, as is normally for the boost converter, we should choose L < 213 H.

(ii)

d O S
OB
V 12V V 24V , L 427 H f 20kHz
I 5 / 24 0.2083A
= = = =
= =

Assuming continuous conduction,

O
d
V 24 1
, D 0.5
V 12 1 D
= =

A A
The inductor current is continuous
2
2 O S
OB 6
V T 24 0.5 ( 1 0.5 )
I = D(1- D) 0.175 0.75
2 L 20000 2 427 10
.

= = <

Diode current waveform is as shown below.

i
Dmax
= 1.8512A
I
o
= 0.75A
i
D

i
Dmin
= 1.1488 A
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-6 M. F. Rahman

( )
d O
L s
V V 1 1
I 1 DT 0.3512A
2 2 L

= =

Now
o
L
I 0.75
I 1.5A
1 D 1 0.5
= = =

and
L max L L
1
i I i
2
= + = 1.5 + 0.3512 = 1.8512 A.

Dmax Lmax
i i 1.8512 A = =

Dmin L
i I 0.3512 1.1488 = = A

( ) ( )
Dmax o Dmin s 6 s
i I i 1 D T 1.5 0.5 T
Q 18.75 10
2 2

+
= = = C

Note:
6
o s
Q I DT 18.57 10

= = C

o
o
V Q
0.01
V C

= =

6
18.75 10
C 78 F
0.01 24

(iii) Taking the t = 0 reference at
S
DT , when the diode current begins, the diode current is
given by:

6
D Dmax
i i 0.0281 10 t =

S
( 1 D )T
6 2
DRMS Dmax
0
S
1
I ( i 0.0281 10 t ) dt
T

=

6
0.5 50 10
6 2
DRMS 6
0
1
Or I ( 1.8512 0.0281 10 t ) dt
50 10

ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-7 M. F. Rahman

6
25 10
6 12 2
6
0
1
( 3.4269 0.104 10 t 0.00079 10 t )dt
50 10

= +

6
25 10
6 2 12 3
6
0
1
3.4269t 0.104 10 t / 2 0.00079 10 t / 3
50 10

( = +

6 6 6 2 12 6 3
6
1
3.4269 ( 25 10 ) 0.104 10 ( 25 10 ) / 2 0.00079 10 ( 25 10 ) / 3
50 10

( = +

6 6 6
6
1
( 85.67 10 32.5 10 4.1145 10 )
50 10

= +

1.146 A 1.07 A = =

2 2
D,ripple,RMS DRMS o
I I I = =
2 2
1.07 0.75 0.763 A =

(iv)

d
Dmax S
V
i DT
L
=

During
off
t ,
d O
V V di
dt L

=

Now
Dmax O d O
1
i I V V di
t dt L

= =

Dmax O
1
d O
L( i I )
t
V V

2
Dmax O 1 d S O
O
O d
( i I )t (V DT LI ) Q 1
V
C 2 C 2LC(V V )

= = =

1
t
S
DT
d
I
dMAX
I
O
I
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-8 M. F. Rahman

With
OB
D 0.5; I 0.175A = = . Since
O OB
I 0.1A I = < , conduction must be discontinuous. For
continuous conduction.

O
d
V 24 1
D 0.5
V 12 1 D
= = =

D 0.5

For discontinuous conduction, D is given by,

O O O
d d OB max
V V I 4
D ( 1 )
27 V V I
=

OBmax
I occurs for D 0.33 =

O
OBmax
S
V 2
I =
27 f L
[from equation 7.31, Mohan]

6
24
0.074 0.207 A
20000 427 10
D 0.378

= =

=

2 6 6 2
d S O
O 6 6
O d
(V DT LV ) ( 12 0.378 50 10 427 10 0.1)
V 0.042 V
2LC(V V ) 2 427 10 78 10 ( 24 12 )

= = =

ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-9 M. F. Rahman

3. Buck-Boost converter:

D
C R
L
T
V
d

i
L

V
o

+
I
o
i
d

i
D

d O O S O O
V 40V V 50V , P 75W f 40kHz V 0.01V = = = = =

(i)

O
d
V D 50
D 0.55
V 1 D 40
= = =

(ii) We assume that the inductor current is just continuous when the converter supplies 75W or

I
oB
=
75
1.5A
50
= .

Note that discontinuous mode operation is normally preferred.

V
d

L
i
0
V
s
T
t
on
= DT
s
t
off

t
v
L

I
L
= I
d
+ I
o

ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-10 M. F. Rahman

2 O
OB
S
2 2
O
S
V
I 1.5 ( 1 D)
f 2L
V ( 1 D) 50 ( 1 0.55 )
L 82.3 H
2 f 1.5 40000 2 1.5

= =

= = =

Note that for large values of
OB
L, I would be smaller and operation will be in continuous mode
when the load current is 1.5A.

L 82.3 H = will guarantee discontinuous conduction mode operation up to the 75W of load.

O S
O
S
V DT
0.01
V RC
D
C
f R 0.01

= =
=

Now
2 2
O O
O
O
V V
P R 33.33
R P
= = =

C 41.67 F =

(iii)

d S
Lmax Lmin
V DT
i , i 0A
L
= =

S
LB 6
Lmax
VDT 40 0.55
I 3.374A
2L 2 82.3 10 40000
i 6.748A

= = =

=

L
i
S
DT
S
T
L d O
I I I = +
O
V
L max
i
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-11 M. F. Rahman

(iv)

S
D o
S
6.748( 1 D)T 1
I I 1.5A
2 T

= = =

4.

O
2
I 0.133A
15
= =

(i) This is the current above which the converter enters continuous conduction mode.

2 O
OB
S
2
O
min
S OB
V
I 0.133A ( 1 D)
f 2L
V ( 1 D)
L
2 f I
= =

=

At the continuous /discontinuous boundary,

O
d
d O
V 15
D 0.652 for V 8V
V V 15 8
= = = =
+ +

Also:
O
d
d O
V 15
D 0.273 for V 40V
V V 15 40
= = = =
+ +

Note that the smallest D gives the largest
min
L and hence the smallest
OB
I . L has to be
selected for the smallest D.

2
min 3
15 ( 1 0.273)
L 1.49mH
2 20 10 0.133

= =

(ii)

d O
L 150 H, V 12V , I 0.25A = = =

With continuous conduction,

L
i
S
DT
S
T
6.748A
D
i
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-12 M. F. Rahman

O
d O
V 15
D 0.55
V V 15 12
= = =
+ +

2
2 O
OB 6
S
V 15 ( 1 0.55 )
I = (1- D) 0.493
2 Lf 20000 2 150 10

= =

Since I
o
< I
oB
, conduction is discontinuous.

O
OBmax
S
2
OB OBmax
V
I 2.5A
2Lf
I I ( 1 D)
= =
=

With discontinuous conduction,

i
L
V
d
DT
s
1
T
s
T
s
t
-V
o

From
d S O 1 S
V DT V T 0 = ,

O O
1
d 1 d
V V D
so that D
V V

= =

From
O 1
d O
d
I
P P ,
I D

= = ,

Also,
d O
O L d 1
S 1
V D DI
I I I D
2 f L

= = + ( ) -

d O 1
O 1
1 O S
V D V D
I D
V 2 f L

+
= +
( )
( )

O d
OBmax
1 O
I V
I D
V
=

2 O d O d
OBmax O 1 OBmax O
I V I V 1 1
D ( )
I V I V D
= =

o O
D OBmax
V I
D
V I
=

ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-13 M. F. Rahman

OBmax
I 2.5A =

15 0.25
D 0.395
12 2.5
= =

(iii)

d S
Dmax 6
V DT 12 0.395
i 1.58A
L 150 10 20000

= = =

D
1
Dmax
2I 2 0.25
0.316
i 1.58

= = =

D o Dmax 1 s s
1
I I i T / T
2
= =

o
1
Dmax
2I 2 0.25
0.316
i 1.58

= = =

The slope of i
D

5 O
6
V 15
1 10 A / sec .
L 150 10

= = =

O
to 1 S
V
I ( D )T 3.55A
L
= + =

5
D S 1 S
I 3.55 10 t ( for DT t ( D )T ) = < +

6
1 S
6
S
( D )T 0.711 50 10
2 5 2
D,rms D 6
DT 0.395 50 10
S
2 2 2 2
D,ripple,rms CRMS Drms O
1 1
I i dt ( 3.55 10 t ) dt 0.498A
T 50 10
I I I I 0.498 0.25 0.43A

= = =

= = = =

S
T
D ,m a x
i
1 S
T
O D
I I =
t O
I
D
i
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-14 M. F. Rahman
(iv) The diode current
D
i exceeds the load current
O
I , during t
1
. The capacitor charges up
during this time with current
D O
i I .

d O
Dmax S O
V V
i DT ; I
L R
= =
The slope of current
D
i during
O
1
V
t
L
=

' O
D Dmax
V
i i t
L
= , by taking the origin of
'
t at the time when
D
i starts to flow.

' d S O
D
V DT V
i t
L L
=

d S O
D O 1
V DT V
i I t
L L
= =

d S
1 O
O
V DT L
t ( I )
L V
=

Dmax O 1 O d S d S O
O
( i I )t 1 / R( I V DT L)(V DT LI ) Q 1
V
C 2 C 2LC

= = =

6 Dmax D
1 5
i i 1.58 0.25
t 13.3 10 sec
di
10
dt

= = =

6 6
1
Q 13.3 10 ( 1.58 0.25 ) 8.845 10 C
2

= =

6
O 6
Q 8.845 10
V 18.8mV
C 470 10

= = =

S
T 1 S
T
O
I
D ,max
I
'
t 0 =
1
t
ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions to Tutorial 4 ST4-15 M. F. Rahman

5. Cuk converter

L
1

i
L1
C
1
L
2 i
L2
+ v
L1
-
+ v
c1
-
- v
L2
+
-
v
o

+
C
R
+
V
d
V
o
i
d

-
D
T

I
o

d 1 2 S
V 12V D 0.6, L 2mH L 1mH C 25 F f 25kHz R 12 = = = = = = =

O
O
d
V D 0.6
V 18V
V 1 D 1 0.6
= = =

O
O
O
d
d O
C1 O d
V 18
I 1.5A
R 12
I 1 D 1 0.6
0.67
I D 0.6
I I / 0.67 2.24A
V V V 18 12 30V
= = =

= = =
= =
= + = + =

C1 d
L1 S 3
1
L1 d
V V 30 12 1
i ( 1 D)T ( 1 0.6 ) 0.144A
L 2 10 25000
I I 2.24A

= = =

= =

L1,MAX d L1
1 1
i I i 2.24 0.144 2.312A
2 2
= + = + =

L1,MIN d L1
1 1
i I i 2.24 0.144 2.168A
2 2
= = =

O
L2 S 3
2
V 15 1
i ( 1 D)T ( 1 0.6 ) 0.24A
L 1 10 25000

= = =

ELEC4240/9240 Power Electronics
Solutions of Tutorial 4 ST4-16 M. F. Rahman

L2,MAX O L2
L1,MIN d L1
1 1
i I i 1.5 0.24 1.62A
2 2
1 1
i I i 1.5 0.24 1.38A
2 2

= + = + =
= = =

L2 o
I I 1.5 A = =

(iv) Note that the output circuit comprising of
2
D, L ,C and R is very similar to the output
stage of the buck converter. Thus, from the Buck converter analysis,

O
2
O 2 S
V 1 D
V 8L Cf

=

O 3 6 2 6
( 1 0.6 ) 15
V 0.048V 48mV peak peak
8 1 10 25 10 25 10

= = =

R
O
V
T
+
D
L1
i L2 i
C
1
L
2
L
V
d

C1
L1
i
L2
i
O
V
V
d
V
C1

V
C1
V
o
DT
s
(1D)T
s

V
d

T
s

t
T
s

DT
s

DT
s