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EXPERIMENT # 4 DETERMINATION OF THE FORMULA OF A HYDRATE Dupingay, Karen D. Gatchalian, Ysrael Orlando D. GROUP # 5, CHEM 14.1., TCD, Mr.

Jerome P. Panibe Abstract Hydrates are compounds that contain water. They are relatively essential in different fields of study and work like Industry, Agriculture and Pharmacy, as hydrates sustain different materials for these fields. Water molecules in these compounds are usually expelled by heating without decomposition of the compound. With these knowledge, Experiment # 4, Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate, was done by weighing 1 g of CuSO 4 crystals then heating them over an alcohol lamp until they decompose into a gray powder. After heating the crystals, water molecules evaporated resulting to a decrease in the crystals weight. By calculating the ration of the results obtained, the formula of the hydrate of CuSO4 was determined. Keyword Formula of a hydrate, ratio of moles, salt, water, heating INTRODUCTION Hydrates are compounds that are formed by the combination of a definite amount of water with a specific quantity of salt. A salt that combines with water in different proportions consequently form several hydrates. This objective of this experiment is to calculate the number of moles of the components in a compound to be able to determine the formula of a hydrate by heating 1 g of CuSO4 to remove the water. Heating is the usual way of separating the water component from the copper sulfate crystals. With this method, the weight of both the residue (CuSO4) and the water could be determined and therefore their ratio may be calculated. And the number of the water molecules can then be identified. EXPERIMENTAL A cleaned and dried test tube was covered with a cork stopper. The stoppered test tube was then placed in a 100-mL beaker and was weighed. 1 g of Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) was placed in the test tube and was weighed again. All weights were recorded. Then the test tube with copper sulfate crystals was heated over an alcohol lamp until all crystals were decomposed, turning into a gray powder. When all crystals have been changed into powder, the upper portion of the test tube was heated to evaporate the moisture. The test tube was then covered with a cork stopper and was cooled down to room temperature. The cooled test tube was placed in the 100-mL beaker and was weighed again. To obtain the weight of the H2O, the weight of the beaker, test tube and stopper prior to heating, which was weighed earlier, was subtracted from the weight of the cooled test tube with the gray residue, placed in the same beaker. Then, the difference Chemistry 14.1., Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate (weight of the H2O) was subtracted from the original weight of the CuSO4 (1 g) to determine the weight of the residue. Using all the recorded weights of the atoms from the periodic table and the data obtained from the experiment, the formula of the hydrate was calculated by getting the simplest ratio of the moles of H2O to the moles of CuSO4. Wt of beaker + test tube + stopper + crystals (before heating) Wt of beaker + test tube + stopper Wt of beaker + test tube + stopper + crystals (after heating) Weight of residue (CuSO4) Loss in weight upon heating (weight of H2O) Formula weight of CuSO4 Formula weight of H2O Moles CuSO4 Moles of H2O Simplest ratio of moles of H2O to moles of CuSO4 Formula of hydrate RESULTS The weight of the water and the CuSO4 was obtained by subtracting the weight of the beaker, test tube and stopper from the acquired weight. These weights were used to compute for the mole equivalent of the CuSO4 and H2O. The computed quantities were 0.6 mol for the CuSO4 and 0.4 mol for the H2O. With these, the ratio of their moles was computed. Here are how the calculations were made: 65 g 64 g 64.6 g 0.6 g 0.4 g 160 g/mol 18 g/mol 0.00375 mol 0.0222 mol 6:1 CuSO4 6H2O

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65 g 64.6 g = 0.4 g (wt. of H2O) 1 g (original wt. of CuSO4) 0.4 g = 0.6 g (wt. of residue) 0.6 g CuSO4 (1 mol of CuSO4/ 160 g of CuSO4) = 0.00375 mol of CuSO4 0.4 g of H2O (1 mol of H2O/ 18g of H2O) = 0.0222 mol of H2O 0.00375 mol of CuSO4/ 0.00375 = 1 mol of CuSO4

2. A 1.000-gram sample that contains 0.0128 moles of a hydrocarbon was burned in excess air to convert all the components to CO2 and H2O. If 3.385 grams of CO2 and 0.692 grams of H2O are produced, what is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon? What is the molecular weight? What is the molecular formula? 3.385gCO2/ (44g/mol CO2) =0.0769 mol CO2 0.692gH2O/ (18g/mol H2O) =0.0384 mol H2O 0.0769 mol CO2 : 0.0384 mol H2O

0.0222 mol of H2O/ 0.00375 = 6 mol of H2O 2 mol CO2 : 1 molH2O 1 mol of CuSO4: 6 mol of H2O Ratio of C to H is 1:1, thus Formula of Hydrate = CuSO4 * 6 H2O DISCUSSION Hydrates are compounds that have specific number of water molecules attached to them. The formula of the hydrate was obtained from the results of the experiment. The test tube containing the CuSO4 crystals was moved continuously over the flame to ensure uniform heating and complete decomposition of water. The evaporation of the water molecules made it possible to obtain to weight of the CuSO4 residue and the weight of the water component. From here, the moles of the CuSO4 and water were computed. Thus, the number of water molecules can be obtained from the given ratio. From this, we will see how much water molecules there is in a salt, CuSO4. GUIDE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. A piece of iron weighing 0.920g was heated until all the iron was converted to an oxide. If the weight of the oxide obtained is 1.315g, what is the formula of the oxide? 0.920gFe/ (55.85 g/mol Fe) =0.0165mol Fe 0.395gO/ (15.99g/mol O) = 0.0247mol O 1.315g oxide 0.920g Fe = 0.395g O 0.0165 mol Fe: 0.0247 mol O 1 mol Fe: 1.5 mol O 2 mol Fe: 3 mol O The formula of the oxide is Fe2O3 The empirical formula is CH. 1 g CH / 0.0128 mol CH = 78.125 g/mol 0.0128 mol hydrocarbon: 0.0769 mol CO2 : 0.0384 mol H2O 1 mol hydrocarbon: 6 mol CO2 : 6 H2O

Since there are 6 C in CO2 and 6 H in H2O,


the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon is C6H6.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION We therefore conclude that through heating, water molecules of a substance, particularly of a salt, evaporate, and therefore make it possible to determine the weight of the residue and of the water itself. Through this, their ratio, which is the formula itself, could be determined. The number of molecules attached to a salt can then be computed and the formula will be more accurate. We strongly recommend that as much as possible, use accurate measurements or weights so that it will not be too complicated when calculating for their ratios. References Chang, Raymond. Chemistry Ninth Edition. McGrawHill Companies, Inc.: New York, 2007 General Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 2006 Edition. Chemistry Unit, DPSM UP Manila I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to this report.

Chemistry 14.1., Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate

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_________________ Dupingay, Karen D.

__________________ Gatchalian, Ysrael Orlando D.

Chemistry 14.1., Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate

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