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THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING NURSING As by the INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES (ICN, 1975), as written by Virginia Henderson; the unique

function of a nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well in the performance of those activities contributing to health. Its recovery, or to a peaceful death that the client would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE Nursing is the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him and his recovery Proper ventilation CANADIAN NURSING ASSOCIATION Dynamic, caring, helping relationship in which the nurse assist the client to achieve and obtain optimal health AMERICAN NURSING ASSOCIATION Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of the human responses to actual or potential health problems

Nursing is all about love, instinct and desire People called NOMADS- they believed in evil spirits; used black magic or voodoos People believed to have a medicine man called SHAMAN- uses white magic Trephining- drilling of hole in the head

EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION (3000 BC) Build irrigation canals and granaries for proper storage of foods Practice of Prophylaxis by the medicine man and priest Emphasis on the personal hygiene, cleanliness within and outside the body Sanitation measures (removal of refuse and crude fumigation in times of epidemics) IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION- ART OF EMBALMING, ANATOMY DEBORAH- the nurse companion of a child, was the first nurse noted in the history CODE OF HAMMURABI- list of the practices and the life of the Babylonian people that has something to do in the field of medicine The art of embalming emphasizes the appreciation of human anatomy They developed to have a preserved record of 250 diseases

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING PERIOD OF INTUITIVE NURSING Nursing the sick was designated to the woman of the tribes Illnesses were attributed to evil spirits within the body of the person who was ill The ancient practitioner used both black and white magic to cure illnesses

HEBREWS (1400 BC) Founders of public hygiene MOSES- father of Sanitation Emphasized the practice of hospitality to strangers and act of charity Law control on the spread of communicable diseases and ritual of circumcision MOSAIC HEALTH CODE- pertained to every aspect of individual, family and community hygiene ; included; A. Principle of personal hygiene (rest, sleep, and cleanliness) B. Environmental Sanitation Inspection of food Methods of disposal Detecting and reporting cases Practice of isolation, quarantine, fumigation and disinfection Detailed instructions on correct way of hand washing -

Introduced the philosophy of the interrelationship between physical and mental health (A healthy mind dwells in a healthy body) Introduced the Caduceus, the insignia of the medical profession today

ROMANS (50 BC) Contributed to the field of sanitation (building aqueducts, purification of water supply) Appointing of public medicinal officers Establishment of hospitals which emphasizes both preventive and curative aspect of care The Romans attempted to maintain vigorous health because they believe illness is a sign of weakness Care of the ill was left to the slaves or Greek physicians FABIOLA- Converted by her friends, Marcella and Paula to Christianity. She is the one who made her home as the first hospital in the Christian world

GREEKS (600 BC) HIPPOCRATES- father of medicine Exponent of the science of preventive medicine Rejecting the belief that diseases had supernatural causes- he developed medical standards INDIA Was the first country to record the use of nurse in the case of the sick Contributed to SHUSHURUTU- List of qualification of nurse and functions of nurse and their job descriptions

Nurses are described to be a combination of the physical therapist and cook

the hungry, caring for the sick, burying the dead) PHEBE- friend of St. Paul and the first deaconess and visiting nurse KNIGHTS OF ST. LAZARUSdedicated to care of people with leprosy and syphilis

CHINA The people strongly believed in spirits and demons as seen in the practices such as using girls clothes for male babies to protect them from bad spirits Gave the world the knowledge of MATERIA MEDICA (pharmacology) 356 medicines and 260 of them are herbal Care of the sick is done by the female members of the household

MIDDLE AGES (500-1500 AD) Beguines of Fianders- worked as nursing sisters in the hospital but also gave care to the sick in their homes, staying with the dying and consoling the families of the bereaved St. Anthony Brothers Hospital was formed Brothers of Misercordia, Italy were formed Alexian Brothers were formed

PERIOD OF APPRENTICE NURSING also called as the period on the job training nursing care was performed without any formal education and by people who were directly by more experienced nurses Religious order of the Christian Church were responsible for this kind of nursing

RENNAISSANCE (1500-1700) St. Vincent De Paul- introduced modern principles of visiting nurse and social services Taught that indiscriminate giving was harmful Emphasized the concept of helping people by themselves Organized the Daughters of Charity- primarily cared the sick at home Maintained that the family if the unit of service Recognized the most important of supervised of those who rendered service to the sick

EARLY CHRISTIAN PERIOD 300 AD women entered the nursing profession Order of Deaconess- organized visiting of the sick called the visiting nurses Forerunners of community health nurse Endeavoured to practice the corporal works of mercy (feeding -

DARK PERIOD OF NURING 17th to 19th century from the period of reformation until the period of US Civil War Rise of Protestantism over Roman Catholicism Hundreds of hospitals were closed There were no provisions for the sick and no one to take good care of the sick Nursing became the least desirable job of the women- women who took bribe to patients, who stole patients food , uses alcohol as tranquilizers -

Upgraded the practice of nursing and made nursing as an honourable profession of gentle women CRIMEAN WAR- Florence Nightingale cared for wounded soldiers

PERIOD OF CONTEMPORARY NURSING This covers the period after the world war II to the present Establishment of WHO by UN Utilization of computers for data of diagnosis and hospital procedures The advent of space medicine brought the development of aerospace nursing Increasing involvement of nursing in community health

EARLY NINETEETH CENTURY Pastor Theodor Fliedner- a German Lutheran pastor, went on a tour to raise funds when the main of community industry failed. Came back with money and ideas for a program of social work Frederika Munster Fliedner- wife of Pastor Theodor, organized a womans society for visiting and nursing the sick 1836- the couple organized the need for preparing and training those who care for the sick, organized a hospital school of nursing in Germany- KAISERWERTH INSTITUTE for the training of deaconess HISTORY OF NURSING IN COMMUNITY HEALTH EARLY BELIEFS AND PRACTICES They believe that their diseases are brought by mysticism and superstitions WORLD DOCTORS- Special Gods of Healing, the PRIEST PHYSICIANS HERBOLARIOS- medicinal men who uses herbs as means of treating persons

EARLY CARE OF THE SICK HERBICHEROS- the one who practiced withcraft People who are sick are bewitched by mangkukulam

PERIOD OF EDUCATED NURSING This period began with Florence Nightingale, opened the ST. THOMAS school of nursing in London.

Difficult labor and some diseases are called PAMAO, that were attributed to NONOS Midwife assisted during labor are called MABUTING HILOT

ILOILO MISSION HOSPITAL (1906)ran by ROSE NICOLET, first superintendent for nurses March 1944- 22 nurses graduated, April, took the board exam ST. PAUL HOSPITAL (1907)intramuros PHILIPPINE GENERAL HOSPITAL (1907)- started in 1901 as civil hospital for employees and officers

SPANISH REGIME Hospital Real de Manila (1577)established for Spanish soldiers and civilians by Gov. Francisco Salde San Lazaro Hospital (1578)founded by Brother Juan Clementebuilt exclusively for patients with leprosy Hospital de Indio(1586)- for alms and contributions from charitable persons Hospital de Aguas Santas (1590) San Juan de Dios Hospital- Render general Health services

COLLEGE OF NURING UST (1946) MCU (1947) UP (1948)

PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY Hilaria Aguinaldo- wife of Emilio Aguinaldo organized the Filipino Red Cross FRC- founded its headquarters in Malolo, Bulacan; established branches in provinces Functions of Filipino Red Crosscollection of war funds and materials through charitable works Provision of nursing care to the wounded Filipinos

HOSPITAL AND SCHOOL OF NURSING