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a green mango a learning session' For instance' in two'

GhaPter 5


discussed in the has been thoroushlv Ttre nature of the learner of how the nt"""it1' tf,e nature process' orevious chapter' of the learning



th"t;' lh; "uto'u


A new lesson' tc to a Previous lesson' b) Problem'soluing learning

*:+mi*l*fr*-*if[5P;6gE H J F* TTiilff TS'J"$;".1'i"""i il i'"r'"a

probrem-sorvingisttrenloclll::il::Tff i-llt; attainment g i ative I e arnrn f*"fti"t tt'"t hinder the ge toT' 1*:oc knowle d ""d'*'fii"";;;"d * :oi:rlf ili'f'X?'lit other t*" J-Ti


be summari'"a ioto"i'iJ'i"t" ,ritiott as the following:
exDerience, or

of There are almost as many-definitions such definitions may are authoriti"' o" tliu ""Ui"tt' {owgver' tornptuhensive defiJit""t u"d

learning as there

"l*"* i"*;*i:t*:'*rt'"tr*"Jul'Jnl+lk*trt

maturation and -t'oo*t"a Learning is the acquisition'-throuah g"' Iki["' and attitudes J

#dr1ig1g$"'ft'iilil"i:i'i*i-'' glouP
tional learning'

tt ut *itt

reactions, ."'noo""''"*J"ai"tt-""t' conditions.

""*''la*i"ol th"t;;;;io-*utt'" rettlr


and more adequate new situations and

*""*""'' ""*'i"""

and idealearning is verbal


JHuf.:TilTi 2. Attitud.inal or. o11n"tiu" a' ir," rormation' or l::ffi11,:::"t;jf*;Hf'J$ i,

leorning'- rhis

oflearning are the following: The types, kinds' or outcomes


is the acquisition of knowledge' Cognitiue learning'This ptitttipt"t' ideas' concepts' underfacts and i"f"tt"":ti*' cognitive There are two types of standing, reasoning' etc' learning' These are:

TJ"1f;r,Xli"lilii!ru;;'"li"d-:lr,etc.rherearetwo ;;;;Jy, inteenly; puiillli,ll. l';:'"" ..",

tYPes of appreclaLrvv

a a) Aesthetic learning


Associatiue learning

words or ideas and their

This is establishing the

words ot , between



oood and clas-

to, td""?"'f ,t'".,1'Tf :i::i^'".t::llil"li'[""?J#;;"*J *'"j'!"*i"T. J"' understanding ^a1 pii"a to, etc. This i"t"J:,:= i:T Facts and or of ii ttt" "urutionshiPs are-things organized and sYstem iout" learned il?lil'ft :J"fr ,';-n;;;:"1; j,::11';5:Jnffi::f the

between Prrncr-

b) lntellectual learning D',


meaningful relati



"ryoryot:l cles in bodilY P',v







portant because the activities are usually responsive to certain stimuli. There are two types of psychomotor learning and these are:


Bodily mouernent coordination

The harmonious functioning of the different parts of the body in order to attain the desired performance of the activity. This is true in dancing, physical educa-

tion, sports and games such as running, volleyball, result to muscular coordination.

basketball, tennis, and the like. Precision and accuracy

b) Manipulatiue dexterity
The skillful use of the hands and feet. precision and accuracy are necessary in both basic and complicated activities such as writing, typing, stenotyping, handling and operating gadgets and machines such as carpentry tools, laboratory equipment, car and the like.

Greater und,erstanding. One who has studied has a bet.ter understanding of the things communicated to him than one who has not. 7. Greater facility of comrnunication' One who has gone to school has learned the mechanics of the language and so he has a greater facility in communicating his ideas than one who has not. 8. More logical reasoning. Qne who has learned how to reason out can make more logical reasoning than one who has not. 9. Greater innouatiueness and creatiuity. An educated person has more innovative and creative ideas than one who is not. 10. Greater chance of employment. One who has acquired skills has more chances of employment than the one who has not.



or tests of learning.
When has a person learned? The following are the criteria

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Greater speed. One who has learred how to write, writes faster than one who has not. Greater precision and. accuracy. One who has learned a 'dance can execute the steps with greater precision and accuracy than one who has not. Reduced effort. One who has already Iearned to write exerts less effort in writing than one who is just learning

how to write.
Less expense, hence more sauings. One who has learned how to type does not need to hire a typist to type. He cuts

down on expenses.
Greater knowledge, information, and ideas. Ohe who has gone to school to learn has greater knowledge, information, and ideas of the things around him than one who has not.

OTHER KINDS OF LEARNING (2) Learning may be classified into (1) direct learning and indirect learning. Learning to ride a bicycle is direct learning' Reading books, newspapers, magazines, and other publications, listening to the radio, and viewing movies and television shows to gain information is indirect learning' Burnham classifies learning as (l) congenital (2) temporary and (3) permanent. Reflex action such as the sudden withdrawal of the foot as it steps on a live charcoal is congenital learning' Forgetting portions of a.poem or lines in a play is an example of temporary learning. Knowledge used in a lifetime such as basic mathematical trperation, language, values, etc. is permanent learning' Other kinds of learning are (1) sensory learning such as Braille reading used by the blind, (2) motor learning as in typing and writing, (3) verbal learning such as solving






a mathematical nroblem or memorizing a principle, (4) tional learning ru.h.""-*J#;^;;*, idea_ tudinal learning u" i" tur"rrffi;#J. or novel, and (5) atti_

A. Trial and Error

""" #;ffi;;:;**"l

theories of learning. Among which


ever the student meets the word "female", she connects it to the other terms in the definition' Thornd'ike's Laws of learning 'Tomake his connectionism theory more effective, Thorndike conceived his three principal laws of learning, namely, (1) law ofreadineis, (zilaw ofexercise, and (3) law ofeffect'


According to the theory, a series ofresponses are conducted until the correct response is achieved. In problem solving, a series of trial -.i"s; available information u"t' ";i"rt# are conducted with the sorution is achieved.

Association or Stimulus-Response Theories The association theories qr' L( tioning, and social l"r";;;;. are connectionism, condi-


between stimuli stimulus thr c onne cti on, called the S_R Bond.
to a pupil, elicits un

Thorndike's Connectionism Thezory. The connection_ ism or stimulus-rerpo.rru tfr"l"y i. Uu""a on the asso_ ci?tion

""; ;;

":TJ;-:J*[*XT#Hrffij, Jt

To illustrate, the stimulus

by "=". To the stimulus

inces in Region

inu..r"ut*"Ioorr"" of ,,4u.Guided by the teacher,lh" p;pii-;;;;s with the correct answer of .,6." The pupil esiablishes u oo.r.r*ii"on between the stimuluri t;S = f" a"a the response .,6,, through the symbol "=r il;;;iecuon iF symbolize
three prov_ lli,u p"pii.""po".rir, ..ffr""e provinces






in Region II are connection word is ,.are.,,

B"d;, Cfi;rlr,

ism is ready io act, action is satisffing, inaction is is true. When the organism is annoying. Tl"" ""uutt" act, action is annoying and inaction is not ready to satisfying. A pupil who knows the answer feels satisfied if he ls cafted. Failure to recite makes him feel disappointed. On the other hand, he feels annoyed if asked to recite when he doesn't know the answer' Generally, when a child is not ready to learn, he cannot be force to learn' Likewise, the teacher should adopt the principles of individual differences' The learning tasks should be assigned to pupils of "u.i"" less mental ability and the more difficult tasks should be assigned to pupils of superior mental ability' T}relaw of exercise means that exercise or practice reinforces learning' This puts importance on drill' repetition, and review. Retention invariably results' Frequent recitation of a poem if fully comprehended results to masterY. The law of effecl states that learning is strengthened if it gives satisfaction to the learner' It is weakend if it gives annoyance to the learner' The implication is ttrat the teacher should make learning sessions as enjoyable as possible. One way of doing this is pr-aislttg upptopriately those who are performing well'

The law of readiness states that when an organ-

u.ra Isabela. The


being,',,,conceives,,, u"J

To the ,ti-."I::. question, ,,What is a female?,, a student responds,,' ,A female'i, u iu_u., being who conceives and brings forthyoung: is associated or connected witi irr" the words ,human


ing conditioning. These are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. al Classical conditioning theory This theory is exeniplified by the experiment of Pavlov. When food is presented to the dog, it


ror.rr.,, When_




"N' (f) Child writes capital letter

tioned response'


was accompanied by the ringing of abtzzer'.Unott


the fooJ'is calel the natural or unconditioned ,ti*ot i,'tJltt" "up"utud ringing o{t}e btzzer' and tt .ooJitio""d stimulus done several times' " dog emitting saliva' the conditioned response' the present-ed When tft" li"gi"g of the btzzer was also salivatgd':1" *ithooi tTt" iooa' the dog "u"n*ut-A"eady conditioned to the sound of the aog

it, th" a"g salivated' The present{i9n of

In identifYing a


a) rhe

(unconditioned t
below the Prctut

pi.lll" or,u,:,':'j;Hl$,4.xi"";t


(b) At the'.'*:,:iT:"tt;lTtir":xt;'Jt#fff:l)

(c) t"'


mouth burrerl.(An instrument was attached to the of salivation') of the a"it" measure the amount exThere are some processes involved in the puri*",,t. There is excitation or acquisition when the conditioned response' the salivation of the the aog, i* Jitited by the conditioned stimulus' unor ringing of the buzzet' There is extinction conditioned stimulus is presented t"urrriie if ;h" ,"rr"t.iii"'"s without the natural or unconditioned is no longer stimulus and the conditioned response is stimulus generalization -when a elicitei' There and stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus the conditioned response is elicited' practical Classical conditioning finds many classroom especially in the uppti.uiiotts in the to*"" g"uJes *he'e audio-visual aids are used' For instance -

of l-h:Jtt"* (d) Response: An..association in the mind -;il;"-i;;ed

and the

(anallo !e made' sound "cat'' maY The stimulus) oin""' ;onditioned


of the PuPiIs'

(e) rhe

conditioned ar be made'


able to


;$ffi*TJ#;il' ;"d-*" llll" cat' condia'"* iii"itlio'u orttt"

tioned response' In teaching sPelling:

word "dtl']. stres(a) Teacher Presents the i; (unconditioned g' ;;'t, sing the letters

1) In teaching the alPhabet: (a) Teacher writes on the board capital letter -' iA" - unconditioned or natural stimulus'
(b) While writing' she makes the sound "Capital letter -N'- conditioned stimulus' (c) Response: The child associates capital -' letter "A" and the sound "capital letter A"' (d) Presentation of both the letter and the

*' ffJT,:3tl:ir.".s; i;il::'J"?11$3""

(c) Respon:"-, .Ai :"1ffi";"lT letters "g' r' t' 1:-:lT,lffi PuPrls' the i"t*"u il" tt'" minds of


n: tnt'1"ffi l#::trj':;$ times'

made several


sound maY be done several times' (e) Teacher makes the sound "capital letter -'

"girl" (conditio


N'-- conditioned stimulus, without the letter "A".





There are many teaching and learning situ_ ations where the classicat ionaitionlrrg _1y U" used. Among th,eqe are writing anJ naming the letters of the alphabet, gcneral, spelling,. naming thinls, "u"aiig urra *"itiig ln fersons, animals, performing the four findimental and ope_ rations, and many others. Classical conditioning may be used even in teaching abstract ideas. Operant conditioning theory
of^ his experiments, he placed a box, The rat accidentally stepped on a lever which U"ooghi


Social learning theory

This the theory of Bandura and Wallace' This is learning from observation and imitation' According to Bandura, there are four subprocesses involved namelY, 1) Attention. The behavior or value desired has caught the attention and interest of the learner.


theory was developed by Skinner. In one



-Reinforced by the iood, the rat on pressing the lever, this ii-" int"rrtionally. frept In another experiment, a rat *u, ptrrlO in a maze. The rat tried to find its *.y o"t.n"t when he e.nteyd a wrong door, he was given a mild electric shock and so the rat tried ,"oti"" aoo". ft u p"o""r, continued until the right way out was found. What are the implications of these experiments? The implications are that an individual tend.s to repeat a behavior or situation that is rewarding and pleasant and tends to avoid a behavior or situation that is not rewardi"s *d rrrrpleasant. Factors that make an individu-ai-r"p""t an ex_ peri-ence are positive reinforcers whic'h a"e of two kinds: p_rimary reinforcers *f,i.f, ,i""tify basic needs like food, w-ater, etc., and ,uioiaory ,"fn_ forcers which satisfr some psychofogi.;i ,r""ds like p"?ir9: high grades, etc. Factors ifrui -ut " un individual avoid repeatingan are called negatiue factors which come in the ""p""iu".u form of rebuke or scolding, ridicule, or low mark. Operant conditioning isa motivational as well as a learning device. If Jstudent accidentally hits the right solution to a problem, fr" i" err.ouraged go on solving similar problems; otherwise, he io. tries to find other solutions ontit t -nrrds the correct one. The learner is an active " one and the element of trial and error i" J"" p"""""t.

out a food pellet.

3) q

Retention.The learner retains the behavior or value to be learned' Motoric reprod'uction' The learner now imitates or emulates his model'


Reinforcement.Theleatnernowpracticeswhat he has imitated. Learners learn heavily from observation and imitaolder tion. They imitate models like parents, teachers' and home' the .ilfi"e". A child learns the language used at ai"poJitio"., speaking habits, the religiosity, values' and health habits of his role models' Therefore, teachers should be good models to their good pupils in good manners' fair dealing with others' values, and friendliness'


Cognitive Field Theories of Learning

According to these theories, insight and understandof irrg ut" utlliz]ed in discovering thb logical relationships
a things and situations which are then organized into *"uiirrgfrrl whole to solve a problem or difficulty' Three field learning theories will be discussed' "og"iti""" 1. Kohler's Theory- Kohler experimented with a chimThe animal tried to reach a panzee placed ir, . ".g"'the cage with his own hands Lanarra-placed outside but he could not. There were two sticks in the cage but he and the animal used one to reach the banana

failed. Then the chimpanzee joined the two sticks end to end and the animal was able to draw the banana closer to him,



stick alone. Thinking for a while,=fre'joins the two sticks, thus making a longe" orr",'*a places a hook at one end. He finally gets the mango. is an element of trial u"a and-understanding are utilized to the "ooiirrrroiria fot insight maximum. The level of mental ability,often plays u in cognitive learning effective and successful. "ii"i"of" making How is !hi9 anglied in the classroom? a mathematical problem is an example. Solving A student employs different sorutions. utilizing'available data
We are often confronted with similar difficult situ_ ations where we try one sorution after another. There

stick to get the mango but to ir"iii" stick but still he cannot get the mang" ""

the fi:uit is at the iar end of If he climbs and tries to reach the maigo, a branch. the branch may break and he falls to tfr" gr"""J So he finds a

if he climbs :u:h t\ mango withhls "*" fr""J, the tree because "ven

We shall see how this theory applies to man. boywants toget a green m'ngo fri"gr"?r"";;;;; A of a-mango tree. Sizing op lrr" ,it".ruiiorr, he cannot

continuously produce dividual occur. External forces intensity in the inditensions of different ;;;;"" of as motivating forces Thu"" t*"'ioo*"



finds another the second

ronment. learning, not a Passive one' if not exactly Lewin's theory of learning is almost th";;;; as his ih"ory of PersonalitY' Bruner's theory of learn3. Bruner's Theory'of Learning' i"""r""t tttt"b processes' namely:

fortheindividualto*ur.uadjustmentstohisenvi. pursuit of Thus, rre is an-activl one in the



a) Acquisition
The Process of obtainile a1$ ^ssimilating better than with uqderctutdittg new infoimation
a PrwiouslY learned one; Transforrnation


utilizing the The process of manipulating or a diffrculty or to information g"i""a to rlmove is an ;l* ; protl"- to which it is suited aPPlication of learningi
The process of frnding out whether

and insight and understanding, ne fi"natty arrives at a correct solution.



t\e infor-

act attitudes, and insights constitute the internal f;;;, that interact on him too. The resultant of these lwo groups of forces, the internal and the behavior of the individual. For instanc", "*t""ruiir-the an exter_ ;";;r, 'Ojfr?O"_ nal force, teaches his pupils tfrat Z x g-= " pils, through their insight ""J ""I"".t"nding (inlernal force), interact wiih ttre teactreiana learn that 2 x 3 = 6. The resulting behavior of tfr" p"pifs is their ability to multiply the figures "..";;dly. Since external forces continually act on the indi_ -vidual, and internal forces continuoisly interact with them, continuous changes in the behivior of the in_

According to Lewin,s theory, an lives in a life -rp".i t i, invironment. Externa_l forces, (things, rit""tio"L, or- cJnaitions)

!nyi?': lheory. individual

lrim.IIis drives, ideas,


utilized' mation acquired is appropriately djstance equals Example: A student learns- that rt'is is acquisition' A probrate of speed ti*;;i;;' go in-three hours if it i"* "rr;!r, i"* f"r-*iri' a carhiur?Ile finds the disper travels eightv kil;;i;;; bv multiplvins 8q kiJgtance to be 240 kii;;";" Then he checks his meters by 3. This il **ip"futlon' the sum of which is 240' answer by addinglhruu d0'' This is evaluation' four basic concerns According to Bruner' there are no learning takes


";i;;;"e place'



relatill Understanding the basic and legical components or a ships between and among the




subject and even with other subjects is a. prerequlsite to learning. Without understanding' no learning takes Place

1. Mental d'isciptine'This th3orV-i:t:1t


r i,"i"i"g

that the skill or'


::*r i;,m u:'il1#']iil1ll!i

reasoning Po'

b) Readiness
Readiness is a prerequisite to learning' However, readiness may take a long time' Hence' the teacher must bring down the level of simplicity of

x**:tr:r,m*#;r*tr*i,hl,";ll'x *lri* i" history' The

study ot e"o*uif,v
or ioti"r *'i"o'"''

the lesson to the level of understanding of the pupil so that he will be ready to receive instruction' Gradually, he will acquire the minimum requirements of the lesson'

*i'"G"p";t *:: Hrff*'l"il; logic''*i:i#;"# o"Lmt'"" 'ry::'i#J#iiiili"Tt


*#:'ffJ:ft '#fi+{m,5i#';1fl}l'i'*'*;;u
skill acquired t
theory Popuraritv of this is waning because does not "ao.uio* strenuous memorizatr:l#,#;iJ' rJL"*i"" tt"*t lr'"'


The development of an individual pupil to an independent learner is very important accord' ing to Bruner. Since he does not always have his telcher with him, he must be trained to be independent and self-suflicient in solving problems that come his way' He must be able to search for information needed and determine and cor(ect his errors bY himself alone'

"t"** 'r*Z;Hffi?ii:il;:; tir*np:::lx:ri"*Til#:,'*** facilisituations' The q1eryn1lr""
be content,

Pwr'"" --imProve the reasonur$ studY' 2. rhe theory of identical

z i;**i

d) Motiuation
Learning is more effective if the learner is properly motivated' Bruner believes that intrinsic motivaiion is more desirable than extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual learner' He may have a desire to learn because of its worth' Extrinsic motivation comes from outside the individual in the forms of rewards and' Punishments'


Bf,i:?r'ffi ;tHb"f xii{:ri*:,3";ffiilr1'' of Y'"+?I used in the solution Hil;"*t' it'" sludv
-"Jiti"" fields'
is a theorY:of Judd'


-"th"ttTtiil,ii Ti*J,i"*",i."r'rr*ciples


:{*tr;ru:sru,;l';*'s"ri;ru:: j*"*Y":: srn because of manY



THEORIES OF THE TRANSFER OF LEARNING Transferoflearningreferstothefacilityinlearningsubject matter due to a previously learned one' Acquired knowledge' and skills, ideas, concepts, understandings, insights, attitudes' of another subvalues aid in obtaining the same in the study ject matter. There are-theories of transfer of learning' some of '.'hich are the following:

tr#i#*ft;tn##11ffiillifrt:il''i similarSt:^T#;^is similar to the that there are

tt'" o"a"tttanding ?4 T""iry;H; ;;l"arning or f,rre uwv rv*^--- e
between the generalizations

sense' :t::l'""#J;it'it-prutua o" situations' In this

theorv"rid'"l;;""*";*:t:;l;-Jlfiil"'5X#:'""t" exper-




iences involved. For instance, take the study of English and Fitipino grammar. The rules and principles of gram-


tences such as subject of a sentence, object of a verb, or objective complement. The adjective in English is called pang-uri in Filipino but both describe or modify nouns' In fact, a good knowledge of English grammar can be a good basis for studying Filipino grammar and vice versa'

mar are practically the sarne in the two languages' Although the word noun in English is translatedint'o pang' ngalan in Filipino, both have the same uses in the sen-

and superior the facilities Facilities-The more adequate are' the more transfer in the teaching-Iear"fttglii""tion wili take Place' with a superior or richer back6. Background'. The learner more transfer of learnground or environm""itu" have poorer environment' a ing or training than one with


The theory of confi'guration" This is the same as the Gestalt theory of learning. The term configuration is the equiva-

lent of the German word gestalf. Configuration refers to the unified or total pattern of organization of a learning situation so that the components or elements lose their identity. The learner sees the learning situation as a

whole, not the parts. It is through the combination of the elements of each learning situation that the learner can see the relationships and similarities between two learning situations and hence, transfer of learning will take place. Take the two courses, nursing and medicine' Mediut a whole is analyzing an illness and prescribing its "itt" Nursing on the hand is taking care of the sick and cure. administering the cure. Hence, the two courses are allied' So, one who has finished nursing will have an easier time learning medicine.

Factors Affecting the Tlansfer of Learning


Mental ability. The higher the mental ability of the learner, the more transfer of learning will take place'

2.similaritiesbetweensubjectmatter.Themoresimilarities that exist between two subjects, the more transfer will take place.

Motiuation and' effort'making capacity' The more motivated a learner is and the more effort he exerts, the more transfer will take Place.
Method. of teaching. The more effective a lnethod of teach-

ing is, the more transfer will take place'