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# Aircraft Equations of Motion - 2

## Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics, MAE 331,

2010
• Rotating frames of reference
• Combined equations of

## Euler Angle Rates

motion
• FLIGHT 6-DOF simulation
program

http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html

Euler-Angle Rates
and Body-Axis Rates Relationship Between Euler-Angle
• Body-axis angular rate
Rates and Body-Axis Rates
vector (orthogonal)
" !x % " p % • !˙ is measured in the Inertial Frame ! p \$ ! '! \$ ! 0 \$ ! 0 \$
\$ ' \$ ' # & # &
!B = \$ !y ' =\$ q ' • !˙ is measured in Intermediate Frame #1 B # & B 2 # &
# q &=# 0 & + H 2 # (! & + H 2 H1 # 0 &
\$ ' \$ r ' # r & #" 0 &
\$# ! z '& B # & • !˙ is measured in Intermediate Frame #2 " % % "# 0 &% #" )! &%

## • Form a non-orthogonal vector • ... which is

of Euler angles
% " ( ! p\$ !1 0 'sin ( \$!)˙ \$ Can the inversion
' * # & # &# ˙ & B ˙ become singular?
!=' # * #q& = #0 cos ) sin ) cos ( &#( & = L I +
' \$ * #" r &% #"0 'sin ) cos ) cos (&%#"*˙ &% What does this mean?
& )
• Euler-angle rate vector \$!˙ ' \$1 sin ! tan " cos ! tan " '\$ p'
% ( % , & ˙) & )& )
"! ( • Inverse transformation [(.)-1 ! (.)T] &" ) = &0 cos ! *sin ! )&q) = LIB + B
' * ' x *
!
!=' #! * + ' ,y * &%#˙ )( &%0 sin ! sec " cos ! sec ")(&% r )(
' \$! * ' *
& ) '& , z *) I
Point-Mass
Equations of Motion

Rigid-Body
• Inertial rate of change of translational position

r!I = v I = H IB v B
Equations of Motion • Body-axis rate of change of translational velocity
– Transformation is identical to angular-momentum transformation

1
v! I = FI
m
1 B
v! B = H BI v! I ! "" B v B = H I FI ! "" B v B ! fx \$
m ! u \$
# & # &
FB = # fy & ; v B = # v &
1 # &
= FB ! "" B v B #" fz &% B
#" w &%
m

Aircraft Characteristics
Rigid-Body Equations of Motion Expressed in Body Frame
• Translational
of Reference
Position
! x \$
# & • Aerodynamic and thrust force
r!I = H v B rI = # y &
• Rate of change of I
Translational Position #" z &% ! Xaero + Xthrust \$ ! CX + CX \$ ! CX \$
B I
# & # aero thrust
& 1 # &
• Angular FB = # Yaero + Ythrust & = # CYaero + CYthrust & 'V 2 S = # CY & qS
# Z +Z & # & 2 # C &
• Rate of change of
Angular Position
! = LI "
!
Position
% " (
' *
!I = ' # *
" aero thrust
% B #" CZaero + CZthrust &%
B
" Z %B
I B B • Aerodynamic and thrust moment
' \$ *
& )I
• Translational ! Laero + Lthrust \$ # (
! C +C
laero )
lthrust b
\$
& ! Cl b \$
1 # & # &
• Rate of change of
v! B = FB + H BI g I ! "" B v B
Velocity
#
! u \$
&
M B = # M aero + M thrust
#
( )& 1 2
& = # Cmaero + Cmthrust c & 'V S = # Cm c & q S
2
Translational Velocity vB = # v & # N +N & # & # Cb &
m #" w &% B
" aero thrust
"
( )
% B # Cnaero + Cnthrust b &
%B
" n %B

## • Angular • Inertia matrix

" I xx !I xz %
• Rate of change of
( M B " !" B I B! B ) !I xy
"1 Velocity
Angular Velocity !! B = I B
" p %
\$ '
\$
I B = \$ !I xy I yy
'
!I yz '
Reference Lengths
!B = \$ q ' b = wing span
\$ r ' \$ ' c = mean aerodynamic chord
# &B \$# !I xz !I yz I zz '
&B
Rigid-Body Equations of Rigid-Body Equations of
Motion: Position Motion: Rate
• Rate of change of Translational Position • Rate of change of Translational Velocity

x! I = ( cos! cos" ) u + ( # cos \$ sin " + sin \$ sin ! cos" ) v + ( sin \$ sin " + cos \$ sin ! cos" ) w u! = X / m ! g sin " + rv ! qw
y! I = ( cos! sin " ) u + ( cos \$ cos" + sin \$ sin ! sin " ) v + ( # sin \$ cos" + cos \$ sin ! sin " ) w v! = Y / m + g sin # cos" ! ru + pw
z!I = ( # sin ! ) u + ( sin \$ cos! ) v + ( cos \$ cos! ) w w! = Z / m + g cos # cos" + qu ! pv

## • Rate of change of Angular Velocity

( { ( } ) (I
• Rate of change of Angular Position
) ( )
p! = I zz L + I xz N ! I xz I yy ! I xx ! I zz p + "# I xz2 + I zz I zz ! I yy \$% r q I ! I xz2
xx zz )
!! = p + ( q sin ! + r cos ! ) tan "
q! =
1
( )
" M ! ( I xx ! I zz ) pr ! I xz p 2 ! r 2 \$
I yy # %
"! = q cos ! # r sin !
\$! = ( q sin ! + r cos ! ) sec " ( { ( ) ( ) } ) (I
r! = I xz L + I xx N ! I xz I yy ! I xx ! I zz r + "# I xz2 + I xx I xx ! I yy \$% p q I ! I xz2
xx zz )
Mirror symmetry,
Ixz ! 0

## FLIGHT - MATLAB Program

FLIGHT -
Computer Program to
Solve the 6-DOF
Equations of Motion

http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html
FLIGHT - MATLAB Program

## Examples from FLIGHT

http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html

## Longitudinal Transient Transient Response

Response to Initial Pitch Rate to Initial Roll Rate
Lateral-Directional Response Longitudinal Response

• For a symmetric aircraft, longitudinal Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m • For a symmetric aircraft, lateral-
Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m perturbations do not induce lateral- directional perturbations do
directional motions induce longitudinal motions
Transient Response Crossplot of Transient
to Initial Yaw Rate Response to Initial Yaw Rate
Lateral-Directional Response Longitudinal Response Longitudinal-Lateral-Directional Coupling

## Bizjet, M = 0.3, Altitude = 3,052 m

Velocity Orientation in an
Inertial Frame of Reference
Polar Coordinates Projected on a Sphere

Alternative Reference
Frames
Body Orientation with Velocity Orientation with
Respect to an Inertial Frame Respect to the Body Frame
Polar Coordinates Projected on a Sphere

## Angles Projected on the Velocity-Vector Components

Unit Sphere of an Aircraft
V, !, "
• Origin is airplane"s
center of mass

! : angle of attack
" : sideslip angle
# : vertical flight path angle
\$ : horizontal flight path angle
% : yaw angle
& : pitch angle
' : roll angle (about body x ( axis) V, #, \$
µ : bank angle (about velocity vector)
Relationship of Inertial Relationship of Inertial
Axes to Velocity Axes Axes to Body Axes
• Transformation is
• No reference to the independent of
body frame velocity vector
• Bank angle is roll • Represented by
– Euler angles
velocity vector
– Rotation matrix

## ! vx \$ ! V cos ' cos ( \$ ! vx \$

# & # & ! u \$
# vy & = # V cos ' sin ( & # & # &
# v & = H I # vy &
B
# & # )V sin ' &
#" vz &% I " % # & #" w &% # &
# V & %
vx2 + vy2 + vz2 ( #" vz &%
% (
% ( )1 #
(
% ! ( = % sin \$ vy / vx + vy '
2
)
2 1/2 &
( ! vx \$ ! u \$
% " ( % (
\$ ' % sin )1 ( )vz / V ) ( # & I # &
\$ ' # y &
v = H B # v &
# & #" w &%
#" vz &%

## Relationship of Body Alternative Frames of Reference

Axes to Wind Axes • Orthonormal transformations connect all reference frames

• No reference to
the inertial frame

# &
! u \$ ! V cos ' cos ( \$ # V & % u 2 + v2 + w2 (
# & # & % ( %
# v &=# V sin ( & % ! (=% sin )1 ( v / V ) (
#" w &% # V sin ' cos ( & (
%\$ " (' % tan )1 ( w / u ) (
" % \$ '
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Linearization and
Modes of Motion