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25 / 11 / 2008 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain

Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator


M. Debert, G. Colin, M. Mensler, Y. Chamaillard, L. Guzzella
2 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Contents
Introduction
Hybrid Electric Vehicle a solution to reduce fuel consumption
Simulation of HEV
Why Li-ion?
Battery model
Overview of literature
Three models tested and SOC calculation
R
INT
model
RC
SERIES
model
RC
PARALLEL
model
Thermal Aspect
Effect
Modelling
Validation & results
Conclusion
3 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Boost
Hybrid Electrical Vehicle is a solution to consume less fuel
How can a hybrid vehicle consume less fuel?
By Downsizing the internal combustion engine (with the same performances)
By turning-off the engine when the vehicle is stopped (Start & Stop)
By optimizing the energy distribution between the sources
By recovering a part of the kinetic energy during deceleration
Drawback of this technology
The additional cost
The additional weight
Braking
ZEV Engine only recharging
INTRODUCTION
Electric
motor
G
e
a
r

B
o
x
Electric
motor
Battery
ICE
Tank
Energy
Management
4 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
INTRODUCTION
Simulation is useful for the Energy Management development
The energy management performances are tested and compared in simulation
Some of these Energy management uses Battery State Of Charge (SOC)
HEV simulator requirement
Good battery behaviour prediction
Reasonable time of simulation
Quick adaptation for different cells (constant innovation in cells technology)
5 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
INTRODUCTION
Why Li-ion?
Li-ion has high Energy density
Li-ion has high Specific Energy
*
Li-ion has no memory effect
Li-ion has a low self-discharge rate
* i.e. : Gasoline has a Specific Energy of 13 kWH/kg
6 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
Usually transformed into equivalent circuit
Overview of battery modeling for HEV simulator & thermal aspect
L.Guzzella A.Sciarretta, Vehicle propulsion systems.
Quasistatic modeling
VH. Johnson, Battery performances in ADVISOR.
Overview of battery dynamics
A. Jossen, Fundamentals of battery dynamics.
Dynamic modelling
A. Capel Mathematical model for the representation of the electrical behaviour of a lithium cell.
E. Kuhn, C. Forgez, P. Lagonotte, G. Friedrich, Modelling Ni-mH battery using Cauer and Foster structure.
S. Buller, M. Thele, R. De Doncker, W. Karden, Impedance-based non-linear dynamic battrey modeling for
automotive applications.
Electrochemical models
L.Guzzella A.Sciarretta, Vehicle propulsion systems.
Black box model
Thermal Aspect
A. Pesaran, A Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations.
N. Sato Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles.
7 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
BATTERIES MODELS
Three models tested
Battery State of Charge
CCv
uC8
u
baL
l
baL
CCv
8
1
8
2
C
A8ALLLL
u
baL
l
c
l
r
l
baL
u
c
CCv
8
C
SL8lLS
u
baL
l
baL
u
c
R
INT RC
SERIES
RC
PARALLEL
8 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
BATTERIES MODELS
R
INT
model
OCV: non linear function of battery State of charge
DCR: non linear function of battery State of Charge which is
different in case of charge or discharge
9 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
BATTERIES MODELS
Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)
Polynomial fitting
On static points
Spline
On static points
Neural Network
Perceptron with one hidden layer
Sigmode for input layer
Linear for output layer
For confidential reasons battery cells voltage is normalised
with respect to its maximum value (in %)
10 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
R
INT
model results
FIT criterion (evaluation of the correlation between model prediction and battery behaviour
Quasi-static model

2.005 2.007 2.009 2.011 2.013
80
80.5
81
81.5
82
82.5
83
time (s)
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


DATA
R
INT

70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4
x 10
4
-5
0
5
Time (s)
e
r
r
o
r

(
%
)
R
INT
DATA
FIT= 85% (identification)
FIT= 79,3% (validation)
11 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
RC
SERIES
model
OCV: non linear function of battery State of charge
R: Constant which is different in case of charge or discharge
C
SERIES
: Constant which is different in case of charge or discharge
12 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
RC
SERIES
models identification
RC
SERIES
results
Non physical behaviour (due to the saturation)
6 undetermined parameters : C
SERIES
(ch/disch), R (ch/disch), sat
min
, sat
max
A simplex algorithm find the solution which minimises the criterion :
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4
x 10
4
-5
0
5
Time (s)
e
r
r
o
r

(
%
)
RC
series
DATA
2.005 2.007 2.009 2.011 2.013
80
80.5
81
81.5
82
82.5
83
time (s)
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


DATA
RC
SERIES
FIT= 89.6%
(identification)
FIT= 89.5%
(validation)
13 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
RC
PARALLEL
models
R
1,
R
2
: Constant
C
SERIES
: Constant
OCV: non linear function of battery State of charge
Hz < Good behaviour < kHz
14 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
RC
PARALLEL
Identification
Problem formulation
Normalisation
I
bat
, SOC are centred around 0 and
New equation
Continuous parametric
model of type output error
White noise First order with one pole
N order which increases
identification performances
15 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
GPMF
OE
SYS
LT
SYS
LT
Min
16 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models Output Error
17 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
RC
PARALLEL
Identification
Thanks to the continuous methods the analogy gives:
Discrete identifications (ARX, ARMAX, Box Jenkins) gives good results but the
analogy is not direct and the solution depends on the sampling period.
Batteries Models
18 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
Batteries Models
RC
PARALLEL
Results
Another experiments with this model and method
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4
x 10
4
-5
0
5
Time (s)
e
r
r
o
r

(
%
)
RC
PARALLEL
DATA
2.005 2.007 2.009 2.011 2.013
80
80.5
81
81.5
82
82.5
83
time (s)
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


RC
PARALLEL
DATA
FIT= 91.7%
(identification)
FIT= 91.6%
(validation)
2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300
80
81
82
83
84
85
time (s)
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


RC
paralelle
Data
19 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator 19
Batteries Models
Model performances
Improvement with temperature
consideration?
91.6% 91.7% RC
PARALLEL
89.5% 89,6% RC
SERIES
79.3% 85% R
INT
Validation
data
Identification
data


2.532 2.534 2.536 2.538 2.54 2.542 2.544
x 10
4
78
78.5
79
79.5
80
80.5
81
time (s)
U
b
a
t

(
%
)


RC
parallel
Data
RC
serie
R
int
20 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
THERMAL ASPECT
Temperature effect
cold condition
Increase the internal resistance
Decrease the Open Circuit Voltage
Decrease the capacity
Temperature modelling
1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3
x 10
4
Time (s)
U
b
a
t



data 0C
data 25C
Joule effect + cells reaction (which can be neglected)
Integral of the difference between heat produced and
heat exchange
Convection & conduction
21 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
THERMAL ASPECT
Temperature model validation
Implementation & Results
1.04 1.045 1.05 1.055
x 10
5
0
5
10
15
20
Time(s)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)


Experiment
Simulation
The prediction error is low ~3C max
h and Cp are identified in a 4C
discharge at 25C in initial condition
Temperature model validation is made
with the same test but at 0C in initial
condition
bat
I
SOC
OCJ
bat
T
int
R
c
U
bat
P
bat
P
bat
U
bat
I
SOC
OCJ
bat
T
int
R
c
U
bat
P
bat
P
bat
U
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
E
r
r
o
r

(
%
)


1.04 1.0405 1.041 1.0415 1.042 1.0425 1.043 1.0435
x 10
5
0
10
20
Time (s)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)






RC
PARALLEL
with temperature
RC
PARALLEL
without temperature
22 Advances in Hybrid Powertrain 25 / 11 / 2008 Li-ion battery models for HEV simulator
CONCLUSION
RC
PARALLEL
model
Improvement of the battery behaviour prediction for the HEV simulator
Most part of battery dynamic is represented
Fast identification with a continuous identification method
Temperature consideration
Cells are extrapolated to give battery pack
Improvements & future work
Development of specific strategy in cold condition
Model with the effect of mass transportation (all frequencies represented)
Heating Interaction between cells in the battery pack
Battery pack model with n-cells (effect of dispersion, State Of health)
Battery management system consideration