Anda di halaman 1dari 29
MEKANIKA TEKNIK PENDAHULUAN SUTRIMO 1
MEKANIKA TEKNIK
PENDAHULUAN
SUTRIMO
1
Apa itu Mekanika? Cabang ilmu fisika yang berbicara tentang keadaan diam atau geraknya benda-benda yang
Apa itu Mekanika?
Cabang ilmu fisika yang berbicara tentang
keadaan diam atau geraknya benda-benda
yang mengalami kerja atau aksi gaya
Mechanics
Rigid Bodies
(Things that do not change shape)
Deformable Bodies
(Things that do change shape)
Fluids
Statics
Dynamics
Incompressible
Compressible
SUTRIMO
2
Buku apa yang dipakai? • R. C. Hibbeler, Engineering Mechanics, 7 th - 10 th
Buku apa yang dipakai?
• R. C. Hibbeler, Engineering Mechanics, 7 th - 10 th
Edition, Person Prentice-Hall
• F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston Jr., Vector
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, SI Metric
Edition, Mcgraw-hill, 3 rd Edition
• R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Material, 3 th
Edition, Person Prentice-Hall
• dll
SUTRIMO
3
Bagaimana evaluasinya ? • Tugas-Kuis • UTS • UAS : 30 % : 35 %
Bagaimana evaluasinya ?
• Tugas-Kuis
• UTS
• UAS
: 30 %
: 35 %
: 35 %
Tidak mentolerir segala bentuk kecurangan
Tapi tetap boleh cross check
SUTRIMO
4
Apa saja yang dipelajari? • Keseimbangan partikel • Keseimbangan benda tegar • Diagram gaya normal,
Apa saja yang dipelajari?
• Keseimbangan partikel
• Keseimbangan benda tegar
• Diagram gaya normal, diagram gaya
geser, dan diagram momen
• Konsep tegangan
• Momen inersia dan momen polar
• Teori kegagalan statis
SUTRIMO
5
Apa pentingnya mekanika (statik)/ keseimbangan ? SUTRIMO 6
Apa pentingnya mekanika (statik)/
keseimbangan ?
SUTRIMO
6
Apa perbedaan partikel dan benda tegar? • Particle: A very small amount of matter which
Apa perbedaan partikel dan benda tegar?
• Particle: A very small amount of matter which
may be assumed to occupy a single point in
space.
• Rigid body: A combination of a large number
of particles occupying fixed position with
respect to each other.
SUTRIMO
7
Apa perbedaan Partikel dan Benda Tegar ? Partikel: Benda Tegar: Mempunyai suatu massa namun ukurannya
Apa perbedaan Partikel dan Benda Tegar ?
Partikel:
Benda Tegar:
Mempunyai suatu
massa namun
ukurannya dapat
diabaikan, sehingga
geometri benda tidak
akan terlibat dalam
analisis masalah
Kombinasi sejumlah
partikel yang mana
semua partikel
berada pada suatu
jarak tetap terhadap
satu dengan yang lain
SUTRIMO
8
Contoh Partikel SUTRIMO 9
Contoh Partikel
SUTRIMO
9
Contoh Benda Tegar SUTRIMO 10
Contoh Benda Tegar
SUTRIMO
10
Review Sistem Satuan • Four fundamental physical quantities. Length, Time, Mass, Force. • We will
Review Sistem Satuan
• Four fundamental physical quantities. Length, Time, Mass, Force.
• We will work with two unit systems in static’s: SI & US Customary.
Bagaimana konversi dari SI ke US atau sebaliknya ?
SUTRIMO
11
Apa yang harus dilakukan supaya Mekanika Teknik menjadi mudah ? Banyak dan sering menyelesaikan soal-soal
Apa yang harus dilakukan supaya
Mekanika Teknik menjadi mudah ?
Banyak dan sering menyelesaikan soal-soal
Prosedur mengerjakan soal:
1. Baca soal dengan cermat
2. Buat free body diagram dan tabulasikan data soal
3. Tuliskan prinsip dasar/persamaan yang relevan dengan soal
4. Selesaikan persamaan sepraktis mungkin sehingga didapat
hasil yang signifikan dan jangan lupa disertai sistem
satuan
5. Pelajari jawaban dengan akal sehat, masuk akal atau tidak
6. Jika ada waktu, coba pikirkan cara lain untuk menyelesaikan
soal tersebut.
SUTRIMO
12
THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD) Free Body Diagrams are
THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A
FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD)
Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for
you to know how to draw and use.
What ? - It is a drawing that shows
all external forces acting on the
particle.
Why ? - It helps you write the
equations of equilibrium used to
solve for the unknowns (usually
forces or angles).
SUTRIMO
13
How ? 1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its surroundings.
How ?
1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its
surroundings.
2. Show all the forces that act on the particle.
Active forces: They want to move the particle.
Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.
3. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes
and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and /
or directions as variables .
A
Note : Engine mass = 250 Kg
FBD at A
SUTRIMO
14
Fundamental Principles • The parallelogram law for the addition of forces: Two forces acting on
Fundamental Principles
• The parallelogram law for the addition of forces: Two
forces acting on a particle can be replaced by a single
force, called resultant, obtained by drawing the diagonal
of the parallelogram which has sides equal to the given
forces
f1+f2
f2
f1
• Parallelogram Law
SUTRIMO
15
Fundamental Principles (cont’) • The principle of transmissibility: A force acting at a point of
Fundamental Principles (cont’)
• The principle of transmissibility: A force acting at a point
of a rigid body can be replaced by a force of the the same
magnitude and same direction, but acting on at a different
point on the line of action
f2
f1
f1 and f2 are equivalent if their
magnitudes are the same and the
• Principle of Transmissibility
object is rigid.
SUTRIMO
16
APPLICATION OF VECTOR ADDITION There are four concurrent cable forces acting on the bracket. How
APPLICATION OF VECTOR
ADDITION
There are four
concurrent cable forces
acting on the bracket.
How do you determine
the resultant force acting
on the bracket ?
SUTRIMO
17
Addition of Vectors • Trapezoid rule for vector addition • Triangle rule for vector addition
Addition of Vectors
• Trapezoid rule for vector addition
• Triangle rule for vector addition
• Law of cosines,
C
2
2
2
R
 P
Q
 2
PQ
cos
B
B
R
P
Q
C
• Law of sines,
s n
i
A
s n
i
B
s n
i
C
Q
R
A
B
• Vector addition is commutative,
P
Q
Q
P
• Vector subtraction
SUTRIMO
18
Sample Problem SOLUTION: • Trigonometric solution - use the triangle rule for vector addition in
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
• Trigonometric solution - use the triangle
rule for vector addition in conjunction
with the law of cosines and law of sines
to find the resultant.
The two forces act on a bolt at
A. Determine their resultant.
SUTRIMO
19
Sample Problem (cont’) • Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule. From the Law of
Sample Problem (cont’)
• Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.
From the Law of Cosines,
2
2
2
R
P
Q
 2
PQ
cos
B
2
2
 40N  60N  240N60Ncos155
R  97.73N
From the Law of Sines,
sin
A sin
B
Q
R
Q
sin
A  sin
B
R
60N
sin155
97.73N
A 
15.04 
  20  A
SUTRIMO
20
  35.04
ADDITION OF SEVERAL VECTORS • Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components
ADDITION OF SEVERAL VECTORS
• Step 1 is to resolve each force
into its components
• Step 2 is to add all the x
components together and add all
the y components together. These
two totals become the resultant
vector.
• Step 3 is to find the magnitude
and angle of the resultant vector.
SUTRIMO
21
Example of this process, SUTRIMO 22
Example of this
process,
SUTRIMO
22
You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle. SUTRIMO 23
You can also represent a 2-D vector with a
magnitude and angle.
SUTRIMO
23
EXAMPLE Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket. Find: The magnitude and angle of
EXAMPLE
Given: Three concurrent forces
acting on a bracket.
Find:
The magnitude and
angle of the resultant
force.
Plan:
a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.
b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.
c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.
SUTRIMO
24
EXAMPLE (continued) F 1 = { 15 sin 40° i + 15 cos 40° j
EXAMPLE (continued)
F 1 = { 15 sin 40° i + 15 cos 40° j } kN
= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN
F 2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN
= { -24 i + 10 j } kN
F 3 = { 36 cos 30° i
– 36 sin 30° j } kN
= { 31.18 i – 18 j } kN
SUTRIMO
25
EXAMPLE (continued) Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get, F R
EXAMPLE (continued)
Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,
F R = { (9.642 – 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 – 18) j } kN
= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN
y
F R
F R = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1/2 = 17.2 kN
= tan -1 (3.49/16.82) = 11.7°
x
SUTRIMO
26
Sample Problem SOLUTION: • Resolve each force into rectangular components. • Determine the components of
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
• Resolve each force into rectangular
components.
• Determine the components of the
resultant by adding the corresponding
force components.
Four forces act on bolt A as shown.
Determine the resultant of the force
on the bolt.
• Calculate the magnitude and direction
of the resultant.
SUTRIMO
27
Sample Problem (cont’) SOLUTION: • Resolve each force into rectangular components. force mag x 
Sample Problem (cont’)
SOLUTION:
• Resolve each force into rectangular components.
force
mag
x
comp
y
 comp
F
150
129.9
 75.0
1
F
80
 27.4
 75.2
2
F
110
0
 110.0
3
F
100
 96.6
 25.9
4
R
x  199.1
R
y  14.3
• Determine the components of the resultant by
adding the corresponding force components.
• Calculate the magnitude and direction.
R y
14 3 N
.
tan 
 4 . 1
 4 1
.
R
x 199.1 N
14.3 N
R 
 199.6 N
sin 
SUTRIMO
28
SUTRIMO 29
SUTRIMO
29