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Table of Contents

Executive summary Introduction Origin of the report Background Objectives of the report Methodology Methods of Collecting Data Limitations of the Report Review of the Report

2-3 4 5 8 8 9 10

Project Part- 1. (1-10)

6 7

Project Part- 2Organization part..... (11-31)

BIRDS Group profile 11-18 Marketing aspects of BIRDS Group 19-31 Merchandising 20-24 Marketing 25 Marketing procurement 26 Sampling section 27-29 Procurement section 29-30 Sub- contract section 30 Merchandising process chart 31 Project Part- 3..General process of Merchandising..... (32-

Textile export control Testing method Types of fabric Inspection Garments manufacturing process Seam & Stitches International care labeling Dyeing, printing, & finishing Cost calculation 36-39 41-43 47 60-69 34-35 39-40 44-46 48-50 50-59

Conclusion........ 70 References.. 71 Appendix..... 71-74

Project part-1


BIRDS Groups Marketing Wing is equipped with the latest communication instruments including our web, especially designed and developed to enhance the customer satisfaction through effective communication about their order status, and to provide them online catalogue of our existing and new products. Marketing division of BIRDS Group develops marketing strategies and conduct research to describe target customers. Marketing also establishes the market position of a firm relative to the competition and coordinates advertising and promotional objectives to attain the sales goals. Marketing establishes wholesale and/or retail strategies and provides feedback from buyers and consumers to merchandising personnel. Merchandising division of BIRDS Group surrounds the concept of the target customer and translates customer preferences into a product line for the rest of the apparel firm. Merchandising is the planning, development, and presentation of product line(s) for the identified target market(s) with regard to prices, assortments, styling, and timing. Merchandising divisions are central coordinating point for line development, design, execution, and delivery of product lines. A general merchandising process usually concern with the following terms: Textile Export Control- Allocation of quota, Textile Export Licenses & Quota Classification Regulations- legal and export terms of the exporting countries. Trade Terms- Transport terms, shipping terms, Terms of trade & Terms of payment. Inspection SystemFabric Inspection & Garment Inspection. Testing Method- Abrasion resistance, Bursting strength, Color fastness, Dimensional stability, Flammability, Seam strength/slippage, Tear strength & Tensile strength. Size Measurement- Boxers, Pajama Bottom, Jeans, Pants, Short, Skirt, Blazer, Coat, Jacket, Vest, Dress, Pyjama Top, Gown, Sleepshirt, Woven Shirt, Blouse, Woven Shirt, Blouse, Knit Top & Sweater. Care Labeling systems- American care labeling system, Australian care labeling system, International care labeling system, Japanese care labeling system & Canadian care labeling system. Fabric Defects- Woven fabric & Knitted fabrics, Garment Defects- Boxers, pajamas, jeans, blazer, coat, jacket, vest, dress, gown, sleep shirt, woven shirt, blouse, knit top & sweater, Type of Fibers- Natural & Man-made, Type of fabrics- Woven, Knitted & Non-woven, Manufacturing Terms- Aids, Tools & Equipment, Types of attachment, Types of fastening, Types of seams & Types of stitches. Garments Manufacturing Process- Men's Tunic shirt, Men's trousers, Jeans, Women's blouse, Dress, Skirt, T-shirt & Fully Fashioned yarn-dyed sweater. Garment Types- Dress, Jacket, Pants, Sweater, Underwear, Suits, Swimwear, Coats, Shorts, Vest/waistcoat, Pajamas, and Shirt & Skirt. Garment Parts- Necklines, Collars, Knitted collars, Shirt collars, Shirt collars, Sleeves, Cuffs, Lapels, Pockets. Dyeing, Printing, Finishing & Environmental Issues, Size labeling system- Japan, US, Germany & UK, Calculation- Garment Costing, Freight & Conversion table.

Merchandising, as commonly used in Marketing also means the promotion of merchandise sales, as by coordinating production and marketing and developing advertising, display, and sales strategies to increase retail sales. This includes disciplines in pricing and discounting, physical presentation of products and displays, and the decisions about which products should be presented.

Ready-made Garment (RMG) is a finished, product used by the consumers as a form of attire. Its production is achieved through the operation of different components of the textile-clothing chain. In case of cotton yarn, cotton is spun into yam by the spinning mills. Similarly, in case of woolen yarn, wool is processed and spun into yarn. Specialized mills draw given types of chemical compound/filament into synthetic yarn. The yarn is woven or knitted into fabric by the textile or knitting mills. In the past, yarn used to be spun by rudimentary spinning wheels; but nowadays, it is mostly spun by modern spinning mills. Similarly fabric can be produced in the traditional handloom sector as well as in the modern weaving mills. The fabric is cut and stitched (assembled) according to the given designs and made into apparels. Large-scale production of ready-to-wear garments in

organized factories is a relatively new phenomenon in Bangladesh. Until early-sixties, mostly individual tailors made garments for the domestic markets, as per specifications provided by individual customers who supplied the fabric. At that time laboring was usually cheap, and ready made garments made by well-known companies were relatively expensive. The domestic market for ready-made garment, excepting children

wear and mens knit lingerie was virtually non-existent in Bangladesh until early

sixties. This was due to low level of economic development. Since (hen, however, domestic market for RMG has been increasing fast due to the increase in personal disposable income and change in life style. The supply of RMG has increased in response to increase in demand. As a result, ready-to-wear garments are available at lower prices in Bangladesh. With gradual economic and social transformation, the services of individual tailors are being replaced by the : departmental stores that sell standardized ready-made garments produced in factories. The RMG industry has achieved phenomenal growth in Bangladesh during the last two decades. Its growth has had tremendous impacts on its economic and social conditions.



The internship program, which is a five credits course, is mandatory for all BBA students. All students are required to complete his/her internship program in order to achieve their BBA degree. It is a 12weeks long program and the students have to work in a real life organization environment to gain the practical knowledge. Special stresses are given on theory and practice them under an organization. Students registered for this course should choose a topic on the organization they work for and must give a proposal to their respective course instructor about the topic he/she wants to work with. I have completed my internship program in the BIRDS Group. The Readymade Garments has successfully built its position in the RMG sector of the country within a short span of 23 years. My study topic is based on RMG Marketing System: A Study on BIRDS GROUP. BIRDS Group is one of the complete composite industries in Bangladesh in woven and knighting sectors. And also bring lots of foreign currency for Bangladesh.

Bangladesh is the 6th largest apparel supplier to the USA and also a major exporter to EU countries. The country exports its apparel products worth about US$ 5 billion per year to the USA, EU, Canada and other countries of the world. Bangladesh is endowed with abundant and cheap semi- skilled and skilled work force. Price is one of the main determinants of comparative advantage in the labor-intensive garments industry. This internship report is originated as a partial fulfillment of the BBA program of Faculty of Business Studies, University of Development Alternative (UODA). The internship report titled RMG Marketing System: A Study on BIRDS GROUP is submitted to honorable faculty Professor M.A. Yousoof, Dean, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Development Alternative (UODA) on September 2nd , 2007.


As I am assigned by

UODA to prepare the

attachment papers, so, I met the concerned

operators, officers, managers and employees of the organizations. My primary goal of internship program is to provide on the job exposure and an opportunity for translation of theoretical knowledge into real life situation. Keeping this in view the report writer was placed in Birds Group Ltd. as an intern. A modern Textile factory birds group is located at Ashulia, 30 km to the west of Dhaka city. Birds Group started its journey in the realm of garment sector in 1984 with its first unit Birds Garments Limited having two lines of production of woven items. Today the group owns 6 units with a total production capacity of 8000 pieces per day for woven items 28,000 pieces T-shirts per day and 8,000 kg of knitted fabric per day. Total turnover of the Group is over US$ 18 million per annum.

The companys marketing net-work is effectively operated through by

regular buyers, dedicated

lines of production and nominated merchandisers are there to customize the service and ensure successful execution of orders. Moreover, purchase are maintain own local & international suppliers for Fabric, Yarn, Fibers & Also Accessories. The company is associates with some international agencies and franchises with some alit Brands.


The basic focus of the report is to describe the standardized marketing process and its merchandising part along with birds group. However the specified objectives of the report are-

To gain practical experience and view the application of theoretical knowledge As well as to completion of the course BBA program in the real life.


To explore marketing system of BIRDS Group. To find out production system of BIRDS group.

To describe the merchandising process through which evaluates the costing of

manufacturing unit and other essential major business decision.

Helps to identify exposure with other companies to the buyers.

As it has been said earlier that Birds Group is in this business more than 22 years they developed human - machine work chin to support the orders in time and without any excuses. The report is mainly written based on the procedures of a Merchandising and knowledge on the organization & manufacturing. The primary emphasis was given on overall Merchandising & its activities.

The internship program generally starts with visit and observations. As it mentioned I have done descriptive exploratory research. In order to prepare the report the following method was followed:

Data Collectio n

Data Input

Verifying the Input

Analyzing the output

Take lending and borrowing decision

Set Rank

The project starts with data collection, which can be described as process infrastructure. Data can be divided into either primary or secondary category. The relevant information has been collected from company booklets, broachers, website, major publications, newsletters, and journals of Garments companies.


The relevant information has been collected from company booklets, broachers, annual reports, major publications, newsletters, and journals of Garments companies.


Collecting of date regarding the marketing and merchandising process in the

RMG sector of Bangladesh is quite tough as the sector is still in blooming stage and therefore the respective organizations are less concern about structured organogram and documentation of the companies, which prolonged the project duration. Limitation of time was one of the most important factors that languish with the

present study. Due to time limitation, many aspects could not be discussed in the present study.

Confidentiality of data stood as another obstacle in preparing the report.

I hope that this reportdespite its many limitationswill be a gateway to understand the present situation of the current Merchandising process of Bangladesh.


The report contains mainly three major parts. Part one is the introduction part, which includes objectives of the report, scope, limitations and methodology. Second part of the report contains two sections. Section A. organizational part with special focus on the history, philosophy, goal and situation of different field of the organization; Section B. Marketing & Merchandising aspects of BIRDS Group. In Part three of the report I tried to explain the the total merchandising process through which helps me to evaluate the total process. At last I tried to explain the future what do be do to keep the market favorable for us.


Project Part-2
Organization Part


BIRDS Group Profile


Birds Group has its roots in an engineering and construction company. It was started in 1975 as Civil and General Constructors Ltd.(CGC). Within a couple of years its activities expended necessitating setting up of a number of companies to look after diversified areas. Luba Prokaushali Sangstha Ltd. Was incorporated in 1980 initially to handle import of CGCs construction material. Lubas current sphere of specialization embraces representation of overseas manufacturers/ project developers as their local associates. Birds Air Transport Ltd. (BAT) was set up in 1986 to recruit and export manpower.

Birds Group started its journey in the realm of garment sector in 1984 with its first unit Birds Garments Limited with two lines of production of woven items. Today the group owns 5 units with total production capacity of 8000 pieces per day for woven items and 28000 pieces T-shirts per day and 8000kg of knitted fabric per day. Total turnover of the Group is over US$ 18 million per annum.

Marketing Wing
Marketing Wing is responsible to enhance our customer base through awareness about our products and their characteristics and to assess the needs of our existing and potential customers. Our marketing wing is manned with qualified professionals who understand the customer needs and translate them into action through established communication channels down to the production lines to achieve the desired results. Marketing Wing is equipped with the latest communication instruments including our web, especially designed and developed to enhance the customer satisfaction through effective communication about their order status, and to provide them online catalogue of our existing and new products.

Some of our Customers. (Woven)

E.E.C. USA a) b) c) d) Disney Enterprises Inc. Tropical Sports Wear, USA AMC Ny, USA Wal-Mart, USA a) b) c) d) e) Kiabi - France Primark, UK Andre Hk Buying Office, France Albion Plc-UK (BHS, UK) Chevignon, France


Bex - Sweden

Some of our Customers. (Knit)

a. b. c. d. e. Bilka Denmark Signal - Denmark Carrefour - France Waysner HK Deiber - Germany f. g. h. i. J. We - Netherlands Euro Brooks - Netherlands Bernardi S.P.A - Italy Jebsen & Jessen - Germany Multiline

Floor Area/Condition (Garments Division)

Birds Garments Ltd. & Birds Apparels Ltd. Birds Fadrex Ltd & Birds Garments Ltd (Unit-2) Birds RNR Ltd. Birds A & Z Knit Composite Unit Circular Knitting Dyeing Unit Sewing = 17,000 SFT = 20,000 SFT = 54,000 SFT 400 Persons 350 Persons 400 Persons 450 Persons 350 Persons 800 Persons = 45,000 SFT = 60,000 SFT = 18,000 SFT

No.Of Employees:
Birds Garments Ltd: Birds Apparels Ltd : Birds Fadrex Ltd : Birds Garments Ltd ( Unit 2): Birds RNR Ltd. : Birds A & Z Ltd :


Woven Items Based on Imported Fabric: Woven Items Based on Local Fabrics: Knit Item Based on Local Yarn: Knit Item based on Indian Yarn. Knit item based on Y/D yarn.

100-110 days from the date of lab-dip approval and confirmed irrevocable clean L/C

85-90 days from the date of lab-dip approval and confirmed irrevocable clean L/C.

45-50 days from the date of lab-dip approval and confirmed irrevocable Clean L/C.

75 80 days from the date of lab-dip approval and confirmed irrevocable Clean L/C.

85 90 days from the date of Yarn-dip approval and confirmed irrevocable Clean L/C.


Production Capacity:
Woven Items Dyeing Knit Sewing : 450,000 Pieces per Month : 8 ton per day : T-Shirt : 18000 pcs per day Polo Shirt : 10000 pcs per day Circular Knitting : 8 ton per day

Washing Facilities and Capacity:(Knit & Woven)

Enzyme Wash:

Silicon Wash:

Avg: 2000-2500pcs per/Day Stone Wash: Avg: 2000-2500pcs per/Day Garment Wash: Avg: 25000-30000pcs per/Day Bleach Wash: Avg: 2500-3000pcs per/Day Acid Wash: Avg: 1000pcs per/Day

Avg: 2500-3000pcs per/Day Sand Wash: Avg: 2000-2500pcs per/Day Milki Wash: Avg : 1000pcs per /Day

Sand Blasting: (Woven)

Avg: 2000 2500 pcs per / Day Over Dyed: Avg: 1000 pcs per /Day


Birds Garments Limited 1, Darus Salam Road (4 Floor) Mirpur, Dhaka-1210, Bangladesh
Tel: +880-2-801 1584 / 801 5864 Fax:+880-2-810 2584

Birds Apparels Ltd. 1, Darus Salam Road (4th Floor) Mirpur, Dhaka-1210, Bangladesh
Tel: +880-2-801 1584 / 801 5864 Fax:+880-2-810 2584

Discipline: Sewing of Woven Items such as Jeans, trousers, Shorts, Skirts, Jackets, Play Suits, Jogging Suits, Romper Overall, and Dresses.

Discipline: Sewing of Woven Items such as Jeans, trousers, Shorts, Skirts, Jackets, Play Suits, Jogging Suits, Romper Overall, and Dresses.

Birds Fadrex Ltd Plot No. 113 (Near DEPZ), Mouza-Baipail, Savar, Dhaka
Tel: +880-2-770 1395-400 Fax:+880-2-770 1517

Birds Garments Ltd. (Unit-2) Plot No. 113 (Near DEPZ), Mouza-Baipail, Savar, Dhaka
Tel: +880-2-770 1395-400 Fax:+880-2-770 1517

Birds RNR Ltd Plot No. 113 (Near DEPZ), Mouza-Baipail, Savar, Dhaka
Tel: +880-2-770 1395-400 Fax:+880-2-770 1517

Discipline: Sewing of Woven Items such as Pants, Jogging Dress Jeans, Suits, Pants/Formal Play Suits,

Discipline: Shorts, Suits,



Woven Play





Items such as Jeans, trousers, Skirts, Jogging Jackets, Suits, Romper

Items such as Dress Pants/Formal Pants, Jeans, Trousers, Shorts, Skirts, Jackets, Play Suits, Jogging Suits, Dresses. Romper Overall, and

Trousers, Shorts, Skirts, Jackets, Romper Overall, and Dresses.

Overall, and Dresses.

Composite Unit
Birds A & Z Ltd. Plot No. 113 (Near DEPZ), Mouza-Baipail, Savar, Dhaka
Tel: +880-2-770 1395-400 , Fax:+880-2-770 1517

Email: Discipline: Knitting, Dyeing, Finishing and Sewing (Composite Unit), capable of producing T-Shirts, Polo-Shirts, Tank Top, Sweat Shirt and Ribs, Interlocks, Lycra Ribs, Lycra S/J, French Terry, etc.


Our Banks:
Export Import Bank of Bangladesh ltd. Gulshan Branch, 75, Gulshan Avenue, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. Swift # EXBKBDDHA 007 TLX # 632125 EXM GL BJ


Al-Arafa Islami Bank Ltd. Motijheel Branch, 161,Motijheel c/a, Dhaka-1000,Bangladesh TLX # 632409,642489, Swift # ALAR BDDH

Knit Composite:


Prime Bank Ltd. Islamic Banking Branch 19, Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka. Telex # 671560 PBL IB BJ. Email # Swift no # PRBL BDD HA 005.


Chairman of the Group : Engr. Mustafa Anwar

Cell : 880-1711-538-123 Fax : 880-2-811-6790 E.mail:

Contact Person

: S.M.Majid (Mukut) - Director Cell : 880-1711-529-937 Fax : 880-2-801-2584 E-mail: : Saadat Anwar - Director Cell : 880-1711-561-826 Fax : 880-2-770-1517 E-mail: : Towhid Hasan Nipu Senoir Merchandiser Tel Fax : 880- 2- 7701395 (ext. 399) : 880- 2- 7701517



B. Marketing Aspects of BIRDS Group



A merchandising division surrounds the concept of the target customer and translates customer preferences into a product line for the rest of the apparel firm. Merchandising is the planning, development, and presentation of product line(s) for the identified target market(s) with regard to prices, assortments, styling, and timing. Merchandising divisions are central coordinating point for line development, design, execution, and delivery of product lines.






Merchandising processes differ for individual firms according to business strategies, product types, and technologies employed. Merchandising Taxonomy- is the taxonomy identifies interactive, concurrent, and sequential components of the merchandising process. The components of the merchandising process that may occur somewhat sequential are located horizontally. The Merchandising process interacts with and may be limited by the business plan and the marketing plan. The primary components of merchandising activities include the following:

1. Line planning is the formulation of the parameters that guide line development and
presentation and inf1uences sourcing and production processes. Line planning has subcategories including evaluate 11lerchandise n1ix, forecast merchandise offerings, plan n1erchandise budgets, plan merchandise assortments, and analyze and update merchandise plans. The line plan defines and limits the line.

2. Line development has subcategories of line concept, creative design, line adoption, and
technical design. Line development includes determining the actual merchandise that will (ill


out the line plan through some combination of product development and/or selecting finished goods at wholesale. Line development identifies merchandise that implements the line plan.

3. Line presentation, with subcategories of internal, wholesale, and retail. Line presentation
involves processes required to evaluate the line and make the line visible and salable. Line presentation results in evaluation and sale of the product offering. In BIRDS Group have a different merchandiser in charge of each product line or classification. Regardless of the job titles or size of the firm, merchandising involves directing and coordinating development of product lines from start to finish. Line content, fabrications, styling, diversity of assortments, pricing, mid selling period changes and revisions, visual presentations, timing, and budgets are all part of merchandisers' responsibilities and decision making.

Follow up of BIRDS Group merchandisers in every order:

section. Note the size set Fashion show sample make from available accessories (should same After booking all materials and accessories sample approved from buyer. Fabrics lab dip get approved (supplier to buying house). Collect approval lab dip from the buying house. All accessories should be in in-house before counter sample making. Floor booking at least one month before to shipment date (if needed). fabric construction). At first you will get Sketch with sample details or sample to develop it. If have not fabrics (same construction) then will be collect from buying house. Quotation sample will submit (offer/develop). After negotiation you will submit style sample. Prepared materials and accessories list with details. L/C confirms with buyer and date will be in 90-120 days. Materials booking and prepare materials status sheet send to store. Have to follow shipment date and material in-house date. Size set sample submit to buying hose. Size set sample comments collects from buying house and passes to sample section. Photo/Fashion show sample (if buyer want). Photo/Fashion show sample comments collect from buying house and passes to sample


If any cause accessories havent in-house counter sample make by sample accessories Counter sample is master sample (all materials must be actual). Counter sample comments collect from the buying house and passed sample/GPQ and Pre-production meeting with buying merchandisers and others. At least 50%-75% accessories should in-house of total accessories/ materials. Follow up fabric inspection report. If average point acceptable to exit then discuss with Pre-production meting with the production related persons and others (factory). It is to

collecting from the supplier.

Quality manager or related person.

supplier and buyer. remember that sitting on factory pre-production meeting follow up buying pre-production meeting (daily production order quantity and shipment date). house. %). Sample comments collect from buying house and pass to GPQ and QC manager. Prepared to actual/3/5 percent (%) packing list. Carton booking depend on order quantity + 5% (Vary country wise). Final inspection date selection and inform buying house before (minimum one week Here not to end. Follow up all over production position. If any findings found Excess/Short shipment depend on fabrics position and accessories and confirm this Prepare packing list and send to commercials one week before from shipment date (+ Prepare accessories trim card and approve it from the buying house. After then pass it Initial and inline date selection and inform to the buying house (order related persons). If initial is ok then go on bulk cutting/production. Have to follow the test cutting rule (GPQ). All colour all size quantity is 150 pieces to Follow up fabrics consumption (bulk cutting) as excess/short shipment depend on it. Carton measurement collect from buying QC. Follow up production fat test, button test, and collection sample for sending to buying to store/GPQ and production related persons.

Note: if wash test is not ok from buying QC then get approved from buying merchandiser. 300/600 pieces (not exceed).

Follow up rule of Rowel/Shop/Trailing/Airship. before). (production related) then solve it with buyer discussion. position inform to buyer.


Final inspection is ok then ship certificate (photocopy) and packing list send to If Air ship, then actual weight list is needed and send it to commercial. Ship summary and packing list should keep in the file.

commercial. And certificate (original copy) and Ship quantity summary sheet send to store.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)







Production related papers (Monthly need to check): Shipment Schedule Floor Booking. Floor Production Planning. Sewing OR Line Planning. Import Cargo Status. Inspection Schedule Order Position. Finishing Planning. Closing Summary.

Production related papers (Daily need to check):

1) Daily Production report. 2) Production Summary. 3) Daily Cutting Report 4) Daily Carton Report. 5) Daily Rejection report. 6) Total Fabric Status report. 7)
Washing Report. For accessories:

1) Merchandising Sheet. 2) All Approval copy. 3) Merchandising Sheet. 4) Merchandising Short List 5) Wash Approval
For fabric:

1) Fabric Inspection Report. (4 Point System). 2) Fabric Shading Report. (Shade wise: According to maintaining the Shade Band).


3) Fabric Shrinkage Report. (Roll wise). 4) Shade band Approval Copy (From Buying House).
For shipment related papers:

1) Vessel Booking. 2) Packing List (2 Copy) 3) Inspection Certificate. 4) OK to Ship. 5) Weight List.
For sample schedule (Daily need to check):

1) Daily Sample Schedule 2) Daily Pattern Schedule 3) All consumption.

Marketing division of BIRDS Group develops marketing strategies and conduct research to describe target customers. Marketing also establishes the market position of a firm relative to the competition and coordinates advertising and promotional objectives to attain the sales goals. Marketing establishes wholesale and/or retail strategies and provides feedback from buyers and consumers to merchandising personnel. Responsibilities of Marketers of BIRDS GROUP: Conduct and report customer research. Position the firm relative to target market(s). Position the firm relative to the competition. Develop the firms image. Propose marketing program. Propose advertising/promotion strategies. Forecast sales.

Marketing Procurement:
Activities of Marketers: The basic tasks of the marketing department in the BIRDS Group are to make contact with the buyers. It this regard the marketers of the organisation keep themselves busy with making relationship with the new buyers or buying houses or buyers jag agents on one side; and on the other side they tries to get committed with their current customers (buyers or buying houses or buyers jag agents) to make the relationship stronger.

Buyer sources:

1. Independent buyer/ Direct buyer: these types of buyers have direct contact with the garment
industry. Usually the garments industry that owned self-merchandising department is able to catch Independent buyer. For example, Louise Garcia usually makes direct contact with the garments industry to place order. In this case they have their own buying house in Bangladesh. To get a direct buyer garments industry usually have to follow the following steps:

a. Submission of proposal: here garments need to submit a official proposal to the buyer
informing its business profile (company background, major customers, experiences, ability, lead time production, etc.) informing that they want to make a deal with the buyer.

b. Appointment: garments marketing division also asks to the buyer for an appointment
to meet the buyer physically. After analyzing all the facts of profile of the garments industry, the buyer place an appointment date to the garment.


c. Meeting: on a fixed date the buyer meet the garments representative and place
initial order in asking for sample development and from here the merchandising procurement starts.

2. Through Liaison office/ Buying house: The second possible source of buyer is the liaison office
known as buying house. Buying house basically work as a JAG Agent between the buyer and the garment cloth manufacturer.

Sampling Section
Sample Development:
Sample development process is the primary but very important part of merchandising. In this part the following tasks to follow: Package of style give to develop: In the very first stage of sample development process, buyer provides a package of their order with 3D sample with specification to the factory. The factory merchandisers get in action to develop the sample and submit it to the buyer with costing for the bulk production.

a. Develop the package: In the package development stage, merchandisers had given a
package of style of a product from the buyer with design, shape and attributes to develop it. Merchandisers than just need to turn into the sample development as per the given package. Here the merchandisers send the package to the sample section to develop it.

b. Submit the package with costing: As the merchandisers get the developed sample they
submit it to the buyer with per unit costing of the product for the bulk production.

c. Selection of samples: This stage basically depends on the buyers. As they received the
sample with costing from the merchandisers, buyer checks it out whether it is ok or not. 1. Order confirmation: In the order confirmation stage buyers go in final decision whether they are in deal with the factory or not. As the sample of the factory is selected, buyer goes in cost analysis. With the costing result buyer compare the factory merchandisers rate. If the factory rate is not ok then the buyers go in conversation with the factory to set the unique price. After the settlement of the price, factory gets the order confirmation. In this regard, the factory and the buyer together signed on a legal Contract paper.

Lab dip:


An important property of fabric is its colour fastness or ability to keep its original colour. Lab dip is to follow the bulk dyeing. The lab dip fabric/swatch is making from the original fabric/swatch while it received from the buyer. There will be different shades submit to buyer; then buyer will approved one option which will follow in bulk dyeing. There will be a condition that the producer has to submit revised lab dip until one option will get final approval from the buyer.

Accessories booking:
As the lab dip get approval, the BIRDS Group factory merchandisers order the suppliers for the accessories booking. The accessories basically they booked are:

Main Label, Size Label, Care label, Barcode Label, Hangtag, Tag pin, Twilled tag, Doe sting, Eyelet, Rivet, Elastic, Label, Hock bar, Poly, Cartoon sticker, etc.

Size set sample making & approval: In the sample development stage factory basically develop the sample in general fabrics and in one size (usually large size). As the fabric get the approval from the buyer, the factory merchandisers then just go into the process of size set sample according to the buyers requirements (e.g. small size, medium size, large size, extra large size, etc. ).

Counter sample:
After the approval of size set sample, the BIRDS Group go for the counter sample development. The counter sample is the final sample which followed in the bulk production.

Fabric booking:
The BIRDS Group makes the fabric booking in two steps which are as follows,

a. Counter sample fabric booking: The factory make the fabric booking first time to develop the
counter sample. In this steps the fabrics quantity is little and the delivery time is short.

b. Bulk Fabric booking: The fabrics for the bulk production sometimes delivered by the buyer
itself or their selective sources. If the buyers dont do so, n between the times of size set sample and counter sample development the factory makes the fabric booking.

Swatch board:


Swatch Board is a kind of presentation board that represents all kind of materials needed for the bulk production. In other word the person related to production process can easily identify their individual and respective task that they will have to follow in production in compare with the counter sample

Procurement Section
Production Sourcing Priorities and Processes:
Sourcing production can be a profitable way for a firm to do business but it requires a great deal of advanced preparation, knowledgeable individuals, attention to detail, careful planning, and timing. Losses can be minimized if the sourcing firm is well prepared. Prior to sourcing decisions, locations, plants, and potential contractors should be visited and evaluated.

Selecting a Vendor:
Factors that drive sourcing decisions include cost, product quality, specialization and timing. BIRDS Group priorities will often determine where, what, and how products will he sourced. They need to determine the level of risk they are willing to assume and the level of involvement they wish to maintain.

Product Preparation for Sourcing:

Once a good match between product and contractor is determined, the manufacturer can prepare the style for production. If the contractor is in a different country, the specifications and rates (production standards) need to be appropriate for the country. Costing should include allowances for differences in equipment.

Managing Production of Sourced Goods:

The Merchandising Calendar and Production Schedule may be shared with contractors so the flow of goods will be on time. If contractors are brought into the firm's information and planning network they are more likely to understand the implications of late delivery and work harder to meet delivery schedules. Production schedules should be monitored on a weekly basis so any delays can be determined immediately. The procedure for attaching a cutting of the required cloth should be extended to trimmings. In any case, quality specifications should be set out clearly: Dimension of materials, together with the permitted tolerances. These should include the

dimensions with respect to weight and 'thickness, as well as length and width. Costing, especially with respect to thickness and degree of penetration, freedom from surface flaws

and finish. Number and type of faults allowed per unit with procedures and allo\vances in the -case of an excessive number of faults. The system of fault identification, test procedures and arbiter incase of dispute. Details of the required performance and construction, based on sample test report. The basic function of procurement is as follows. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Right product or materials Right time Right Quantities Right price Right Quality Right delivery

Sub-Contract Section
Responsibilities of Sub-Contract Section
Understanding utilization of the floor and lines and rest orders to be placed to sub contracting factories. Finding factories capable for the development of the garments. Allocate the quantities of garments to be produced in the said factories. Negotiations of price for the development products. (CMT) Understanding Quality and assessing quality, Production time and shipment as well. Settlement of bills to the sub-contracting companies.


Figure: Merchandising process flowchart of BIRDS Group


Project Part-3
Marketing Aspects of RMG


General Procedure of Merchandising



Transport Terms

Bill Of Lading (BIL): It is a major document if the goods are dispatched by sea. The document represents: 1.A formal receipt for the goods 2.The evidence of the contract of carriage of the goods between the shipper of the goods and the shipping company 3.The document of title to the goods Combined Transport Bill of Lading Groupage Bill of Lading / House Bill of Lading Negotiable Bill of Lading Non -Negotiable Bill of Lading On Board Bill of Lading Stale Bill of Lading Third Party Bill of Lading Through Bill of Lading Unclean Bill of Lading House Airway bill Master Airway bill

Shipping Terms
Consignee FCL (full container load) LCL (less container load) Shipper Shipping Marks Garment on Hangers (GOH) Flat Packed

Terms of Trade
C&F (cost and freight) CIF (cost, insurance, freight) CM (cut and make) CMQ (cut, make and quota) CMT (cut, make and trim)


CMTQ (cut, make, trim and quota) Ex-Ship EXW (ex- works) / Ex-Factory FOB (Free On Board) FOB Airport (FOA) Landed Duty Paid (LDP)/ Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) Certificate of Origin Export License Packing List

Terms of Payment
Document Against Acceptance (D/A) Documents Against Payment (D/P) Open Account Letter of Credit (L/C)

Types of credit:
There are three common types of credit: Revocable credit Irrevocable credit Irrevocable and confirmed credit A letter of credit should usually stipulate a requirement for the following documents: bill of lading copy of the certificate of origin commercial invoice export licence Packing list


When an article is produced, it has to be suitable for its end-uses - it must conform to a set of specifications that have been laid down for it. Quality in textile products can thus be defined as the extent to which an article conforms to its specifications. For example, a shirt should not only be attractive and fit, but should also possess quality criteria such as shape retention after washing, resistance to colour fading, or lasting wear. A method to evaluate the textile products relative to these quality aspects is to conduct tests that simulate actual wear conditions. This is done by taking a sample of the material and testing it (for example, by extending or tearing it) using various instruments. Experiments are conducted by research organizations, government standards institutions, consumer organizations, and textile buying offices to evaluate the quality of textile articles, and establish minimum performance requirements. The following section will consider some of the common tests which are performed on textiles.

Abrasion resistance:
The abrasion of a fabric is the rubbing away of its fibres and yams. The ability of a fabric to resist abrasion can be tested in a number of ways. One way is by the flexing and abrasion method which can be used for all fabrics except floor coverings. Using a flex abrasion tester, a sample of predetermined dimensions is pulled and rubbed in continuous cycles until it breaks. Its abrasion resistance is determined by the load applied by the tester, and the number of cycles taken to break the sample. Visual inspection of the abrasion is also made. The Martindale Tester is also well known. In this apparatus, the sample fabric is rubbed against a standard fabric until it wears through.

Bursting strength:
Some fabrics, especially knitted ones, are stressed in many directions at one time. The bursting strength of a knitted fabric is the ability of the material to resist rupture by pressure. To test the bursting strength of such fabrics, a hydraulic bursting strength tester can be used. A fabric sample is clamped over a thin flexible diaphragm, which expands as the pressure increases. The fabric eventually bursts, and the pressure gauge reading gives a measure of the bursting strength of the fabric.

Lab dip/Colour fastness:

An important property of fabric is its colour fastness or ability to keep its original colour. To assess the amount of colour change or staining that takes place in a fabric, grey scales are used. The grey scale for assessing colour change rates the results of a test from class 1 (poor, substantial change of colour) to class 5 (excellent, no change in original colour). Similarly, the grey scale for assessing staining rates

the results from class 1 (heavy staining) to class 5 (no staining).There are different types of lab dip which need to be tested as the colour of a fabric can be affected by a variety of factors. 1. Colour fastness to washing/dry-cleaning: The apparatus used for this test is known as a launderometer. Specific sizes for fabric swatches are prepare for laundering, one being retained for colour change comparison. The colour change is assessed by using the grey scales under standard lighting conditions. Any staining is measured in the same way. 2. Colour fastness to dry and wet crocking: The crockmeter test determines the degree of colour which is transferred from one surface to another by rubbing. The test reveals the presence of surface dyes that have not been removed properly by rinsing, or a failure of the dye class to give good dye affinity and fixation. The test, which can be done under either wet or dry conditions, involves mounting the fabric sample in a crockmeter, which rubs it in continuous cycles against a standard white test fabric. A fixed pressure is applied for a set number of cycles, and the amount of colour which is stained onto the white test fabric is then assessed by comparing it with the grey scale for assessing staining. 3. Colour fastness to bleaching: In this test, after the sample is bleached, grey scales are used to evaluate the colour change, and the result is compared with commercially accepted standards. 4. Colour fastness to perspiration: In this test, a fabric sample is soaked with a simulated perspiration solution. It is then subjected to mechanical pressure and allowed to dry slowly in certain atmospheric conditions for a period of time (as specified by testing standard). Changes in colour and staining are assessed by the appropriate grey scales. 5. Colour fastness to light: It is important for fabrics such as curtains and upholstery to have good light fastness properties. In the test, a fabric sample is exposed to daylight under given conditions, including protection from rain, together with eight dyed wool standards. Its colour fastness is assessed by comparing the colour change of the sample with that of the standards. Results range from class I (substantial colour fading) to class 8 (no colour fading). Dimensional stability The dimensional stability test is designed to show how well a fabric keeps its shape after washing, Washing usually results in shrinkage, although some fabrics can expand, or gain, after washing, For this test, the washing time and temperature, drying procedure and restoration technique (such as ironing) are all specified, and options are available. Flammability


It is important to know both whether a fabric will bum or not, and, if it does, how quickly the flame will spread through it. The flammability testing procedure therefore determines both whether a fabric will ignite and the time that it takes to bum. Standardized conditions are applied including the size of the sample, the flame length used, and the timing of the test. The fabric sample is first placed in an oven at about 105 C for 30 minutes, then put in a flammability tester where a flame is applied and the result observed. Seam strength/slippage The seam slippage of a woven fabric refers to the ability of a seam to withstand forces trying to pull it apart. A strip of fabric is folded and stitched across the width of the seam. A load is then applied to the strip at right angles to the seam using grab-test jaws, and the extent to which the seam opens is measured. The seam strength is recorded as the seam breaks under test conditions. The measuring equipment gradually increases the axial load on the sample (the load applied depends on the testing requirements) and the width of the seam opening at its widest place is measured to determine the seam slippage. Tear strength This term means the force required expressed in units of weight to tear a fabric. A fabric sample of standard dimensions (according to the testing requirements) has a slit cut into it. The testing apparatus then measures the work done in tearing a fixed distance through the cloth. The Elmendorf is a popular tearing tester. Tensile strength This term refers to the breaking load or force, expressed in units of weight, required to break or rupture a specimen. A number of methods can be used to test the tensile strength of a textile sample such as fibre, yarn or cloth. The sample is clamped between two sets of jaws, a force or load is applied to it until it ruptures and the average breaking load is recorded in the 'Strip Test', and the Grab Test.



Fabrics are manufactured assembly of fibres and/or yarns, which have substantial surface areas in relation to the thickness and sufficient strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion.

There are three main types of fabrics namely, (a) Woven (b) Knitted (c) Non-woven.

Woven fabrics are formed by interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles to each other. The set of yarns which lie in the lengthwise direction is known as warp and the widthwise group of yams is known as weft. There are three basic weaves in common use for the majority of fabric: plain weave, twill weave and satin weave.

1. Plain weave - each weft yam, in this simplest type of weave, goes alternately under and over
each warp. It is used to a considerable extent than any other weaves.

2. Twill weave - A weave in which each warp or weft yarn floating over/under two or more weft
or warp yams to form diagonal ridges across the fabric. The direction of a twill can be described as Z twill (the diagonal running upwards from left to right) or S twill (diagonal running upwards from right to left).


Satin weave - In basic constructions, satin weave woven with long float yams from 5 ends or wefts up to as many as twelve float yarns. These constructions can produce smooth, lustrous fabrics. However, the long float fabrics have more exposed yarn to catch on rough objects so that these constructions are not as durable as short float fabrics that are made with plain or twill weave. The satin weave can be further classified either as warp-face or weft-face construction.

Warp-face satin weave: The fabric consist almost warp float on the surface. In this construction, the warp yam lies on the surface of the fabric as it passes over and under warps yams. So that the luster effect appears in the direction of the warp.


Weft-face satin weave: This weave is also called the sateen weave. The construction is the reverse of the warp-face satin weave, the weft yams float over the warp yams so that the luster appears in the weft direction.

Knitted fabrics are made by intermeshing of loops of yarn, and can be composed of any kind of fibre, yarn, stitches or patterns for apparel, home-furnishing, and industrial end-uses. Knitted fabrics can be divided into two general types: weft knitted and warp knitted.

1. Weft knitted fabrics- Weft knitted fabrics are the knitted fabric in which a yarn forms loops
across the width of the fabric; they can be either hand-made or machine processed.


Warp knitted fabrics- Warp knitted fabrics are knitted fabrics in which a series of yams run in the lengthwise direction to the fabric. There are two major types: a. Tricot knits are made with fine yarns and usually have a plain or simple geometric design. b. Raschel knits are made with heavy yams with an intricate, lace-like pattern.

10-POINTS SYSTEM The "10-point system" was published as a standard in 1955 by the Textile Distributors Institute and the National Federation of Textiles. The system may be used for any greige or finished fabrics, but mostly it is applied in inspection of woven finished fabrics. This system assigns every identified defect a value depending on the gravity of the defect. The type and cause of the defect are not the most important criteria in assessing the quality of the fabric inspected; whether the fabric is of first or second grade depends on the size and the frequency of the defects. The 10 point system classifies defects for warp and weft into four groups. Size of Defect (Inches) Warp Assigned Points 1 inch or less 1 1 to 5 inches 3 5 to 10 inches 5 10 to 36 inches 10

Size of Defect (Inches) Weft Assigned Points 1 inch or less 1 1 to 5 inches 3 5 inches to half width 5 Large than half width 10 In this system, one linear yard of fabric should not be assigned more than 10 points, regardless of the seriousness or frequency of the defects. A fabric is graded "first quality" if the total points accumulated do not exceed the yardage of the fabric; otherwise the fabric is qualified as "second quality". However there are some exceptions to the system. For instance sometimes fabric used for printing can still be considered a "first" even if the accumulated points exceed the allowed penalty points as the defects will be hidden after printing.

4-POINTS SYSTEM This system is similar to the 10-point system but assigns penalty points on a different basis. There are four categories of defects with assigned values, and faults are recorded according to the size and frequency irrespective of cause and type. SIZE OF DEFECTS (Inches) Assigned Points 3 inches or less 1 Over 3 inches but not over 6 inches 2 Over 6 inches but not over 9 inches 3 Over 9 inches 4 Normally this system is used in inspection of knitted fabric although it still applicable to woven. Generally, one linear yard of fabric should not be assigned more than 4 points. Full width defects should score 4 points. 10 DEFECTS PER 100YDS/M SYSTEM This method generally finds wide acceptance on the European Continent, whereby per 100 yards - 10 defects are tolerated; major flaws score 1 full point and minor 1/2 point. A combination of major and minor should not exceed 10 points in "full quality" fabric, and for "second quality" fabric, the limits can be considered between 11 - 14. Although these systems are widely used, quality standards and fabric acceptance vary according to agreements between the buyer and the seller.


The aim of garment inspection is to visually inspect articles at random from a delivery in order to verify their general conformity and appearance with instruction/descriptions and/or samples received. Stages of Garment Inspection Different systems may be used by different organizations; nevertheless there are normally four stages of garment inspection:

1. Pre-production check: this is done before production starts, where there is a final verification
of the material used, style, cut and workmanship of the garment or pre-production sample.

2. Initial production check: this is done at the start of production where a first batch of
garments is inspected, to distinguish possible discrepancies/variation and to allow for the necessary corrections to be made before bulk production. The inspection is a preliminary stage covering mainly style and general appearance, workmanship, measurements, quality of fabrics, components, weight, colour and/or printing.

3. During production check: this is done during production to ensure initial discrepancies/
variations have been rectified. This inspection is in fact the follow-up of the initial production check and is generally carried out a few days after the initial inspection, especially if discrepancies have been detected at that time.

4. Final random inspection: this is carried out when the production of the total quantity of an
order or partial delivery is completed. A sample lot will be selected from the order and a percentage of the garments will be inspected, this percentage usually being stipulated by the buyer The AQL sampling inspection may be applied or another inspection system designed by the buyer.








The application of a series of stitches or stitch types to one or several thickness of material for utilitarian, functional or decorative purposes (BS 3870 1991).


Class 1 Plain seam French seam Class 2 Lapped seam Class 3 Bound seam Class 4 Channel seam

Class 5 Ornamental stitching

Class 6 The single-turned hem Class 7 The edge-stitched seam Class 8 The enclosed seam

One unit of conformation resulting from one or more strands or loops of thread intralooping, interlooping or passing into or through material (BS 3870 1991). Intralooping (BS 3870 1991): The passing of a loop of thread through another loop by the same thread. Interlooping: The passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by the different thread. Interlacing: The passing of a thread over or around another thread or loop of another thread.

Stitch types:
According to BS 3870: Part 1: 1991, all stitch types can be divided into the following six classes: Chain stitches (BS class 100) Hand Stitches (BS class 200) Lockstitches (BS class 300) Multi-thread chain stitches (BS class 400) Overedge chain stitches (BS500) Covering chain stitches (BS 600)


The International Association for Textile Care Labeling (GINETEX) has developed a languageindependent care labeling system in 1975. With an aim to promote voluntary care labeling on international basis, the GINETEX care labeling system (or international care labeling system) mainly


uses symbols to provide care instructions. ISO 3758 1991 provides a code of reference for the use of these symbols. The system consists of five basic symbols and their full descriptions are shown in the following. WASHING Maximum temperature 95 C Mechanical action normal Rinsing normal Spinning normal Maximum temperature 95 C Mechanical action reduced Rinsing at gradually decreasing temperature (cool down) Spinning reduced Maximum temperature 70 C Mechanical action normal Rinsing normal Spinning normal Maximum temperature 60 C Mechanical action normal Rinsing normal Spinning normal Maximum temperature 60 C Mechanical action reduced Rinsing at gradually decreasing temperature (cool down) Spinning reduced Maximum temperature 50 C Mechanical action reduced Rinsing at gradually decreasing temperature (cool down) Spinning reduced Maximum temperature 40 C Mechanical action normal Rinsing normal Spinning normal Maximum temperature 40 C Mechanical action reduced Rinsing at gradually decreasing temperature (cool down) Spinning reduced


Maximum temperature 40 C Mechanical action much reduced Rinsing normal Spinning normal Do not wring by hand Maximum temperature 30 C Mechanical action much reduced Rinsing normal Spinning reduced Hand wash Do not machine wash Maximum temperature of wash 40 C Handle with care Do not wash. Be cautious when treating in wet stage BLEACHING Chlorine-based bleaching allowed Only cold and dilute solution Do not use chlorine-based bleach

IRONING Iron at a maximum sole-plate temperature of 200 C

Iron at a maximum sole-plate temperature of 150 C Iron at a maximum sole-plate temperature of 110 C Steam-Ironing may be risky Do not iron Steaming and steam treatments are not allowed

DRYING Tumble dry possible Normal drying cycle


Tumble dry possible Drying at lower temperature setting Do not tumble dry


To make finished garments attractive to consumers, they are usually coloured, either by dyes or pigments. Based on financial and technical considerations, dyeing can be done at different stages of the manufacturing process and they can be categorised into five major types: 1. MASS PIGMENTATION This dyeing method, which is also known as dope dyeing, is mainly used in the production of synthetic filaments. During the spinning process of the polymer, pigments are added to the molten polymer or its solution. When the polymer is spun into filaments, the added pigments are encased in the filament, so colouring it and giving it very good all round fastness properties. 2. FIBRE DYEING In this method, dyeing is carried out on loose stock or tow before the fibre is spun into yam. This process is most common in the production of woollen materials. With the exception of mass pigmentation, fibre dyeing produces the best results of all dyeing methods. This is because dyes penetrate well into fibre, resulting in level (even) dyeing with excellent fastness properties. Even if the dyeing is not entirely level, later blending and spinning operations will mix the fibres, producing an even colour. This method can also produce mixture effects and colour blends, generally known as mottled effects. 3. YARN DYEING In the yam dyeing method, coloration is carried out after the fibre has been spun into yarn. As with fibre dyeing, the aim of the process is to ensure that the dye penetrates into the core of the yam. There are several ways of dyeing yarn, depending on the


physical form in which the yam is dyed: hank dyeing, package dyeing and slasher dyeing. 4. PIECE DYEING Piece dyeing is the most popular production method for dyeing fabric, since it gives the greatest flexibility to the manufacturer in terms of inventory (the stock of materials) for large or small orders and for fashion colours. If very large yardage in one shade is required, fabrics can be dyed continuously, while small amounts of fabric can be processed in batches. Piece dyeing can be carried out in a number of ways, the most common of which are: jig dyeing, winch dyeing, jet dyeing and pad dyeing. The first three methods are used for batchwise dyeing, while the last is used for continuous dyeing. 5. GARMENT DYEING Garment dyeing is an economical dyeing method, being the cheapest to use when it is practical. It also minimises the risk of building an inventory that could be affected by changes in colour fashions. This method is, however, technically the most difficult to control. The difficulties can include distortion of the garment, seam puckering, poor penetration of colour (especially in the seams) and comparatively poor fastness properties. In this method, the garments are loosely packed in a plastic-net bag and are dyed in a rotating drum dyeing machine, which is similar in construction to the domestic washing machine. They may also be dyed in a paddle dyeing machine. In the dyeing process, dyes are used as the major ingredient. The following tables provide a general description and uses of the commonly used dyes for cellulose fibres, protein fibres and synthetic fibers. DYE CLASS Direct GENERAL DESCRIPTION Complete colour range; simple application; cheap moderate fastness but can be improved by after treatment with copper. Azoic Colour range rather limited orange, red, navy among the best; bright shades at moderate cost; difficult to apply; rubbing fastness may be poor if applied incorrectly; also known as ice colour Reactive because of use of ice in application. Complete colour range; simple application; forms direct linkage with fibre, resulting in very good Most common dye in the dyeing of cotton today because of highly

USES Commonly used for medium quality textiles, mainly cellulosic; may also be used for wool and silk, Mainly used for cellulosic fibres, for printing as well as dyeing.

fastness; more expensive than some other classes of dye.

fashionable colour range and good fastness properties; useful for cellulosic, protein and nylon fibres; also popular printing Used for heavy cotton goods as well as for linen and jute.


Limited colour range with dull colours -black, khaki and brown; needs skill in application; may result in the tendering (weakening) of the cellulose due to the formation of sulphuric acid in the dyed material; inexpensive; quite popular for lower quality products because of price. Incomplete (No brilliant red) but adequate colour range; requires much skill in application; has best all round fastness properties; most expensive; has decreased in popularity due to increased use of reactive dyes.


Used for high quality cotton goods; special use is in the dyeing of denim fabric.

Table 1 Dyes for cotton and other cellulosic fibres


GENERAL DESCRIPTION Complete application; and bright colour may range; vary easy among performance

USES Used mainly for wool and silk, but also on polyamide.

individual dyes-they generally have Acid (Milling)

moderate Useful because for of woollen good tops

fastness properties This class of dyes may be included with acid dyes; complete colour range but colour tends to be duller; moderate price. Have the best colour fastness among acid dyes. Adequate colour range but even duller shades than acid milling class; dye fastness among the best because of metal atom in the dye; relatively difficult to apply and expensive. Very dull but adequate colour range; complicated application method; best all round fastness properties; chromium metal required in the dyeing


They are useful for polyamide as well. Most useful for woollen goods.

Metal complex

Chrome (Mordant)

Useful for woollen goods that require maximum fastness properties. Useful for bright and fast Colours for wool.


process; moderate price. Specific dyes which differ from those used for dyeing cellulosic fibre are needed; difficult to







expensive. Table 2 Dyes for protein fibres DYE CLASS Disperse GENERAL DESCRIPTION Good shade range; sparingly soluble, fine USES Most useful for polyester, both for dyeing and printing.

dispersion in water; only dyes which sublimate (that is, they vaporise without going through a liquid phase) under heat; suitable for all syntheties bit with different fastness properties; Acid, with acid milling Basic moderate price. Same as for wool. Complete and brilliant colour range; careful application required to prevent unevenness in dyeing and adverse effect on the handle of the fibre. Table 3 Dyes for synthetic fibres

Suitable for polyamide. Traditionally used for hemp and jute; now mainly used for acrylics.

The tables below show the fastness properties of the commonly used dyes. FASTNESS TO WASHING LIGHT DRY C L DYE CLASS E A N I N G Direct After-treated Direct Azoic Reactive Sulphur moderate very good good good to very good good-sensitive to chlorine moderate very good good good good Good Good Good Very good Good Good good good very good good very good for most shades very good depends on dyeing techniques very good poor to moderate; depends on colour and PERSPIRA T I O N RUBBING







depth very good

Table 4 Common fastness properties of dyes for cellulosic fibres

FASTNESS TO DYE CLASS WASHING Acid (Acid milling) Metal complex Chrome (mordant) Reactive Poor good very good excellent very good LIGHT good very good excellent excellent very good DRY CLEANING Good Good Good Good Good PERSPIRATION moderate moderate to good good good very good RUBBING very good very good very good Good Good

Table 5 Common fastness properties of dyes for protein fibres

FASTNESS TO DRY DYE WASHING LIGHT CL EA NI NG moderate Disperse good; to moderate excellent depending on fibre good very good Poor to to Good good Good PERSPIRATION RUBBING


on polyester Acid (Acid milling) Basic poor good very good

Good Good

moderate moderate good

very good to very good Good

Good good moderate Table 6 Common fastness properties of dyes for synthetic fibres


With advances in technology, printing is now the simplest and cheapest method used to produce single or multi-coloured patterns on fabrics. Because of their importance and popularity, only the following four methods discussed below: 1. Roller printing Roller printing is a fully automatic mechanized method in which the printing is done with the aid of engraved copper rollers. Although roller printing can produce very fine and intricate line designs (e.g., designs with half - tone effects can be produced), the colour quality of the printed fabric is rather dull when compared with fabrics produced by screen printing. Hence, roller printing is now only used to print low quality, mass-produced standard fabrics for items such as pyjamas and shirts. Flat screen printing Flat screen printing which is one of the more important printing methods, can be done by three different methods, ranging from manually operated (hand screen printing), semiautomatic carriage printing to fully automated screen printing. The major advantages of this method are its flexibility in the printing of different designs on different types of fabrics, and its ability to produce printing of high quality fabrics. 3. Rotary screen printing This rotary screen printing method, which utilizes seamless cylindrical screens made of nickel foil instead of flat screens, was developed to provide a printing method that combined the advantages, and eliminated the limitations, of both the roller and flat screen printing methods. Its high production rate, versatility and acceptable printing quality have led to rotary screen printing fast. 4. Transfer printing Transfer printing is a process in which a design is transferred from one surface to another, normally by heat and pressure. The major advantages of this printing are easily to operate and have low reject rates as well as many complex designs can be produced accurately. Three types of printing style by which a pattern can be printed onto a fabric, are commonly used: A. B. C. the resist style the discharge style the direct style

The term 'textile finishing' in its widest sense covers all textile wet processes; in this sense, finishing can be said to include preparation and coloration. A more restricted but common interpretation is that textile finishing is the third and final stage in the treatment of textiles to prepare them for garment


manufacturers or consumers.The general aim of finishing is to improve the attractiveness and/or serviceability of a fabric. Finishing can: Improve the dimensional stability of the fabric Modify the handle of the fabric Improve the appearance of the fabric Modify the serviceability of the fabric Improve the durability of the fabric The finishing methods can be classified according to the special effects that they produce on the fabrics. These effects include: 1. STABILISING EFFECTS It is often vital to incorporate stabilising effects into fabrics because the shrinkage of a fabric is of primary importance to finished garments. Garments made from fabrics with uncontrolled shrinkage may become too tight to wear after laundering, and may even alter in shape.Numerous methods may be used to control, or even eliminate relaxation shrinkage. 2. TEXTURAL EFFECTS There are a number of processes that modify the texture or the appearance of a fabric so as to increase its appeal to the consumer. Some of the commonly applied processes are considered. Calendering Shreinering Embossing Raising Shearing Emerizing/sueding Pressing Stiffening Mercerisation Stentering Compressive shrinkage Resin finishing London shrinkage Decatising, crabbing and potting Chlorination treatment Superwash


Garment Washing In addition to finishing processes on textiles, special effects can also be imparted directly to the garments after manufacture. The garments would undergo washing processes that give them different handle or special colour effects. The washing technique has developed and expanded considerably to become a finishing process of its own. The most common equipment is the rotary drum type garment washer. In Hong Kong, the most popular item by far in garment washing is indigo denim jeans but there is an increasing trend for other casual wear items to be finished using this process. There are a number of different washing techniques commonly used and the basic procedures where the garments are washed are described in the following sections. i) Traditional garment wash: This elevated temperature to yield a soft hand. In case of jeans made from indigo or sulphur slasher-dyed denims, it is necessary to remove the sizes (e.g., starch) by an enzyme (amylase) desizing treatment. Colour fading will be occurred and the degree will depend on the treatment conditions, such as time, temperature and liquor ratio of washing bath. ii) Stone wash: To accelerate the washing effect, pumice or volcanic stones can be added for abrasion purposes. There are available today man-made stones of various sizes and shapes. When compared with the traditional garment wash, colour fading is more pronounced but less uniform. In addition to the treatment conditions as described for traditional garment wash, the degree of colour fading and change of garment hand feel depends very much on the stone ratio to fabric weight which can vary from 0.5 to 3 : 1. iii) 'White' wash: This category of washing technique is a variation of basic stone wash procedure and is normally applied to indigo-dyed jeans but can also be applied to other vat-, sulphur- or reactive-dyed garments. It can further be divided into two major groups according to its application methods. The first involves the use of strong oxidising agents such as sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for bleaching the garments. The use of these agents is to obtain a much lighter shade than the previous two methods. Excess oxidising agents must be removed after washing to prevent yellowing and tendering of the washed jeans. iv) Enzyme wash: Cellulase enzymes are commonly used in this washing method. These enzymes differ from that of amylase, used for removal of starches, in that they are only selective to cotton of other cellulosic materials. Hydrolysis of the cellulose causes the fibre to become weaker and depending on the degree of treatment, some surface fibres will be removed when subjected to fabric-to-fabric or fabric-to-stone abrasive action. 3. FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS Specific types of garments should have specific performance characteristics, e.g., rainwear should be water-repellent. Various processes are thus needed to give such required characteristics as are not naturally contained in the fibre or fabric.


Resin Finishes (for cotton)


Wrinkle-resistant finish: Wash-and-wear finish: Permanent press finish Water-repellent Finish Non durable Durable Flame-retardant Finish Mothproof Finish Mildewproof Finish Antistatic Finish Soil Release Finish Soil repellent Finish Softening Finish



Calculating the total cost of the garment is important, to determine its selling price as well as to determine whether the garment is worth manufacturing. The costing will be determined by a few relevant criteria, as the cost breakdown will vary according to: The business nature of the company. (e.g., trading office, manufacturer) the payment conditions applied (e.g., F.O.B, C.I.F) the manufacturing conditions applied (e.g., CMT, CM) & the types of garments the company produces (e.g., woven , cut & sewn knits, sweater) Since in the industry there are no two organizations or factories that function in exactly the same way, methods of garment costing vary from company to company, tailored to the individual's requirement. However, the same data is necessary no matter dissimilarities exist or not.The equation to calculate the cost of a garment is:


(Note: The unit of garment is piece or dozen)

Fabric Cost
For woven garment: Purchase of finished fabric Fabric cost per unit garment = Finished fabric cost per yard x (1 + finance charge % ) x fabric consumption per unit garment in yard or = Finished fabric cost per meter x ( 1 + finance charge % ) x fabric consumption per unit garment in meter For example, The production of a piece of blouse needs 2 yd of 100% cotton sheeting fabric @ $ 10.0 per yd. The finance charge is at 5% per yd. Then, Fabric cost per blouse = $ 10.0/yd x (1 + 5%) x 2 yd = $ 21.0 The calculation is similar to that for finished fabric but processing charges (such as printing, dyeing and finishing) need to be added. Fabric cost per unit garment = (Greige fabric cost per yard + processing charges per yard) x (1 + finance charge %) x fabric consumption per unit garment in yard or


= (Greige fabric cost per meter + processing charges per meter) x (1 + finance charge %) x fabric consumption per unit garment in meter Note: extra allowance should be included in the calculation of fabric consumption because of the
shrinkage and wastage that may be incurred in the processing.

For example, Using the above example, the fabric purchased is greige @ $6.0 /yd. It costs $2.0 /yd for dyeing and finishing treatment in a dye mill. To allow the extra shrinkage and wastage in the processing, the fabric consumption becomes 2.2 yd per blouse. Then, Fabric cost per blouse = ($6.0 /yd + $2.0 /yd) x (1 + 5%) x 2.2 yd = $18.48 For cut & sewn knit garment: In the industry, fabric consumption for knit items is generally expressed in weight, i.e., lb. The same formula applies to the calculation of fabric cost for cut & sewn knits. Fabric cost per unit garment = Finished fabric cost per pound x ( I+ finance charge % ) x fabric consumption per unit garment in pound* or = Finished fabric cost per pound x ( 1 + finance charge % ) x fabric consumption per unit garment in pound* *If the given fabric consumption is expressed in yards, the following formula converts this into pounds. Fabric consumption (yd) --> Fabric consumption (lb) Fabric consumption per unit garment (lb) = (Fabric width (in) x Fabric consumption per unit garment (yd) x Fabric weight in standardized form (9/M2) x 0.00082)/16

2. Yarn Cost
For sweater items, instead of using fabric cost, yarn cost is used for the calculation. Normally, yam cost per unit garment is calculated by multiplying the yam consumption per unit garment (in pounds) by the cost of yam per pound. In general, the more complicated the knitted structure, the more yarn will be consumed, so the yarn cost will become higher. Hence, in order to calculate the fabric cost precisely, in most cases it is

necessary to knit a sample for determining the actual garment weight, enabling an accurate evaluation of the yarn consumption.

3. Production Cost
As for different types of garment, the production cost will be charged differently according to the different manufacturing procedures and the level of technology employed (such as computerised system vs manual system) in the operation. However, in most cases, the manufacturer only quotes the total CMT cost to the buyer without disclosing the breakdown of costs involved in each operation. For woven and cut & sewn knit garment: Both woven and cut & sewn knit garments are manufactured in a similar way. Although the fabric structure and the used cost equipment/machinery affect the production

might be different, this does not significantly. The production cost is the sum of the manufacturing costs of each process: cutting, sewing and assembling, washing (if necessary) and finishing, plus the cost of accessories (such as labels, linings, interlinings, buttons, shoulder pads or zippers). The finishing operations include pressing, trimming, buttoning, inspecting, labeling, ticketing and bagging.

4. Other Costs
Besides fabric cost and production cost, to determine the actual garment cost in FOB prices, several costs have to be included as follows: Local transportation Document Quota Duty Miscellaneous Profit margin A premium added for inland transport charges An additional cost for document charges The cost of quota (if applicable) The charge for some imported material, components/accessories e.g., fabric, buttons (if applicable) A cost charged for unclassified expenses such as packing expenses The profit expressed as a percentage of total cost



Both air transport and sea transport are commonly used in delivering goods from one country to another. However, the calculation for the charges of air freight and sea freight is different, as follows: 1. Sea Freight Sea freight is charged on a volume (cubic meter or CBM) basis. Firstly, the volume of a carton is calculated by multiplying the length by the width by the height of the carton. Secondly, the freight charges for the delivered merchandise can be calculated by multiplying the volume of a carton by the total number of needed cartons by the price charged per cubic meter (CBM).

2. Air Freight Air freight is charged on a weight basis (kg), either by volume weight or actual weight of the freight. In Hong Kong, in most cases, both volume and actual weight are evaluated and the air freight will be charged based on the weight, whichever is greater. Volume weight:


Actual weight:

TO CONVERT FROM (Non-SI UNIT) Denier English cotton count(NG) Linen(NG) Woollen count Worsted count Cloth Length Cloth width Area Weight/Mass Threads fabric Courses unit in per cloth Ounces per sq. yard Inch Grams per sq. metre Millimeter 33.91 25.4 Metric count (Nm) Yard (yd) Inch (in) Square yard (yd2) Square inches (in2) Pounds (1b) Ounces (oz) Threads per inch Courses per inch MULTIPLY BY (Approximate) 0.1111 Tex = 590.5/Ne Tex = 1654/NG Tex = 1938/woollen ct. Tex = 885.8/worsted ct. Tex = 1000/Nm 0.9144 2.54 0.8361 6.452 0.4536 28.35 0.3937 0.3937

QUANTITY Linear density

TO (SI UNIT) Tex Tex Tex Tex Tex Tex Metre (m) Centimetre (cm) Square metre (m2) Square centimetres(CM2) Kilograms (kg) Grams (g) Threads per cm Courses per cm

length Mass per unit area Stitch length

(knitted) Cover factor: Woven fabrics Weft knitted 1.172 cotton 0.0957


worsted fabrics

Readymade Garments Costing:

The costing will be determined by a few relevant criteria, as the cost breakdown will vary according to The business nature of the company ( Trading office, manufacture ) The payment condition ( FOB,CIF ) The manufacturing conditions applied (CM,CMT,CMQ,CMQT) The types of garments the company produces (woven, cut & sewn knit, sweater)

The equation to calculate the cost of a garment is: Fabric cost + Trims & Acc cost + Production cost + Local transportation cost + Document + Quota premium + Duty + Miscellaneous + per unit garments x 1 + Profit = per unit garment FOB Price. Basic Shirt / Jacket [ A Length, B 1/2Chest, C - Sleeve Length, D Arm hole, E - Hood ] Fabric consumption for shirt Z Z=X+Y X = (A+3) x (B+3) x 2 Y = (C+2) x (2D+2) x (E+2) x 2 Example: Highest Length of the shirt = 30 Chest length (1/2 of Total length) = 20 Sleeve length = 25 Arm hole (1/2) = 9.5 Solution: X = (31+3) x (20+3) x 2 = 1564 Y = (25+2) x (2x9.5+2) x 2 = 1134 Z = X+Y

= 1564 + 1134 = 2698 Now divided by fabric width Say fabric width 45 So, Z = 2698 / 45 = 59.955 Now we convert it inch to yds So, 59.955/36 = 1.66 yds / Pc. Basic Pant / Trouser [H Length or height of the pant, J Width through cross line] Pant = P P = (H+4) x (J+2) x 4 Say, H 42 , J 13.5 (42+4) x (13.5 + 2) x 4 P = 2852 = 2852/56 (Fabric width) = 50.93/36 ( yds) = 1.41 yds / Pc Basic T-Shirt [ A Length, B 1/2Chest, C - Sleeve Length, D Arm hole, E - Hood ] T-Shirt = K K = X+Y X = (A+2) x (B+2) x 2 Y = (C+1) x (2D+1) x (E+1) x 2 Sum of K / 39.37 (mtrs) x GSM / 1000 (KG) = Kg / per pc. Or. (Length+S.Length) x 2 x chest x GSM / 10,000 = gm / unit Rib : Length x width x Gsm / 10,000 = gm Or. Total length x Total width x GSM / 10000000 = KG + 18% ( 10% allowance waste + 8% Rib ) KG to yds converts:

Say , we need 220 gsm s/jersey fab. Now yds per KG ?? 1 Kg / gsm+5 1000 / 225 4.44 5% 4.22 yds per kg. GSM to Kg convert: 185 Gsm So, 185/84.25(formula) = 1.90 kg / per dz. Basic Pricing for Knit Length 77 Cm, Chest 64 Cm, S. Length 26 Cm Length + S.Length+Wastage X Cheast X 2 (for double) / 10000 (Formula) X Gsm / 1000 (Formula) = Kg/ Pc 77 (L)+26(s.L)+12 (wastage) X 64 (1/2 cheast) X 2 (Double) / 10000 X 180 (GSM) / 1000 (Formula) = Kg / Pc =(77+26+12) X 64 X 2 / 10000 X 180/1000 = 115X128 / 10000 x 180/1000, or 14720/10000x180/1000 = .26 kg / Pc = 3.12 kg/ Dz + 15% (for Rib) = 3.67 Kg / Dz. Embroidery Costing Qty X Stitches / Unit (12000) X Price For pricing : Stitch / 1000 X Price Global Logistic CBM Cubic Meter NOVCC Non Vessel Operated Cargo Carrier FCL Full Container Load LCL Less Container Load ETA Expected Time of Arrival ETD Expected Time of Departure SEA : CBM = Length X Width X Height (CM) / 1000000 X total No. of ctn = Length X Width X Height (Inch) / (1728*35.32) AIR :

a. 7000 Cubic CM = 1 Kilo b. 6000 Cubic CM = 10 Kilo ( for Bangladesh) 1. Length X Width X Height (CM) / 6000 = Kilo 2. Length X Width X Height (Inch) / 366 = Kilo ** Volume weight per carton (Kg) X Number of carton X Cost of Air freight per Kg = Carring cost / Air



In the apparel business sector, there is considerable confusion in the use of terminology related to functions of the firm and areas of specialization. In particular term marketing and merchandising are sometimes used interchangeably. For example, in a particular firm a division might be called marketing but executive describe their responsibilities as being merchandising to clarify this muddle, it is necessary to identify functional responsibility and define marketing an merchandising accordingly. It is important to recognize that in business practice these function exist, but different terminology might be use to identify them. A marketing division is responsible for shaping and strengthening the image of the company and its products through promotion, optimizing sales opportunities and developing alternate strategies for corporate growth. Merchandising is a marketing practice in which the brand or image from one product or service is used to sell another. It is most prominently seen in connection with films, usually those in current releases and with television shows oriented towards children. Trademarked brand names, logos, or character images are licensed to manufacturers of products such as toys or clothing, which then make items in or emblazoned with the image of the license, hoping they'll sell better than the same item with no such image. Merchandising, as commonly used in Marketing also means the promotion of merchandise sales, as by coordinating production and marketing and developing advertising, display, and sales strategies to increase retail sales. This includes disciplines in pricing and discounting, physical presentation of products and displays, and the decisions about which products should be presented to which customers at what time.

Marketing Management- Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller. Marketing ResearchResearch Methodology- P. Pannerselvam. Merchandising Manual- A personalized hand book.

1991. 1991.

BGMEA- Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. BKMEA- Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association. BTMEA- Bangladesh Textile Mills Association. BSI, "Classification and terminology of stitch types" BS 3870:Part I 1991 = ISO 4915 BSI, "Classification and Terminology of Seam Types" BS 3870 Part II 1991 = ISO 4916 K-state study guide. Kansas State University, USA. Pearl Institute of Fashion Design and Merchandising. Commonly asked apparel questions. Several scholars articles on RMG sector.



Its important to compare prices, but you may also want to understand and compare the value of your total experience with a custom apparel partner. This checklist will help you compare apples to apples. By answering these questions, you can identify the important qualities to look for so youll get the best


products, prices and service. When you make your comparisons, we guarantee that EPI can offer the best deal to meet your needs. Service Does the vendor offer free delivery of your apparel? Can you place your order without any upfront fees or deposits? Does the vendor offer free screenprint set up of your apparel? Does the vendor offer free artwork for your apparel? Does the vendor offer a wide choice of sizes with no minimum per size? Does the vendor offer a wide selection of quality, name brand apparel products? Can you view the artwork online for approval? Will you receive free order forms to help promote your sale? Does the vendor offer an average turn around time of 10-15 business days? Does the vendor guarantee the original price on reorders? Does the vendor offer embroidery? Does the vendor offer Rush Service for a nominal fee of $50? Does the vendor offer a $2.99 special on white short sleeve tees? EPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Company #2 Company #3