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APPLICATION NOTE

Abstract
The arrival of varied smartphones and devices has inevitably encouraged greater data consumption. Users are now more sophisticated and demand nothing less than best network performance and willing to switch providers at the slightest dissatisfaction. Smartphone generally accounts for higher ARPU and represents potential new revenue streams for enabling quad play services. Operators are aggressively addressing these challenges and improving the quality of their solution to retain existing customers and offering better service experience to build loyalty. WiFi adoption as data ofoading is gaining momentum as it improves user experience while lowering the cost of service providers. Correctly implemented, it can ease up to 20% of trafc with substantial impact of freeing up the spectrum and load balancing. Ofoading data to WiFi hotspots is economically attractive, because many carriers already operate a substantial number of hotspots. In this paper, we will examine how dynamic data ofoading can be further optimized with 3GPP based Access Network Discovery Selection Function (ANDSF). ANDSF describes how the inter-system mobility between 3GPP systems and non-3GPP systems (ie: WLAN, WiMAX, CDMA) policies and priorities can control the conditions for which a device (UE) connects to which wireless network. Operators have the exibility to manage context information in network discovery and selection procedures in push and/or pull mechanism with a policy management and control component as network-based and client-based solutions. The client-based implementation is described with reference to applying real-time connection state and policy control. Policy enforcement and policy management is mapped more accurately with an overall knowledge of the network at any given point of time. By intelligently managing the distribution of network load, congestion can be minimized.

APPLICATION NOTE

APPLICATION NOTE

Contents
Overview Dynamic Data Ofoading a Study Model - WiFi or Femtocell - Why Introduce Dynamic Data Ofoad (DDO) - Data Ofoading Tool - WiFi Data Ofoading Access Network Discovery and Selection Function - Where is the Intelligence in Dynamic Data Ofoading ANDSF Implementation - Policy Control with ANDSF Values of Dynamic Data Ofoading Capability with ANDSF - Prioritization of Access Based on Network Availability - Time Based Policy Control - Application Policy Control - Power Management - Trafc Routing Conclusion Ofoad Early, Connect Intelligently References 14 15 16 12 10 07 01 02

APPLICATION NOTE

Overview
Mobile networks are inherently constrained with the availability of spectrum and bandwidth to support the rapidly growing demands of mobile data. In a recent report by Cisco, it is estimated that global mobile data trafc growth will increase by a factor of 26 times between 2010 - 2015. The way we interact with the internet is changing. The arrival of data-centric devices (eg: iPhone, Android , Blackberry), lower subscription prices, easy access to applications is driving data consumption and content like never before. Even with operators implementing transcoding methods to adapt smaller screen sizes, for pictures and videos , operators still struggle to satisfy data demands, managing congestion and improving subscriber experience. WiFi ofoad is an alternative method to ease the burden of bandwidth capacity. However, the methodology of ofoading can be made either tightly-coupled or loosely coupled to the core network. In the tightly-coupled method, the network operator retains visibility and control over the trafc ofoad related to the location where trafc streams are ofoaded or bypassed over the network operator and relevant policies provisioned. Overall data ofoading implementation can be more secure and comprehensive by complementing i-WLAN framework with dynamic data ofoading. Further information to i-WLAN can be referenced in a previous whitepaper titled Managing Data Ofoading Securely over WLAN access networks via I-WLAN. Within the loosely-coupled method, data ofoad is unmanaged. By forcing the user onto WiFi, the network operator has no visibility on the user trafc and not subject to the operators policies. The user experience associated to the accessibility of service for example to web browsing, online shopping, downloading music or streaming video will be at risk of un-trusted network attacks such as disclosing or tampering of user details. Other issues pertinent, which may involve some form of credit card purchase. Such transactions are not subject to operator controlled service rules since the user subscription relationship is decoupled from its control policy. The applied access rules previously enforced within the walled-garden parameters will be lost once the IP trafc bypasses the packet data network (PDN) en-route to the Internet directly. These IP trafc is identied and routed purely on the IP address regardless of the policies enforced on the service application level.

APPLICATION NOTE

Source: The Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Trafc Forecast Update 2011

01

Dynamic Data Offloading a Study Model


Networks are generally not equally utilized at any given time. Take for example a 3G cell site in the central business district of Kuala Lumpur during peak hours will have full utilization. The 3G cell supports up to 20 users at 14.4Mbps (assumes average throughput of 512kbps/user). Due to congestion, the number of user doubles to 40, but the average throughput per user is halved and continues to provide data services at sub-standard speeds with the risk of user dissatisfaction. However, another operator operating an alternative access technology (be it WiFi or WiMAX) within the vicinity of overlapping the 3G cell site is not fully loaded. Often, the internet bound trafc does not contribute to ARPU but occupy the network capacity. How effectively can the 3G operator capitalize on the availability of bandwidth capacity of the adjacent WiFi network to balance the network load efciently and improve user experience?

WiFi or Femtocell
Given that spectrum is a premium limited resource, operators are turning to WiFi or femto-based ofoad to ease trafc needs. The stark difference between WiFi and femtocells lie in the spectrum utilization. WiFi operates in unlicensed band with a larger bandwidth capable of supporting data rates of 11Mbps up to 54Mbps (peak theoretical) and couples the backhaul onto the xed line, effectively freeing-up the 3G spectrum and improving capacity. Femtocells on the hand, operates in licensed band wirelessly over the shared air interface of 3G network. Femtocells can improve indoor coverage, but not increase capacity. WiFi ofoad improves capacity at a fraction of the cost, since there is already WiFi infrastructure readily available. Dynamic Data Ofoading can be initiated with an intelligent connection client in the device (UE). The device (UE) is able to determine the subscriber state early in the network and exchange information with the policy controller in real-time to adjust network connection state.

APPLICATION NOTE

02

Why Introduce Dynamic Data Ofoad (DDO)


The periodic trafc surge is noticeable during peak hours. Instead of adding a second carrier on the 3G network or adding new cell sites with impacts on radio planning and so forth, operators can take advantage of dynamic data ofoad early to detect congestion and re-route the trafc to alternative WiFi access. The network selection and discovery capability is heavily dependent on the intelligence behind connectivity. The main drivers for DDO is apparent in - Improving over the air radio capacity - Relieving transmission backhaul dependencies - Delaying CAPEX investment for network upgrade - Subscriber retention and improving user experience - Creation of new revenue streams as a result of better analysis of usage behavior - Separation of revenue generating trafc and low value bulk internet trafc - Scalability of single connection client without cost impact to backend processes

Data Ofoading Tool


Greenpackets Intouch Connection Management Platform (ICMP) is an easy to use, single-client connection management solution that combines device (UE) and user management. The single-client software converge multiple network access and executes data ofoading transparently. Incorporating customizable features and capabilities, the ICMP can intelligently detect the availability of access networks based on signal strength and user policies allowed for accessing certain data services on a cellular network (such as 3G) and if there is less congested alternative network (such as WiFi, WiMAX, EVDO) available in the same vicinity. ICMP switchers the user from 3G to WiFi without interruption to connectivity by ensuring a seamless user experience. As a result of the in-built intelligence, the ICMP can determine the best available networks for data ofoad within the pre-loaded local policy in the absence of network policy. The added advantage of the make before break further enhances the seamless connection experience, without requiring a switch of different connection proles.

Figure 1: Intouch Connection Manager GUI.

APPLICATION NOTE

03

WiFi Data Ofoading


The efciency of ofoading 3G cell to WiFi can be studied from the data rates, coverage radius and the density of subscribers supported. The other considerations primarily will revolve around the transmission backhaul and installation relevant in the CAPEX investment. Details of cost savings related to data ofoading are not discussed here. Reference to a previous whitepaper Operators Can Save $14 million Yearly Through Data Ofoading, a TCO Study describes it separately. The efciency of network planning directly impacts the performance and quality of the network. There is no dened notion on the best network. Congestion is measured against how much data trafc deteriorates to affect user experience that is expected of the service. The support of voice service is 12bkps. Theoretically, in a given single 3G carrier at 5MHz channel bandwidth, S 111 conguration, it can support up to 1,000 voice subscribers. The number of subscribers supported per cell is dependent on the radio planning parameters for a given speed and average throughput per cell. In case of a data service, the minimum data speed is 256kbps to support VoIP. For a given WiFi cell, the average cell throughput is 11Mbps (802.11a standard). It can go up to 54Mbps (802.11g standard). The added advantage of WiFi is the greater channel bandwidth of 22MHz. Therefore, the achievable cell throughput is higher by a factor of 4. The study of WiFi channel deployment and 3G channel deployment can be looked at the capacity efciency. Assuming the comparison is made on average data speeds of 512kbps for both WiFi and 3G. A typical 3G carrier can deliver average throughput per cell of 14.4Mbps. If under normal condition, the node B can support up to 28 subscribers at the average 512kbps per user. Given that congestion occurs by 70% utilization, the number of active subscribers supported per node B is approximately 20. (Active subscribers is dened as active concurrent users, excluding idle and connected subscribers) In WiFi (802.11 a), there are up to 3 non-overlapping channels. Therefore, the total throughput achievable is up to 33Mbps. At 70% utilization, the active subscribers supported per WiFi cell is approximately 45. The capacity supported is 55% greater than a 3G node B.

Operator owned WiFi and Partner WiFi


Operators that have aggressively embraced a WiFi ofoading strategy, such as PCCW and AT&T Mobility, estimate that about 20 % of their overall data trafc is over WiFi networks. In cases where operators do not operate WiFi networks but extends its coverage often partner a 3rd party WiFi provider. Such wholesale method to support the additional trafc for a xed cost is a feasible option with no direct impact to the existing infrastructure and backhaul requirements. With the acquisition of Wayport, AT&T expanded its WiFi network to ofoad trafc from its cellular network as a network growth strategy. With coverage of 85%, it is an example of a successful WiFi ofoad strategy to ease the burden on its 3G mobile broadband where the carrier has suffered as a result of iPhone driving data usage. Most* of AT&T's smartphones now support auto-authentication at the carrier's AT&T-afliated WiFi hotspots, which number more than 23,000-- WiFi usage does not count against a subscriber's monthly smartphone data usage plan. *source: Wi-Fi offload for mobile networks: 20% of traffic and counting FierceBroadbandWireless http://www.fiercebroadbandwireless.com/special-reports/ wi-fi-offload-mobile-networks-20-traffic-and-counting#ixzz1MsZdbugd

APPLICATION NOTE

04

Site Count
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

3G
Supports up to 20 active users per site

WiFi
Supports up to 45 active users per site

Figure 2: WiFi and 3G Site Count Study for average user throughput of 512kbps.

In terms of the coverage, a 3G cell range is up to 5 times of a typical WiFi cell range. Within a dense urban morphology, a 3G cell range can vary between 1-2km. (cell ranges are inter-dependent on radio planning parameters such as various modulation schemes, terrain, density of subscribers, achievable speeds. This assumes the average vehicular speed of 30km/hour). On the contrary, WiFi cell range vary between 100-200m, equating to more WiFi APs per km2 coverage radius. Despite WiFi cell range of 5 times less than a 3G node B (for every 1km, 5 WiFi APs are required), the trade-off of cell capacity is far greater. If for example the density per area is 1,000 users (assumes single device (UE), single user)per 1km2 radius with 70% active users; the 700 active subscribers requires up to 35 3G cell sites to support. However, with WiFi the number of cell sites is 55% less at 16. A typical WiFi AP cost is around USD100-200, while a 3G node B is USD30,000. For an equivalent number of cell sites, the CAPEX savings are signicant. Instead of deploying more node Bs, operators can leverage on the WiFi network within the vicinity as means of extending its coverage and relieving heavy internet trafc during or off peak hours.

APPLICATION NOTE

Average node B of S111 conguration in emerging markets.

05

Additional Base Station

Increasing Cost

WiFi AP 55% greater capacity

Increasing Capacity
Figure 3: Cost Comparison of WiFi AP and 3G Node B.

WiFi architecture exhibits signicantly higher data rates than 3G and it could be easily modied to increase the number of connection to open or partner WiFi network with the presence of a WiFi AP. 3G provides continuous connectivity over further cell range, with lower data rates and relatively high cost while WiFi is intermittent with high bursts of data (other consideration excluded in this study includes the impact of backhaul, leasing of transport network and installation works). With better control over data ofoad solutions, such as dynamic data ofoad via Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF), operators can understand the user state and commensurate network state contributing to congestion. Most importantly, it detects the source of congestion trigger and resolves the issue early, before it affects the service experience. The intelligent ANDSF enabled connection client can push connection status with granularity such as location corresponding to cell ID or SSID to the Policy Charging and Rules Function (PCRF). The PCRF perform real-time policy response network state at applications to identify the congestion point. Each service stream can be easily identied by the IP address where it originates and the destination IP. By having a direct connection to PCRF, the policy information is pulled by the ANDSF connection client to determine whether a handoff is necessary to maintain the connection as applied in the examples above.

APPLICATION NOTE

The PCRF server in this instance is 3GPP ANDSF standard compliant. ANDSF module can exist independently or implemented within proprietary policy control and management server that may comprise of several functional modules, depending on the network architecture.

06

Access Network Discovery and Selection Function


Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF) is a 3GPP standard dened in TS 22.278, TS23.402 and TS24.312 specications through which the operator can provide inter-system mobility policies and priorities to control where and when, the conditions for which a device (UE) connects to which wireless network. It supports the inter-working solution between 3GPP networks and non-3GPP access (ie: CDMA, WiMAX, WLAN) combining network-based and client-based solutions for both trusted and un-trusted non-3GPP access networks. For operators which have both WiFi and 3GPP infrastructures, it is possible to use ANDSF to implement dynamic data ofoad. Dynamic data ofoad can complement WiFi data ofoading in a structured method. Within ANDSF, the context of ofoad can be made more accurately at the user level ie: bearer-aware and closely coupled to the policy management and control component4 (eg: PCRF server). Instead of relying heavily on the policies enforced at the core network (backend), actual decision making process can be made real-time as a result of direct relation to the user activity at the device (UE). The motivation for implementing ANDSF is largely driven by the need for better bandwidth utilization. Bandwidth utilization is highly relevant to the control and optimization for mission critical applications like VoIP, P2P streaming and video streaming. In the following sections, we will discuss the impacts of applying intelligence in data ofoading, where operators have the exibility to manage context information in network discovery and selection procedures in push and/or pull mechanism with a policy management and control component. The study of ANDSF will be described from a client-based implementation on the device (UE). Operators controlled and service-aware selection of wireless networks can bring benets to the operator looking to ofoad using WiFi. The ability to retain visibility of which IP trafc is routed over WLAN (eg: best effort internet trafc like email, web browsing, which are non-revenue generating) and which IP trafc is maintained on the 3G link (eg: VoIP that is quality sensitive). This may contribute to better understanding of the trafc models relevant to minimizing congestion.

APPLICATION NOTE

Policy management and control component is used interchangeably with PCRF in this application note.

07

Where is the Intelligence in Dynamic Data Ofoading


Todays network is mixed with dual radio scenarios, such as WLAN and 3GPP based networks (ie: WiFi-3G). The two access networks are not aware of each other. It lacks the intelligence to control the access network of the device (UE) state in the other access network. Given that WLAN is not a controlled access network and works in unlicensed spectrum the only network condition of radio quality and the performance through that WLAN is made available only to the device (UE). Hence, the device (UE) is better positioned to decide the connectivity options. Most often, the network selection is managed by a connection manager in the device (UE).

Connection Manager

Policy Controller

Internet

Mobile Broadband (3G UMTS) Each Network Policy includes: Access Technology Type (3G, WiFi) Access Network Priority Location

Operator Core Network

Network Discovery List (3G, WiFi SSID) Policy Validity (8 hours)

Figure 4: Dynamic Data Offload with ANDSF.

APPLICATION NOTE

08

Default connection at RAN may not always be most optimal at a given point in time from core network connectivity, the end-user, application or service perspective. However, intelligent connection managers allow it to search and prioritize the best available connection based on pre-dened requirements such as signal strength and operator policies. In this manner, intelligent resource management provides a cost-effective way to support the data trafc by optimizing network radio resource, balancing the network load, reducing network congestion and delaying CAPEX for future upgrades. ANDSF may provide a list of access networks available in the vicinity of the device (UE) for all the available access technology types requested by the device (UE). Instead of unnecessary background scanning, the ANDSF connection monitoring may be carried out to handover or perform cell selection/re-selection measurements in which the device (UE) monitors the received signal strength indicator signal levels (RSSI) received from different base stations. This reduces the battery drain on the device (UE) without continuously scanning in the background. By selectively triggering the connection of device (UE) to a given threshold or the preferred available access network types based on inter-system mobility policies, the network load can be balanced or spread out to the availability of network radio resource at the point where congestion is likely to occur. Once the device (UE) receives the policy relevant to location and validity of time interval, the ANDSF will apply the current conditions to match the policy. Policies can be tailored for different access networks, regardless of devices (UE) to enable seamless connectivity experience. In the longer term, effective access network monitoring can reduce the pressure of CAPEX upgrades to sustain the increased capacity. The added intelligence of ANDSF brings benet to the negotiation of connection state by various operator policies supported as Location-Aware Policy cell ID or associated SSID is checked against the policy database for specic locations that are preferred/relevant Access Network Discovery Policy list of available access networks(RAT type) that are available within the vicinity and facilitation of prioritized access network selection for network handover Time-based Policy conguration of policy validity time to live interval to current location and prole Subscriber-based Policy dynamic allocation of subscriber package and prole

APPLICATION WHITEPAPER NOTE

09

ANDSF Implementation
Policy Control with ANDSF
Although operators are increasingly looking at using WiFi for ofoad in congested areas, it risks losing visibility over trafc policies that were congured for the user once it routes through WiFi. What is lacking is a way for the network to communicate to users (applications and/or websites they are using) a real-time or predicted measure of the networks congestion levels. ANDSF keeps a direct relationship to the core network by providing dynamic provision of information to the device (UE) for network discovery and selection procedures related to non-3GPP accesses; the ANDSF connection client can pull and/or with a combination of pull-push may be supported with the policy charging and rules function (PCRF). ANDSF complements both the PCRF and Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) module. By means of direct device (UE) communication at applications level towards the PCRF, the ANDSF provides indication to the device (UE) on the selection of network by reducing over the air processing required in the device (UE) to establish the wireless link.

Connection Manager Server


Pull relevant connection policy, cell-ID, time

Policy Control Server

Application Server

Push policy decision based on location, subscriber entitlement, application type

Subscriber database server

ANDSF client in CM

GGSN / PDSN

Internet

3GPP Access

3G Network WAG

Non-3GPP Access

Figure 5: ANDSF Architecture

APPLICATION NOTE

10

Detecting users, locations, applications or device (UE) type is crucial in determining the conditions for triggering ofoad, and under what circumstances. Increasingly, applications and devices (UE) are becoming more aware of their context what network they are connected to, what is the state of performance of the network and so forth for a given time and location. The ANDSF connection client pull subscriber state information (location based cell ID, precongured policies and time congurable connection policy), from the PCRF. The ANDSF connection client will check the existing policy. If the policy is alive, it applies the current policy. Otherwise, the ANDSF connection client will request for a new policy. Similarly, the business rule engine in the PCRF pushes dynamic and subscriber specic policy decisions by checking the subscriber specic data (eg: subscriber package, access entitlement/restriction) accordingly. Based on this information, PCRF dynamically modies the connection policy rule depending on the type of policy control required, acting as a policy management point. The policy decisions are delimited by validity of the location, time of day and discovery information. The ANDSF connection client is an intelligent module that learns of subscriber state and network state parameters over time to detect the corresponding bearer (WiFi, 3G, WiMAX) to the suitability of context (service, device type) connection. These parameters ensure that the operator retains visibility of which IP trafc are critical and retained on the 3G or WiFi connection. Through connection shifts based on context information and by combining knowledge about real-time network levels, applications and devices (past data usage history), gives greater control on ofoad strategy rather than a single isolated measurement of the radio conditions. By re-prioritizing subscribers on a congested cell site or ofoad all mobile data trafc or laptop to WiFi, during peak congestion periods, specic times of day, days, weeks or combination of them, operators can have the exibility of controlling bandwidth, QoS availability and application-specic service corresponding to service level agreements.

APPLICATION NOTE

11

Values of Dynamic Data Offloading Capability with ANDSF


Prioritization of Access Based on Network Availability
During network selection process, the ANDSF can provide a list of access networks available in the vicinity of the device (UE). The congurable network access discovery is facilitated by the ANDSF connection client that interacts with the PCRF at the application level communication. Dynamic discovery information of location by ANDSF connection client is communicated to the device (UE) in a pull mechanism. The PCRF provides information and policies on the neighboring cells to determine when to ofoad trafc or triggered due to congestion. By means of prioritization of congested networks, the PCRF pushes decisions to the device (UE) via the ANDSF connection client to manage congestion at per subscriber level or per cell level connection. In data ofoading, the intelligent policy control information exchange with ANDSF complements the ofoad decisions based on the availability of WiFi networks in range or otherwise.

Time Based Policy Control


The device (UE) initiated connection switching is a carried out by ANDSF connection client. The ANDSF connection client downloads the user policy relevant to location, connection policy and congurable time to live policy - matching it locally to the pre-provisioned operator policy. If the connection policy is alive, it applies the current policy. In case of the near expiry or already expired, the ANDSF connection client will request for new policy from the PCRF. Upon receiving the newly generated connection policy from PCRF, the ANDSF connection client replaces the existing policy with the new policy and the re-prioritized access network list comes into effect until expiry (ie: if switched from 3G to WiFi, the ANDSF connection client shall not connect to 3G network until expiry of policy or change of location). In case of failure to update policy, the ANDSF connection client can apply the localized rule manager within according to priority, best performance or most economic policy (eg: ANDSF connection clients connection policy is congured to WiFi by default).

APPLICATION NOTE

12

Application Policy Control5


The PCRF supports time based metering and subscriber based policy for fair usage control. Take for example a capped postpaid fair usage plan. Operators usually enforce an average bandwidth threshold policy with exibility of some burst access. Through the adaptive policy control approach of the PCRF, the operator has continuous access to real-time information about the subscribers behavior, collected throughout the session. If high level of trafc is continuously sustained over the aggregate total usage volume (daily/weekly/monthly) and the subscriber policy is breached, it may trigger the PCRF to generate a new policy decision based on subscriber specic data such as data plan/package, access entitlement and usage pattern. Similarly, the ANDSF connection client (at the per cell-level connection or per subscriber level) interacts with the PCRF data ofoad module by pushing the available SSID list within the vicinity to the PCRF access to network bandwidth resources accordingly. As a result, the selective data-ofoad is invoked with a re-ordered SSID list. The service level is downgraded to the next service tier to protect the network against abuse until the congestion subsides. Alternatively, the PCRF can also trigger alert notice to upgrade to the next service tier subject to charge difference, depending on the implementation congured. This approach enables the operator to distinguish between temporary, unexpected increases in subscriber trafc and network abuse. The mechanisms which context awareness from the perspective of PCRF can facilitate policy enforcement through the device (UE) include conguring WiFi on/off directive and forcing ofoad through the ANDSF connection client.

Power Management
The network discovery and selection has been an issue from a device (UE) perspective, because of battery consumption and turning on and off two radios simultaneously. With real-time network congestion state information from ANDSF server, the ANDSF connection client may employ the policy to avoid unnecessary background scan by the device (UE) to prolong battery life. Different access networks have different effects on the speed and connection establishment time that affects the intensity of battery consumption. The access network selection process can be made more efcient with the ANDSF ordered access network list.

Trafc Routing
Operators routing trafc directly to the Internet as a result of ofoading, loose the visibility of control over the subscriber policies. With a managed data ofoad approach, operators can have visibility of IP trafc which is routed over WLAN (eg: best effort internet trafc) and which IP trafc is maintained on the 3G link (eg: VoIP). The combination of PCRF, DPI and ANDSF to conduct granular data ofoad, ensures trafc routing across the network allocated to particular services can be optimized for specic bearer types. By having the visibility of IP trafc, operator can analyze user behavior related to the bulk of IP trafc generated. The added intelligence can be applied in user segmentation and creation of new service streams to segregate high ARPU potentials, moderate users and low bandwidth users.

APPLICATION NOTE

Application policy control is part of the ANDSF standard. The deployment is proprietary, depending on the implementation of the ANDSF server and network architecture. Greenpacket ANDSF client is currently testing the functional attribute with select vendors. (vendor names are withheld due to non disclosure agreement in effect)

13

Conclusion
Wi-Fi is suited for data ofoad as echoed in AT&T and PCCWs business model. Today millions of subscribers are already using WiFi as their primary source for data/internet access whether as part of their subscription plan or a free service. As observed, WiFi has played a role in relieving congestion, but at the same time generating more usage. The implementation of Dynamic Data Ofoading via ANDSF can further enhance the both the 3G and WiFi experience. Dynamic data ofoading is necessary to minimize congestion. The earlier a congestion trigger is controlled and managed the operator can continue to improve the distribution of network resources from the perspective of spectrum planning. Since networks do not behave identically nor follow the same trafc model, data ofoading exercise can facilitate balancing the load whenever congestion occurs. Policy enforcement and policy management is mapped more accurately with an overall knowledge of the network at any given point of time, rather than a silo representation at the aggregation point at the backend. More and more operators are embracing data ofoading as means to satisfy the bandwidth requirements. With dynamic data ofoading methodology, the operators can capitalize on extending its network, while maintaining a balanced network investment.

APPLICATION NOTE

14

Offload Early, Connect Intelligently


Greenpacket welcomes you to embark on dynamic data ofoading today with ANDSF for optimizing your network operations. At Greenpacket, we understand the demands placed on Operators like you. Our solutions are designed to give you the exibility to constantly deliver cutting-edge offerings without exhausting your capital and operating expenditures. With Greenpacket, limitless freedom begins now!

Free Consultation
If you would like a free consultation on how you can apply data ofoading with ANDSF, feel free to contact us at marketing.gp@greenpacket.com. Kindly quote the reference code, SAP0611 when you contact us.

APPLICATION NOTE

15

References
1. The Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Trafc Forecast Update 2011. 2. The Role of Adaptive Policy Control and Smart Caps in Managing Mobile Data Growth. 3. 3GPP TS 23.402 V8.0 3. Bearer-aware policy management and charging, Disruptive Analysis, Dean Bubley.

APPLICATION NOTE

16

About Green Packet


Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed on the Main Board of the Malaysian Bourse. Founded in San Franciscos Silicon Valley in 2000 and now headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Greenpacket has a presence in 9 countries and is continuously expanding to be near its customers and in readiness for new markets. We are a leading developer of Next Generation Mobile Broadband and Networking Solutions for Telecommunications Operators across the globe. Our mission is to provide seamless and unied platforms for the delivery of user-centric multimedia communications services regardless of the nature and availability of backbone infrastructures. At Greenpacket, we pride ourselves on being constantly at the forefront of technology. Our leading carrier-grade solutions and award-winning consumer devices help Telecommunications Operators open new avenues, meet new demands, and enrich the lifestyles of their subscribers, while forging new relationships. We see a future of limitless freedom in wireless communications and continuously commit to meeting the needs of our customers with leading edge solutions. With product development centers in USA, Shanghai, and Taiwan, we are on the cutting edge of new developments in 4G (particularly WiMAX and LTE), as well as in software advancement. Our leadership position in the Telco industry is further enhanced by our strategic alliances with leading industry players. Additionally, our award-winning WiMAX modems have successfully completed interoperability tests with major WiMAX players and are being used by the worlds largest WiMAX Operators. We are also the leading carrier solutions provider in APAC catering to both 4G and 3G networks. For more information, visit: www.greenpacket.com.

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