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SNOHOHISH COUNTY

Technical Rescue Task Force

Trench Rescue Manual

SNOHOMISH COUNTY TECHNICAL RESCUE TASK FORCE

Trench Rescue Manual

Draft: July 5, 2008

This manual may not be copied or distributed for other then use by the Snohomish County Technical Rescue Task Force. Thanks to Captain Andy Speier and Robert Chao for putting this document together. Some material reprinted with permission from Spec Rescue International Trench Rescue Manual and Buddy Mestnettes Trench Rescue Book.

T able of Contents
INTRODUCTION TO TRENCH RESCUE 1 TRENCH RESCUE INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS 9 CLASSIFYING TYPES OF SOILS 14 TYPES OF TRENCH COLLAPSES 19 EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS 23 SPOT SHORES 27 ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING FOR TRENCH RESCUE 38 PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS 47 STRAIGHT WALL TRENCH 47 SINGLE WALL SLOUGH/OUTSIDE WALER 49 INSIDE WALERS 51 DEEP WALL TRENCH 52 T TRENCH 53 T TRENCH 54 L TRENCH 56 ISOLATION TUNNELS, SHAFTS, AND ENGINEERED CLASS C SYSTEMS 59 COMMERCIAL TECHNIQUES60 VICTIM ACCESS, PACKAGING AND EXTRACTION 62 APPENDIX A - DEFINITIONS64 APPENDIX B MANUFACTURERS INFORMATION 71 REFERENCE FOR TRENCH OUTLINE 72

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INTRODUCTION TO TRENCH RESCUE


Trench and excavation safety are primarily covered under OSHA CFR 1926 Subpart P. The definitions we will discuss come directly from that document and the others outlined in the introduction of the student manual. In general, we dig trenches and excavations for a variety of reasons. Literally hundreds of trenches and excavations are open daily. They are used for the following reasons: Placement of utilities underground: water, gas, fuel, electricity, sewage and drain systems Removal of old utility systems Removal of underground storage tanks (UST) Foundations of buildings or large high rise operations Construction of basements Statistics show that accidents occurring in trenches have a 112% higher fatality rate than other construction activities. This represents about 100 fatalities per year and approximately 1000 to 1500 injures, of which approximately 150 are permanently disabling. Many of these victims were rescuers or co-workers attempting rescues of initial victims in collapse situations. For the purpose of trench rescues there are only two types of trench collapses. Those in which the victim is dead, or going to die, and those in which we can save the victim. Remember the F.A.I.L.U.R.E. Acronym, that most dead, dead people stay dead, dead, dead! As with all emergency incidents, fire and EMS services will be asked to respond to a variety of trench and excavation emergencies. Depending on the educational level and safety programs of contractors in your area, you may find yourself responding to more trench collapses. The frequency of trench collapses depends on the amount and type of new construction projects underway within your jurisdiction. If you have any of the following, you can expect to see trenching activity: Housing development construction New water, sewer, gas or electrical installations Tunnel or major water projects Pump stations

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High rise construction Usually, trench collapse operations are busy, confusing events that require extended operations, specialty equipment, and specially trained personnel. First response personnel who are not provided with awareness level training become part of the problem rather than part of the solution. Couple this with command officers who have almost no experience in managing these types of operations, and the confusion grows exponentially.

OSHA CFR 1926 SUBPART P, EXCAVATIONS


Understanding the excavation standard is important to rescue personnel for several reasons. Primarily, it will give you the data and information from which you can decide the appropriate protective systems and safety requirements for trenches. This information can be universally applied to any given rescue operation by using the "tool box" approach. Your toolbox should be full of ideas and techniques, all of which are not appropriate for all situations. The moral here is to maintain a large and varied (Tim Allen size) tool box of information. Remember, if all you have is a screw driver, it looks a lot like a hammer when you have to drive a nail. Secondly, knowledge of the standard, its requirements, protective systems, and soil classifications will qualify the user as a "Competent Person" according to the standard. This provides some liability cushion, but more importantly it allows the user to make rational decisions based on a given standard during rescue operations. We can evaluate the history of standard itself as follows: Previously part of "Contract Work Hours Standard Act" Contents and requirements to meet the standard were confusing which led to inadvertent noncompliance and insufficient protective systems. Typically, the protective systems used were more expensive to put into place than the fine associated with noncompliance. The current standard still contains about 80% of the original document, but it has been clarified to assure that the requirements can be better understood. Chief among the changes and additions to the new standard are the following: All criteria are performance-based standards. This means that protective systems that are not outlined in the appendix may be used if the data is available to show they are "performance tested and oriented. A consistent method of soil classification is applied, including the methods used to test soil samples. This allows protective systems to be designed according to the soil profile.

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Flexibility needs to be considered in regards to the development of protective systems, as stated above. Fine and penalties have been increased, with many fines as much as seven times the original amount the standard mandated. This may even include equipment seizure and impoundment during the investigation. The standard is divided into several key areas: Scope and Definitions General Requirements Protective Systems Appendices

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
General requirements are those items required during construction operations that a competent person must consider and act upon. From a rescue perspective this offers an excellent "Safety Guideline" from which we can draw tactical decisions Consider the following as Rescue safety and operational guidelines and considerations. 1. All trenches must be protected before entries except: Those made entirely of stable rock Those less than five feet in depth inspected by a competent person and found to have no indication of a potential cave-in. 2. Protection: Anything more than four feet in depth, including the height of the spoil pile must be protected. 3. Spoil Pile: Must have a two-foot setback from the lip. 4. Egress: Trenches four feet or greater in depth must have a means of egress. Every twenty-five (25) feet. LADDERS! 5. Atmospheric hazards: Trenches four feet or greater in depth must be tested before entry if an oxygen deficient or other hazardous atmosphere could exist. However, all trenches should be tested for the following: Oxygen deficiency or enrichment (less than 19.5% or greater than 23.5%) Hazardous atmosphere (toxic's in PPM)

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Flammable gases (greater than 10% of the LEL) Testing must occur as often as necessary to ensure a safe atmosphere and emergency rescue equipment must be readily available when a hazardous atmosphere could exist. A trench is an excavation, and therefore exempt from OSHA 1910.146 (the Confined Space Standard). Voluntary compliance with 1910.146 requirements will provide additional life safety and liability protection. The crucial point is that workers/rescuers must be protected by either ventilation or respiratory protection if the potential for an atmospheric hazard exists. 6. Water accumulation: Employees need to be protected from water by protective systems, dewatering operations, and/or a lifeline and harness where applicable. Remember, dewatering must be monitored by a competent person and surface runoff must be diverted. 7. Soil: a competent person must be able to determine the soil classification. 8. Inspection: A competent person must inspect the trench, (even during rescue operations) for: Secondary cave-in potential Protective systems failure Atmospheric monitoring or control Other hazardous conditions (can you think of some?)

TRENCH TERMINOLOGY
A trench, means a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width measured at the bottom is not greater than 15 feet. Excavation, includes a trench. It means any man made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface formed by the earths removal. Again, in practical terms, when a hole is more than 15 feet wide at its base, it is called specifically an excavation. Overall, an excavation is wider than it is deep. Other terminology that is important at this point in the lesson are: FLOOR: The bottom of the trench. WALLS: Anything that is in the vertical or upright, on the long axis. ENDS: The ends of the trench, where the walls end at the short axis. LIP: The area 360 degrees around the opening of the trench and extending down two feet. Very dangerous.

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TOE: The area where the walls and floor intersect at the bottom of the trench and two feet up. COMPETENT PERSON: The individual, usually the supervisor, who meets the OSHA standard to determine soil profiles, safety concerns, protective mechanisms, and other performance requirements.

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All of this terminology, and other terms, will be used throughout the lesson. If you have a question about a specific term, please refer to the definitions portion of the manual in Appendix A.

HOW OSHA* VIEWS TRENCH RESCUE OPERATIONS


During trench rescue operations we tend to "over-engineer" our rescue systems to protect ourselves from the worst case scenario. In effect we usually build our systems because we understand the most important people on the scene are not the victims, but the rescuers. Additionally, the time we are in the trench is limited, and therefore, considered by OSHA in compliant specific situations. Usually, our time in the trench is limited to hours, not days. Remember. The OSHA standard is designed to regulate protection systems engineered to last many days. Finally, we are entering the environment for an entirely different reason than a utility worker. Rescuers are entering to do rescue operations and not commercial construction.

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This is not to suggest that we should be surprised or embarrassed if they want to get involved. Remember, the backyard belongs to them, even if we are playing the game. Generally, OSHA will get involved if one of the following occurs: There is a civilian or rescuer injury or death from the collapse. (In fact, you should call OSHA whenever you have a civilian injury or death) As a matter of a death investigation of anyone in a construction incident When requested by the AHJ. In reality, the issue is one of cooperation with OSHA. We should not view OSHA as the enemy. We should keep them abreast of our activities in a rescue situation. Also consider taking time before the emergency to meet and confer with your local OSHA representative. Together, you should work for an understanding of each others roles. Often, they can provide a wealth of information and site support. *Where OSHA is used in Washington State we have L & I as the regulating and enforcing agency.

NONCOMPLIANCE AND TRENCH COLLAPSE EMERGENCIES


As a contractor preparing to lay a pipe string, I have some decisions to make. Obviously, I should determine the soil profile and use a pre-engineered system based on the soils potential for collapse. The choices I have are as wide and varied as the different types of materials that can be used to construct the system. Steel interlocking panels, preformed steel or aluminum trench boxes, solid wood uprights, and hydraulic or air shores are just a few of my choices. More on these types of systems later. The one consistent factor a contractor would closely evaluate regarding the type of trench protection is the cost in time and money for that system. It takes a long time to panel a 10 foot long, four foot deep trench, just to lay one section of pipe. Why not take a chance, dig the trench, lay the pipe, send someone down there to make the connection...... You get the picture. The faster I lay the pipe, the more money I will make, and ultimately the faster I can get to another job site. Another issue that no one is comfortable addressing is the demographic makeup of the trench collapse victim. I do not know about you, but you will not rescue very many three piece suits from trenches. What this means is that the guy in the trench is probably making minimum wage at best, and additionally needs to keep his job to support a family. Is this individual going to question the safety of a job site or trench? The sad part of our job as rescuers is knowing that the victim does not normally understand the hazards, and if he did, would not be in a position to speak up about them.

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ACCIDENTS WITHOUT A CAVE-IN


A collapse is not the only type of emergency that you will respond to concerning trenches. In fact, when it is all said and done, most of the emergencies in trenches deal with something other than a collapse. There are many instances, in fact most instances, involving trench emergencies when you will be summoned to the trench scene for something other than a collapse. The plain fact is that a lot of work goes on after the trench is dug. This work takes place in protected and non-protected trenches. The challenge for the rescuer is to not be lulled to sleep by a protected trench emergency, or assume that these rescues will be easy.

EQUIPMENT FAILURE AND LOAD MANAGEMENT


One of the problems you will be confronted with at the scene of a trench emergency that doesnt involve a collapse is the dreaded backhoe or excavator caused problem. Being mechanical, and subject to malfunction, these machines can cause terrible problems for workers operating in and around this equipment. Hydraulic failures during lifting operations, and rigging that is improper or not appropriate for the load being moved, lead to numerous construction accidents. Keep in mind all of the things that have to go right with just the equipment at a work site. The backhoe has to work properly, the load has to be rigged properly, and the rigging has to be substantial enough to carry the load. When problems occur in any one of these areas, you may well find yourself in a trench rescuing a trap or pinned worker. The machines operating at a trench site are powerful and the loads they are lifting sometimes heavy. Workers are frequently pinned between steel panels they are trying to set as sheeting or pipe that is being placed. When this happens, you as the rescuer may be faced with a trench that is only partially protected, and a potentially seriously injured victim. To make matters worse, the backhoe or excavator is operated by humans in situations where tolerances for maneuvering the load is small. Water and sewage pipes, as well as, steel plates being used as sheeting panels have been known to crush workers while being moved into place. Commonly, these scenes call for a rapid size up of the protective system being used, and a continuous evaluation of that system to determine if your extrication methods compromise the in place system.

RIGGING
Another problem is that the loads being moved in and around trenches are only as safe as the rigging and rigger that secures them. If a rigging strap breaks, or a cranes hydraulic system fails and a pipe falls on a worker you could be faced with a Mr. Pancake Man. Even if the trench is protected, getting the victim out may be a huge challenge.

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ATMOSPHERIC CONCERNS
Atmospheric problems are another area for consideration, and a frequent cause of problems at trench sites. With hazmat laws being what they are today, it is not unusual to find hazardous waste products buried in the ground. If you happen to be a worker, in or around a trench when one of these containers is broken, you could be confronted with an atmosphere that is well within the explosive ranges, above permissible exposure limits for toxic atmospheres, or has a low oxygen profile. Since it is impossible to determine what someone may have previously buried, extreme caution should be used when arriving at the scene with workers down in a trench. If there is just one worker down, one might assume an injury or a medical problem exists. If two or more victims are down, some internal alarm should be sounding. In law enforcement they call that a clue! If you are confronted with a worker who is down in a trench for no apparent reason, remember what we said earlier about the trench environment, and how critical it is to monitor the atmosphere. The rule of thumb in this situation is that if you have one worker down it may have been a heart attack or some other illness, if two or more workers are down, and no accident is apparent, you most likely are dealing with a hazardous atmosphere. Remember to monitor, and have a Haz Mat Team as a part of your initial response to a trench collapse.

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TRENCH RESCUE INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS


Incident management for trench collapse emergencies is not unlike any other IMS used for fires or vehicle accidents. There will always be a strategic, tactical, and task level. Someone will need to be in charge, and others will need to follow directions. Having a clearly defined approach to incident scene responsibilities and authority is critical to the safety of your patient and rescuers. Dividing trench scene duties and responsibilities allows the Incident Commander to implement a systematic method to handle a problem that can quickly overwhelm even the most effective and experienced officers. It also decreases the organizational span of control, and provides a measure of on scene accountability. Ultimately, the level to which you develop your IMS is going to be entirely dependent on the magnitude of the problem, and the number of resources you will have on the scene. If, for instance, your rescue team is made of you and three others it makes no sense to try to fill all of the job functions. For obvious reasons, many people will be filling many roles. In effect, you are the system. Listed below are the typical areas of the command structure that will need to be filled on a trench collapse emergency.

THE STRATEGIC LEVEL


The Incident Commander is responsible for developing the strategic goals for the operation. This person is ultimately responsible to determine and arrange the acquisition of all resources necessary to handle the incident. For instance, the Incident Commander may develop a strategy where the victim of a major collapse will be recovered using commercial techniques as provided by John Doe construction company. He would then call for the resources necessary to actually fulfill the strategic goals. How this will exactly take place will rest with the Operations Officer. More on the Operations Officer later. Directly under the Incident Commander is the TR Safety Officer. This function needs to be filled with someone who not only can spot unsafe acts, but also has the ability to anticipate activities that may lead to an accident. While everyone on the scene is responsible for their own safety, it is necessary for someone to have the big picture. It is critical the TR Safety Officer is familiar with the environment and its potential hazards. This is a very important position on a trench emergency, and consequently is the only one other than the Incident Commander that can halt the rescue effort for any reason, at any time. The TR Safety Officer must be a Rescue Technician. The Liaison Officer will often have to be implemented on a trench collapse operation. This is because you can expect that many agencies other than your own will be involved in the rescue effort. Someone has to gather critical interagency information from all parties involved, and at the same time buffer the

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Incident Commander from being overwhelmed with any of the information that is not critical to the decision making process. Some examples of other agencies include the Police Department, Utility Contractor, Electric Company, Water Department, Red Cross, and OSHA just to name a few. An Aide assigned to the IC may also perform some of these duties. The Public Information Officer, if established, will provide the media with a direct point of contact for on scene information. This person can provide frequent updates to the media on the progress of the rescue effort, and more importantly educate them on your rescue methods and difficulties. Keep in mind, these events dont happen every day. For that reason you will need to get as much positive mileage possible out of each occurrence. Picture the PIO on your first collapse telling the media that the rescuers are doing all they can, but lack the specialized equipment necessary to speed up the operation. Next thing you know the equipment purchase requisitions are flying out the door like theyre on fire. To me, thats good stuff.

THE TACTICAL LEVEL


The tactical level of the incident management structure takes the strategic plan and implements the tactics necessary to achieve success. Using the previous example, this level would decide on the actual commercial techniques that would be required. The functions at this level consist of the Operations, Logistics, Finance, and Planning sections. NOTE: Since rarely do trench emergencies necessitate the use of a Finance or Planning Officer we will leave the explanation of those functions for a class on IMS, and instead concentrate on those areas that are almost always filled. The Rescue Group Leader is the person who actually runs the incident. The individual assigned this position is responsible for overall coordination of the rescue effort, and the implementation of the tactical decisions that will make the Incident Commanders strategy successful. Included in the chain of responsibility are all of the individual groups that provide direct emergency support to the trench rescue effort, including the Extrications Officer, Panel Team, Cutting Team, and Shoring Team. The Logistics Officer is responsible for obtaining the appropriate equipment and personnel for the Rescue Group Leader to deploy.

TASK LEVEL
The Entry Office/Team Leader works under the direction of the Rescue Group Leader. Like in a Confined Space. They are responsible to control and coordinate the access into the trench. Insure that all personnel entering the trench are wearing appropriate PPE (and a class III harness), and that their entry is in coordination with the Shoring Officer. The Medical Officer normally works at the direction of the Rescue Group Leader and is responsible for establishing a medical control area to receive any on scene

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rescuer injury, and to provide for patient care as is necessary. They may also establish a transportation section in the case of mass casualty disasters. Additional duties may include assisting the Rehab section with monitoring of rescuer vital signs. *In Snohomish County we have Rescue Techs that are cross trained as Paramedics. The Extrication Officer is responsible for the actual extrication of the patient and all of those activities that are required to facilitate the rescue. This position coordinates the various support functions and insures the proper steps in the recovery effort are followed.

EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTIONS


Not all people at a trench collapse are going to get glory jobs. Nor do all people want them. However, the trench support activities are a very integral part of the trench rescue operation, and cannot be neglected if you are going to be successful. It takes a tremendous amount of manpower to handle a trench collapse situation, and most of it will be performing auxiliary functions. Below are a list, and description, of some of these support functions. Air supply operations will be necessary if you are considering using pneumatic air shores or air bags. Persons assigned this task will need to assure proper operation of the equipment, and gather and secure the necessary air supply. The cutting team will be responsible for all cutting and manufacturing of systems that contain wood. Examples of cutting jobs include wedges, strongbacks, and shores. Make sure you get competent people who can handle a saw for this function. The cutting team works for the Shore Team Leader. The panel team is required to set up, carry, and install all shields or panels. Make no mistake about it, being on the panel team is hard work. The panel team needs to be a group of at least four people who are your designated mongos. (A mongo is a guy who is bigger and stronger than he is smart, but when you give him a job there is no stopping him). Keep in mind, their job is one that goes like hell when panels are called for, then has slack time until termination. The Panel team works for the Shore Team Leader. The shoring team will be required to assemble and install all shores and walers required to make the protective system. This may involve the installation of wood, pneumatic, or another type shore. The persons assigned this role needs to have a good deal of manual dexterity and be efficient with hammers, nails, and other hand tools. More on this in the shoring section.

LOGISTICS
Equipment and logistical support functions entails all areas of equipment storage and dissemination that takes place on the scene. It is vitally important to keep all equipment not in use at a predetermined location. That way, someone can keep track of it and determine its availability at any given time in the emergency.

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The Logistics Officer is responsible for ordering and maintaining adequate resources on the scene to handle additional request for equipment and manpower. This would include establishing an area to gather manpower for future deployment, and to maintain\store equipment. TIP: If you have any anal retentive people on your team this is a great job for them. For trench work, the rehabilitation sector is an absolute necessity. Rescuers will be working very hard for long periods of time and will need rest. This function should set up a rotation for medical monitoring and fluid replacement concerns. TIP: If you are an Incident Commander, make an effort to thank the support people and recognize their contribution. The overall success of the incident will be directly related to success of the trench rescue support functions.

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TRENCH RESCUE INCIDENT COMMAND CHART

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CLASSIFYING TYPES OF SOILS


The system of classifying soils is a hierarchical approach to determine the performance of a soil based on a decreasing order of stability. In a nutshell, you are required to make some general assumptions about what products are in the soil and how they can be expected to behave when excavated. Each type of soil represents a varying degree of danger based on the characteristics that make it a part of that class. In multiple layers, the classification will be determined by the layer that is normally least stable. All classifications need to be determined based on one visual and one manual test as performed by a competent person. Being able to classify the various soil types will allow the rescuer to pick the appropriate protective system, and more importantly gauge the risk involved in any potential collapse situation.

STABLE ROCK
The least dangerous, from a collapse perspective, is stable rock. This type of soil is a natural solid material that can remain standing after excavation. The danger associated with stable rock excavations generally is from anything but a collapse. This does not mean that some excavated products cannot fall on a worker. As such, accidents in this environment are usually from worker falls, or equipment failures that cause entrapments. TYPE A Type A soils are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square foot (tsf) or greater. Examples of this type of soil include clay, silty clay, clay loam, and sandy clay loam. Cemented soils are also considered Type A. However, no soil is Type A if: 1. The soil is fissured, 2. The soil is subject to vibration, 3. The soil has been previously disturbed, 4. The soil is part of a sloped soil layer that is greater than 4 Horizontal to 1 vertical or, 5. The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified as a less stable material.

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TYPE B Type B soils are those cohesive materials with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf but less than 1.5 tsf, or a granular cohesion less material including angular gravel, silt, silt loam, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam. Type B may also be a previously disturbed soil, unless it would otherwise be classified as Type C. It may also be a soil that meets the unconfined compressive force requirements for Type A, but is fissured or subject to vibration. In addition, it could be a material that is part of a sloped system that is less steep than 4 horizontal to 1 vertical. TYPE C Type C soils are those cohesive materials with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf or less. This includes granular soils, sand, and sandy loam. Type C soils are also submerged soil, or soils from which water is freely flowing, or submerged rock that is not stable. Additionally, this includes sloped or layered systems where the layers dip into the excavation at a slope of 4 horizontal to 1 vertical or steeper. It should be noted that once a soil has been classified and conditions change that determined the original classification, a reclassification must be done by a competent person. This could require a change in the type of protective system picked to accomplish your rescue, or at the least change the risk benefit of the rescue attempt. C- 60 Soil There is a good possibility that during your education in trench rescue you will come upon another classification of soil that is not listed in the OSHA Appendix. Developed by Speed Shore for identifying a class of soil that is a moist cohesive soil, or a moist dense granular soil which does not fit into Type A or Type B classifications, and is not flowing or submerged. This material can be cut with near vertical sidewalls and will stand unsupported long enough to allow shoring to be properly installed. This is allowed because OSHA recognizes the use of tables other than those given in the OSHA standard. It is only permitted if the tabulated data is approved by a registered professional engineer for the use in design and construction of the protective system. The key here is the term registered professional engineer. Based on this OSHA interpretation, you may indeed hear of additional sub categories of recognized soil types. SOIL TESTING PROCEDURES While we will always shore to the standard for Type C soil below are listed several techniques to perform a soil analysis to determine the type. VISUAL TEST The visual testing requirements to effectively determine a soil classification are accomplished by inspecting the excavated material, the soil that forms the trench

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wall and the excavation site in general. This overall site evaluation will help offset the fact that layers in the excavated dirt may change the deeper the excavation is dug. Remember, soil classification is based on the weakest soil in a layered system. When the dirt is being excavated, or when you are arriving on the scene, observe the soil that has been previously excavated. This will help you determine the initial cohesiveness of the soil. Soil that is primarily made up of fined grained material that remains in clumps is said to be cohesive. Soil that breaks up easily and is primarily composed of coarse grained sand or gravel is granular. The trench particles will tell you a lot about the soil, but the most important area of the visual assessment would be the trench walls and the area surrounding the trench lip. On the trench walls, look for layered soil and any indication that the soil was previously disturbed. Disturbed soil can be indicated by the presence of utilities. As previously mentioned, a mixed soil will usually not be cohesive. In general, like particles of soil are the most likely to be attracted to each other and remain attracted. A fair visual evaluation also considers if the trench wall contains fissures or tension cracks that could suggest a potential collapse. Openings, or spalling, in the exposed trench are indicators that the walls are under tension and subject to rapid release and subsequent collapse. The area around the trench should also be checked for cracks in the soil That would indicate soil movement. This would likely be caused by the trench walls falling into the trench which creates voids in the earth surrounding the walls. The hydrostatic forces can also be analyzed by looking for indications of standing, seeping, or running water. Water adds weight, and weight adds more tension to the trench walls. This is especially true of surface water that has pooled near the trench opening. As a clue to the anticipated hydrostatic forces look for indications that the contractor has well pointed the area surrounding the excavation. Well points are used to remove excess water from saturated soil before digging a trench. MANUAL TEST A manual test is necessary to determine the various characteristics of the soil, and to learn its relative strength when placed under a force. These types of tests are used to generate an assumption as to the materials overall ability to free-stand. PLASTICITY TEST The plasticity of the soil is the property that allows the soil to be deformed or molded, without appreciable change in total volume. The test is done by molding a moist or wet sample into a ball, and then attempting to roll it into threads as thin as 1/8-inch in diameter. A cohesive material can be rolled into threads without crumbling. As a rule, if a two-inch length of 1/8-inch thread can be held on one end without tearing, the soil is said to be cohesive.

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RIBBON TEST The ribbon test is used to determine how much clay or silt the soil contains. This test is done with a saturated fine soil and fine sands that are rolled together between the palms of the hands until a cylinder approximately 3/4 inch thick by 6 inches long is formed. The cylinder is then placed across the palm of the hand and squeezed between the thumb and forefinger until it is approximately 1/8 inch thick. The squeezed portion is then allowed to hang over the side of the hand. If the cylinder forms 6 ribbons in length or longer it is said to be clay. The longer the ribbon, the more clay the soil contains. If it forms shorter broken ribbons then the soil contains silt. A clay loam will barely form a ribbon. DRY STRENGTH TEST A dry strength test is done to determine the propensity of the soil to fissure. If the soil is dry and crumbles on its own, or with moderate pressure, into individual grains or fine powder, it is granular. If the soil is dry and falls into clumps that break into smaller clumps, but the smaller clumps can only be broken with difficulty, it may be clay in any combination with gravel, sand, or silt. If the dry soil breaks into clumps that do not break into smaller clumps and can only be broken with difficulty, and there is no visual indication the soil is fissured, the soil may be considered unfissured. THUMB PENETRATION TEST The thumb penetration test can be used to estimate the unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soils. This type of test is accomplished by placing your extended thumb against the exposed material and attempting to push it through the sample. Type A soils can be readily indented by the thumb, but only penetrated by the thumb with great effort. Type C soils, can be easily penetrated several inches by the thumb and molded with little effort. It should be noted that this test should be done as soon as practical after excavation to keep the drying influences of the environment from effecting the sample. DRYING TEST The drying test is used to determine the difference between cohesive material with fissures, unfissured cohesive material, and granular material. The procedure involves drying a sample of soil that is approximately one inch thick and six inches in diameter until it is thoroughly dry. If the sample develops cracks as it drys, significant fissures are indicated. Samples that dry without cracking should be broken by hand. If considerable force is required to break a sample, the soil has significant cohesive material content. The soil should then be classified as an unfissured cohesive material and the unconfined compressive strength should be determined. If a sample breaks easily by hand, it is either fissured cohesive material or a granular material. To distinguish between the two, pulverize the dried clumps of the sample by hand or by stepping on them. If the clumps do not pulverize easily, the material is cohesive with fissures. If they pulverize easily into very small fragments, the material is granular.

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PENETROMETER AND SHEAR VANE There are a couple of instruments that can be used to determine the unconfined compressive strength of the soil sample. The most popular of these devices is the pocket penetrometer and shear vane. When used correctly, the amount of force required to insert the instrument into the wall correlates to an unconfined compressive strength of that section of sample. These instruments require the soil to have some moisture content to extract a correct reading. This is primarily because the instrument must be pushed into the wall or sample and then read numerically. All of a soils characteristics need to be evaluated to correctly assume any degree of confidence in your protective system or your rescuers safety. To illustrate how critical testing and proper evaluation can be, look at trench fatality statistics and subsequent soil profiles. For instance, an overwhelming majority of trench fatalities occur in clay and mud. This is because these soils look safe as compared to sand or gravel. Remember, do not draw conclusions about a trenchs safety based on its appearance. Rely on your newfound knowledge of testing procedures.

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TYPES OF TRENCH COLLAPSES


Collapses can be somewhat predictable based on soil profile and the, type, size, and conditions under which the trench was excavated. Being able to recognize the types of collapse will help you determine the trenchs potential for collapse, and the proper protective system appropriate for making it safe.

The spoil pile slide is the result of the excavated earth placed too close to the lip of the trench. This type of collapse is not as common as you might think, as most contractors recognize the hazard associated with placing the spoil pile too close to the trench lip. A spoil pile slide occurs when the soils natural angle of response becomes greater than the soils cohesive tendency. When this happens, the spoil pile slides back into the opening. Another factor that creates this situation is that newly excavated dirt may have a certain amount of moisture content that provides some cohesiveness. As the soil dries it becomes less stable. Remember, as we suggested earlier, a hole in the ground wants to naturally fill itself back up.

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A slough failure is the loss of part of the trench wall that can be the result of several conditions. Frequently, the force associated with unconfined hydrostatic pressure becomes greater than the soils ability to stand. It can also be caused by the spoil pile being placed too close to the trench lip. As the extra weight of the earth is piled up, it is transmitted in a downward force communicated through the trench walls. When this pressure exceeds the soils ability to hold it, a failure will occur. Cracks in and around the excavated surface and multiple soil layers are key indicators that you may have the potential for a slough collapse.

A shear wall collapse is indicated by a section of soil losing its ability to stand and collapsing into the trench along a mostly vertical plane. This condition can be caused by cracks in the earths surface exposed to the weather over time. As the water runs into the opening, it washes out dirt and then dries. Over time, this washing and drying action causes the hole to become deeper and deeper, until it is not supported on two sides and a wall of dirt falls into the trench. Shear wall collapses are normally associated with fairly cohesive soils. That factor makes them look safe. Big problem! As you might imagine, this type of failure can create a big time collapse situation.

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A toe failure is a slough that occurs at the bottom of the trench where the floor meets the wall. As the soil falls into the trench it creates an opening at the bottom that is characteristic of a cantilever. It can be caused by a sand pocket, or the effects of water at the bottom of the trench.

This is a very dangerous type of failure for many different reasons. First, the rescuers might not notice the toe failure until they are standing on top of the cantilevered earth. It then becomes entirely feasible that they will get a close view of the hole by virtue of being in it. Secondly, the situation is hard to fix until after a protective system is in place.

The effects of water accumulation can also cause a bell pier condition. This type of situation is not sudden, but more the result of a long term toe failure on both sides of the trench floor at the toe, due mostly to the effects of water. The bell pier condition is also dangerous for the reasons previously discussed.

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A rotational failure is characterized by a scoop shaped collapse that starts back from the trench lip and transmits itself to the trench wall in a half moon shape. These types of failures can result in the movement of large sections of soil to the trench floor. What remains is a collapse that looks like someone took a spoon and carved out a chunk of earth. If the rotational failure is large enough, it creates a difficult protective system problem for rescuers, since the void will need to be filled at some point in the operation.

A last type of collapse we will discuss is the wedge failure. This type of failure normally occurs with intersecting trenches. It is characterized by an angle section of earth falling from the corner of two intersecting trenches. The wedge failure can be sudden and catastrophic. You will learn how to manage intersecting trenches in the Technician Level of this trench rescue course.

While it may not be difficult to determine what type of collapse has taken place, it is quite another thing to understand why. Keep each of these types of collapse in the back of your head. As we talk about the physical forces associated with collapse, the picture of why it happens will become clearer.

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EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS


Pneumatic air shores Pneumatic air shores, like those manufactured by Air Shore International or Paratech, come in a wide variety of lengths. Made from light weight tubular aluminum the pneumatic shore is quick, strong, and dependable. In general, they are available in lengths from 3 feet to 12 feet and come with a multitude of extensions and attachments, including swivels bases, which allow the shore to be shot in an angle less than horizontal and still be effective. The shore is extended by using compressed air at pressures as recommended by the manufacture. After extension, the shore is manually locked to prevent a collapse under load. Tip: Most shores are only rated for 400 pounds of lateral force when installed. The bottom line is dont stand on them. They are not steps, so use the ladder.

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Airshore Strut System (See Appendix B for additional information regarding Airshore Strut Systems) Equipment Needed: Airshore Struts Strut Extensions Strut Bases Air Supply (SCBA Bottles) Air Supply Hoses Pressure Regulator Dual Deadman Controller Safety Concerns: Shot struts @ 200 psi Struts are not designed to accept more than 1 extensions. Do not use struts as a ladder. Never point a strut at yourself or others. Delivery Pressure not to exceed 250 psi. Use only one 23 swivel with flat base. Strut (With Standard Base-Both Ends) and Extension Lengths: A = 13 to 18 B = 21 to 28 C = 26 to 37 D = 45 to 67 E = 63 to 97 F = 114 to 144 Extension Lengths of 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 (Note: 48 and 72 extensions attach only to barrel side. For installation and removal instructions, refer to Appendix B.)

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Determine proper strut configuration and select components (strut length, extension and base plate). A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. Attach base plates. Connect the regulator to the Dual Controller with an airline and connect an airline to the strut. If needed secure base plates with nails to any wood blocking being used. Place the strut in the desired position between surfaces to be held apart. If safe and stable, manually extend the strut until the base plates are in contact with surfaces being held apart. If unsafe and unstable, permit air pressure alone to extend strut. Slowly open the air cylinder supply to the pressure regulator on the SCBA bottle. Slowly adjust knob on pressure regulator to a minimum regulated pressure of 200 PSI (not to exceed 250 psi) Slowly press the RED UP button on the controller until it is fully depressed to slowly extend the strut. Extend strut to desired length. To stop air delivery to strut, turn the air tank or pressure regulator shut-off valve to the closed position or disconnect the air hose from the strut. Repeat steps A through L until all struts are in position.

L.

Takedown Procedure: Take down and repositioning is accomplished by removing the load pressure and then manually operating the release ring to permit collapsing of the strut. If during take down, a load shift begins to forcibly collapse the strut, simply letting go of the release ring will again lock the strut in the extended position at the time the release ring was released.

Typical Airshore Setup

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Detail of Setup with Extension and Flat Base

Detail of Setup with 23 Swivel Base and Locking Pins

Detail of Airshore Controllers.

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SPOT SHORES
Spot shoring is a method that allows rescuers to strategically shore difficult areas while avoiding the need for extensive backfilling behind sheeting. These are individual struts that are pressurized directly into a sheared or sloughed portion of the trench. Small, approximately 2x 2 uprights are typically cut and pre-nailed to the struts and are tactically placed within a determined shoring grid. Maximum distance between spot shoring is 4. Distance between shores is reduced due to cracks, and stress on the area from weight above. The uprights are used in place of sheeting.

With air or mechanical shores the shore must be between 1 -2 from the top and bottom of the trench. Airshores have a 2 spot shore rail that attaches to an Airshore flat base for spot shoring applications. In Snohomish County whenever possible shoring will be done with traditional sheeting and shoring applications. When due to the difficult surfaces encountered upon initial arrival at a trench collapse spot shoring will be used to create a safe zone for the victim and rescuers. Areas adjacent to the collapse area will use sheeting whenever possible as it prevents running debris from entering the trench and is a more stable safe zone as each shore is nailed in place and attached to the sheeting creating a metal and wood trench box.

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For additional information regarding spot shores see Appendix B.

HIGH PRESSURE AIR BAGS


Equipment Needed: Cribbing Air Bags Air Supply (SCBA Bottles) Air Supply Hoses (multiple colors and lengths) Pressure Regulator Air Pressure Controller Safety Relief and Control Valve

Safety Concerns: Proper PPE at all times. Never exceed the maximum inflation pressure (Normally 118 psi). Do not handle hoses or lift bags while system is pressurized. Do not connect or disconnect system components when the system is pressurized. Always be on opposite side of any expected movement. Always crib on both sides of lift if possible. Never stack more than two lift bags during operation. Use proper sized bags for load. Inflate only enough to achieve desired lift. Always inflate bag slowly to prevent possible load shifting. Use cribbing or tools to adjust cribbing or bags under load.

High Pressure Air Bag Specifications: See attachment.

Inflation Procedure: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Proceed to inflate bags after components are interconnected, the lift bags are positioned and cribbing is in position. Be sure all shut-off valves are in the closed position prior to opening the air supply to the system. Slowly open the air supply to the pressure regulator. Adjust the pressure regulator to increase the delivery pressure from 0 psi to 135 psi. Slowly open pressure regulator shut-off valve. Open the shut-off valve on the safety in-line relief valve. Press and release the controller inflation valve to slowly inflate lift bag to required height or 118 psi.

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H.

Crib with the lift.

Two Bag Lift: Smaller lift bag shall be on top. Bottom lift bag shall be inflated first until the top lift bag contacts the load. The top lift bag is then inflated to achieve the desired lift. If additional lift is required at full inflation of the top lift bag, the bottom lift bag is further inflated.

Deflation Procedure: A. B. If lift bag is to be removed after it is deflated, cribbing must be in position. To deflate an inflated bag disconnected from a controller, open and close the shut-off valve on the safety in-line relief valve to slowly. To deflate an inflated bag connected to a controller, press and release deflation valves repeatedly to slowly deflate the bag.

C.

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Typical High Pressure Airbag

High Pressure Controller and Accessories

Typical High Pressure Airbag Setup

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LOW PRESSURE AIR BAGS


Equipment Needed: Low Pressure Air Bags (Cushions) Air Hoses Air Supply Pressure Regulator Dual Controller with Safety Relief Valves Webbing or Rope Cribbing

Safety Concerns: Proper PPE at all times. Always crib and secure the load as it is being lifted. Never work under a load that is supported only by air cushions. Remain clear of operating area of air cushions. Avoid contact with sharp or jagged objects. Make sure valves are closed before turning on your air supply. Always inflate air cushions slowly to minimize the chance of shifting. Maximum lift pressure 7.25 psi.

Low Pressure Air Bag (Cushion) Specifications: See attachment.

Inflation Procedure: A. Connect air supply (SCBA) to pressure regulator. B. Connect supply hose from regulator to controller and proper hose to desired air cushion. C. Attach webbing or rope to web loops on cushions for positioning and/or retrieval. D. Make sure valves are closed before turning on your air supply. E. Open air supply slowly and adjust pressure regulator (125 psi max). F. Inflation valves on controller are turned counterclockwise allowing air flow to the bag, and to stop inflation, turn inflation valve clockwise. G. Inflate air cushions to 7 psi. H. Controller safety relief valves will open @ 7.25 psi to prevent over inflation. I. If lifting, crib with the lift. Deflation Procedure: Turn the Deflation Valves counterclockwise to allow air to escape the valve assembly.

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Air cushions will deflate slowly by design.

Specifications

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CONSIDERATIONS FOR ALL TRENCHES The overall objective of this trench rescue manual is to provide you with as much information as possible concerning trench rescue. Once again, stressing the tools for your tool box approach. With this in mind it can be assumed that more tools will equate to a better success rate when you attempt to make a repair. What this means to you, is that all of the techniques, procedures, and suggestions mentioned in this manual will work, but not in every situation. In fact, what may be an excellent technique in one case, will make you look like a complete buffoon in another case. Our task then, is to expose you to as many of the ideas, procedures, and techniques as possible so that you stand a good chance of success when the situations look different than you had anticipated. As we journey down the road of techniques, keep in mind there are one hundred ways to do the same thing right. The individual techniques and procedures discussed here are not the only ones that can be used. Additionally, we could argue until the cows come home, that this one thing should take place before the other thing. (Typical behavior for the tech rescue nut who is always looking for ways to make the job easier and things to argue about.) The bottom line is this: dont get bogged down with technical procedures, or with someone who tells you there is only one way to do anything. Just because this manual says do it in these steps, dont for a minute think that someone else doesnt have different steps that would be equally successful. These are just the ones that I have found to be successful, and with that I know for a fact that if you follow them, you to will also be successful. There are certain steps that will be taken on all trench emergencies. For the sake of organization and explanation they are listed below as generic to trenches of all types. That is to say, that you will need to consider them on all trench rescues, regardless of the type or technique used for protection. Therefore, after this introduction they will not be mentioned under the specific techniques that follow in this chapter. Provide hazard control to eliminate any real or potential hazards that could jeopardize the rescue attempt before the protective system is built. Always establish an Incident Management System that assigns accountability and responsibility for specific job functions to specific individuals. This will help organize your scene and provide for the necessary accountability of personnel. Monitor the area around the trench and in the trench before and during the extrication effort. Remember to monitor for oxygen, flammability, and toxicity before taking any actions. Refer to the chapter on atmospheric monitoring for action levels and parameters for entry.

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Ground pads will be needed on all trench calls to help distribute the additional load produced when rescuers are working in and around the trench. Ventilation will need to be considered on all trench collapses even if not used. Remember, ventilation has advantages and disadvantages. If it is not needed, dont do it! Ladder access should be within 25 feet of all rescuers in the trench. In all cases, ladders placement needs to be one of the first things done. Just in case one of the rescuers or bystanders falls in the trench before the protective system is built. The smart thing to do is provide two points of egress and ingress for all persons in the trench. Event documentation is critically important from a cost recovery standpoint. That is if there is a mechanism in place to recoup the cost of the rescue effort. From the legal prospective you can bet that someone is going to get sued if there is a significant injury of fatality. Keep good records.

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Always provide an after call critique for your personnel. These calls dont happen very often, so critique them and handle any performance discrepancies.

EDGE PROTECTION:
In order to displace the weight of the rescuers, reduce lip surcharge, and provide a safe work surface; edge protection shall be applied around the lip of the trench once it is cleared. Common edge protection would be the use of plywood or two 2x 10s side by side on each side of the trench. Backboards would also work well for this application if lumber were difficult to obtain. Be sure that the ends for the trench have edge protection as well.

BRIDGING:
Bridging provides access to both sides of the trench. Two solid 2x12s nailed together or a 2x12 on top of a roof ladder works well. Bridges can run in either direction (perpendicular or parallel to the trench) and rescuers can be creative and construct as many as necessary. See photos for examples of bridging. Bridges are also used to support entry ladders directly over the victim. When setting the initial bridge, it is important to secure it in an area which will allow the placement of the butt of the entry ladder as close as possible to the victim, yet have a sufficient ladder angle to enable a rescuer to work off the ladder backwards. Anytime a bridge is to support an entry ladder it must be secured to the edge protection with preferably duplex nails.

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HAZARD CONTROL

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ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING FOR TRENCH RESCUE


At any given time it would be appropriate to ask yourself, why do I need to know atmospheric monitoring to handle a trench rescue? I would have even probably asked this same question some years ago. Unfortunately, in this day and time, our thought process needs to be much broader from a hazard recognition perspective. A note of caution at this point; this is not a manual on Confined Space Entry and Rescue. For that reason, the amount of material we cover concerning atmospheric monitoring will not be as comprehensive as it could be. Remember, this is a trench book, so dont rely on it as an inclusive guide to atmospheric monitoring or hazards associated with atmospheres. This information should be used to make you aware of potential problems, and what actions you should take with regard to hazardous atmospheres. The advent of the HazWhoper standard has brought with it a liability for anyone who has, or is trying to dispose of a hazardous substance. This has brought about a whole new set of problems for rescuers who unknowingly get involved in improperly disposed of materials. Keep in mind that it cost a lot less to bury something than to properly dispose of it. How does this effect the procedures used in a trench rescue you ask? Lets look at a couple of very real scenarios to form the basis of our discussion on atmospheric monitoring.

CONFINED SPACE OR TRENCH


OSHA believes there are confined spaces in about 238,853 workplaces and of the 12.2 million workers employed at these establishments, approximately 1.6 million enter 4.8 million permit required confined spaces each year. While a trench is not exactly a confined space by definition, lets examine the definition of a confined space to see any similarities exist. Confined Space: Large enough and configured so that an employee can bodily enter the space; Has limited mean of egress for entry or exit; Is not designed for continual employee occupancy; Has an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere; May also have any of the following; Material with the potential of engulfing the entrant

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An internal configuration that could trap or asphyxiate an entrant due to converging walls, or sloping and tapered floors. Any other recognized serious safety hazard. Atmospheric Monitoring The use of air/monitoring and sampling equipment is one of the most important aspects of a confined space or trench rescue operations. During your rescue effort someone on your team, (usually Hazmat) or a support function, should be providing periodic monitoring in and around the trench. Monitoring is used not only to detect the presence of IDLH atmospheres, but can also be used as a tactical guide to ventilation of the trench. Before we go any further, we need to have an understanding of some basic terms that apply to monitoring and sampling. This will enable us to better understand the technical operation of monitoring and the response data we get from a given sample.

DEFINITIONS
Alarm settings: An alarm setting is preset level within a monitor at which the monitor will display a visual alert and sound an audible alarm. Alarm settings are established by the manufacturer and based on OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) levels for a given product. For confined space we refer to these as Action Guidelines. Detection: The act of discovering the presence of a contaminant in a given atmosphere is called detection. Detection Range: This is a term that is used to express the unit of measure that the monitor uses to detect the vapor for which it was intended. Combustible Gas Indicators (CGI) usually have a display showing percentage (%) of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). Toxic sensors such as Carbon Monoxide or Hydrogen Sulfide display in parts per million (PPM) Dusts: Solid materials that have been sanded, grounded or crushed. Explosive limits: A reading or display on the monitor given in percentage indicating a percentage of gas in air mixture. Can be known as Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) or Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) Flammable Range: Is the percentage of vapor in air which much be present to sustain combustion should ignition occur? Flash Point: The minimum temperature of a liquid that generates enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture in the vapor space above the liquid.

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Ignition Temperature: The minimum temperature to which a liquid must be raised in order to initiate and sustain combustion. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health: (IDLH) Maximum concentration from which a person could escape (in the event of respirator failure) without permanent or escape-impairing effects within 30 minutes. Lower explosive limit: (LEL) The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame occurs on contact with a source of ignition. Usually expressed as a percentage of gas vapor in air. Oxygen Sensor: Is an electrochemical sealed unit that measures the percentage of oxygen in the air. The sensor has two electrodes, an electrolyte solution and a membrane which separates the two. As oxygen passes through the membrane, a reaction with the solution and the electrodes produces an electrical current which causes the sensor to display the percent of oxygen (02) found. Permissible Exposure Limit: (PEL) Average concentration that must not be exceeded during an 8-hour work shift or a 40-hour workweek. Upper Explosive Limit: (UEL) The maximum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame occurs when in contact with a source of ignition.

MONITORING CONSIDERATIONS
Before you can actually monitor a space, there are several things you should consider regarding the atmosphere or potential hazards that exist at a trench rescue operation. 1. What is the nature of the hazard I am monitoring? You should know something about the product you are testing for from your evaluation, MSDS, or intelligence you gather at the scene. Do you know the upper and lower explosive limits for the particular product? Is the atmosphere oxygen deficient which might create interference with instrument response? What is the vapor pressure of the product and what is the outside temperature? Is it likely that this combination will create enough vapors to support ignition? Remember if a product is producing vapors then the product is coming after you, you dont have to go after it to be intimate with it, and this is a very dangerous situation if not controlled. Finally is the vapor a health hazard and is the material lighter or heavier than air, a key to knowing where the product might lay and how it might move. 2. Are there sources of electrical interference around? Electromagnetic fields, high voltage, static electricity, portable radios and things like cellular phones can interfere with your meter readings. Many current instruments offer RF shielding as a feature. Consider this when you operate. 3. What are the environmental site conditions you are operating in? Things like temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, elevation, sunlight, particulates, and oxygen concentration has to be considered.

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4. Are there gases and vapors that are interfering with your monitor? An example of this is the lead in leaded gasoline. This permanently desensitizes the filament in the combustible gas indicator so that it is not able to detect anything! Certain acids and corrosives will eat your monitor and the sensors and render the meter useless. Manufacturers supply information about their particular meters, and you should be familiar with yours. Action Guidelines In order to tactically use the monitor information, you must have action guidelines established. In most instances these guidelines are outlined in OSHA 1910.146 ( the confined space standard) and should be incorporated into your SOP S. Action guidelines are monitor readings that indicate you should take some specific action. As you begin to look at action or alarm guidelines established by different agencies such as EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), OSHA and others you will find that the action guidelines differ. Some for hazardous materials events, some for hazardous waste sites, and of course those for confined space. The action guidelines presented here are for confined space operations and should not be confused with other operations. Action guidelines are exactly that, guidelines. They are usually preset alarms on your monitors which will alert when a certain level, parameter, or product is detected.

Atmosphere

Level

Action If outside the space, correct atmosphere. If inside the space, begin exit If outside space determine problem and correct If inside space begin to exit If outside the space determine cause of problem and correct,

Monitor

Combustible or flammable gas

10% of the LEL

Alarms both visually and audibly

Oxygen

Less than 19.5% or greater than 23.5%

Alarms both visually and audibly

CO - 35 ppm Toxicity H2S - 10 ppm

If inside the space begin to exit. Alarms both visually and audibly

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GENERAL MONITORING GUIDELINES


Rule one: Monitor in order. There is an order of hierarchy to monitoring and detection that we will use for confined space operations. This differs from hazardous materials in some ways, since we are not monitoring radiological hazards unless we have a high suspicion of the presence of such materials. Generally, however, our order of monitoring will be as follows. 1. Oxygen 2. Flammability/Combustibility 3. Toxicity As we discuss the specific monitoring considerations further, you will understand why this order has been established. Suffice it to say that this process should be done each and every time you monitor. Rule two: Always monitor at multiple levels in the trench: Any flammable vapor or gas even below the LEL can be hazardous to you. Mixtures of gases can accumulate at different locations in the trench depending on the vapor density of the particular gas. Vapor density is nothing more that the affinity of a gas to rise or fall! Air has a vapor density of 1.0 ; gases and vapors with a vapor density of less that 1.0 will rise, those with a vapor density of greater than 1.0 will sink. Always monitor at three levels within any space. Different products have different vapor densities which mean that they will locate in a trench at different levels. If for some reason you only measure the bottom one third of the trench, you may be missing at least two or three different products which might be present. An example of this might be as follows: Methane is typically lighter than air and will leave the trench. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is about the same as air and will tend to locate mid trench or diversify with the air. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is heavier than air and will tend to find its way to the bottom of the trench. Sampling technique is important. Rule three: Know your monitors limitations: Monitors have limitations. Not just technological limitations, but limitations on how accurate they are when detecting certain substances. You must know what limitations there are to your monitoring capabilities, and how certain readings on your monitor will affect other readings you might obtain. Rule four: Understand the relationship between flammability and toxicity: Understanding the relationship between toxicity and flammability when measuring is very important. Flammable range is a measurement (usually in % of the total volume of air/ignitable vapor mixture as shown on your monitor) of the amount of a substance that when mixed with air will ignite. When a substance is present in sufficient quantity to be measured as an ignitable mixture, it can also be measured in relationship to its total volume in the mixture, represented in Parts Per Million

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(PPM). PPM is the most frequently used method to measure toxicity, while percentage is the most frequently used method to measure flammability levels. Rule five: A substance that comes after you (vapor) is much more dangerous than one that expects you to come to it: These types of products require great caution since the product or its vapor (which may be toxic or flammable) does not require you to get intimate with it to cause a problem. In other words the substance is coming to find you, you dont have to go find it. Rule six: Know your monitors operational parameters: This includes issues like; how long are the sensors in your monitor good for, 1 yr, 2 yr? ; Is the monitor RF shielded to cut down on potential interference from electrical and radio sources? How many pumps if using a hand aspirator is necessary for each foot of tubing to bring the product into the sensor housing? ; Do you use a water filter on the end to stop from pulling liquid up the tube and subsequently ruining your monitor? All of these items should be in the technical manual that comes with the monitor you use. Remember that you should specify training as part of the purchasing package. Rule seven: Battery operated monitors will not work if the batteries are dead (DUH!): Checking the batteries at the incident is a novice approach to problem solving and not very smart. Batteries should be checked regularly, (each shift) Rule eight: Zero and Field calibrate (bump check) your instrument in clean air: Before using any monitoring equipment it should first be checked to assure it is reading zero (0) for flammability and toxicity and 20.9% for oxygen. Follow the manufacturers recommendations for your monitor on field calibrations. Make sure you are in clean air when you do this, or you readings will be inaccurate. Rule nine: Sample from upwind: Standing up wind will allow you to approach the potential hazardous atmosphere at your own pace. Never let the wind bring it to you! Good old common sense stuff!

SPECIFIC MONITORING MEASUREMENTS


Oxygen Monitors usually measure oxygen concentrations between 0% and 25% in air. Your monitor should be set up (since its designed for use in confined space) to alarm at 19.5%, which is the minimum adequate percentage of oxygen concentration established by OSHA. It should also be set to alarm levels of oxygen above 23.5% in air. Normal air consists of about 20.9% oxygen. Oxygen deficient atmospheres are those with 19.5% or less. Oxygen enriched atmospheres are those with concentrations above 23.5% oxygen. The reason you checked oxygen at this juncture is because at certain oxygen deficient levels (look at your manufactures data) the flammability readings you are

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about to take are invalid or altered. Also, at levels above 23.5% your measurement of flammability will not be accurate and will render false readings. Flammable and Combustible readings CGI Sensors in your monitor are known as combustible gas indicators. They determine the presence of flammable vapors of hydrocarbon products that might be present in the trench. There are certain instruments that are designed to measure say methane only; they would measure the flammable vapors as a percentage of the lower explosive limits. The monitor that you are using is calibrated to a certain flammable gas, either methane, pentane, butane, or hexane. You should test for flammability during any of the following potential scenarios. 1. Any suspected contaminated trench 2. As a process of leak detection 3. If you are investigating an unknown material The monitor you are using has a preset alarm level for 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL). That means that when the level of the product you are testing (really the level of the product the monitor is calibrated for) reaches 10% of its lower flammable limit the monitor will sound an audible alarm as well as a visual signal. Does this mean the world is going to blow up? Not at all. You in fact have a 10 to 1 safety factor built into the alarm system. When you alarm you are only at 10% of the lower explosive limit. In order for the atmosphere you are in to actually ignite you must reach 100% of the LEL, still more than 90% away. This is your action level, the level at which you need to make a decision, not the level at which you have to panic! Remember that we tested oxygen first. The reason is that CGIs must have a certain percentage of oxygen present in order to function properly. Most instruments require a minimum of 10% oxygen to operate, but become inaccurate at levels even higher than that, many must have as much as 16% oxygen in order to give an accurate reading. (Look at your manufacturers literature and limitations). So if you assess oxygen first, it provides you the information you need to see if your flammability readings are going to be accurate and usable as a tactical tool.

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Measuring toxicity The monitor you are using has either one or two toxic sensors most likely set up to measure Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO) the two most common toxics. Your action limits (alarm settings) are at 35 ppm for Carbon Monoxide and 10 ppm for Hydrogen Sulfide. Does this mean its time to panic again? Absolutely not, these are the Time Weighted Averages for an OSHA 8 hour exposure. This indicates that breathing apparatus must be worn, and that a problem exists in the trench which you are going to attempt to control or eliminate.

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER


So youre standing at the trench with the monitor in your hand. You managed to read all the manufacturers literature, and you know exactly how the monitor works. You have nurtured, calibrated, bump tested and talked nicely to your monitor as you lowered the sampling probe into the trench. The question now is what do you do with the data you are capturing? Monitoring should take place prior to entry and at least every five minutes during trench operations. This is not a hard fast time frame and should be adjusted based on the severity of the atmosphere you are dealing with. Concerns about changing or dangerous atmospheres should prompt you to monitor more frequently. Consider the following guidelines when monitoring. One person should handle and record monitor readings throughout the entry and rescue/recovery operation. This should be their sole purpose. All readings should be captured on the trench rescue tactical work sheet Readings should be reported to the Extrication officer or the Operations officer on a continual basis. Any fluctuations or changes in readings should be immediately reported. Any alarm levels should immediately be reported and action taken Never leave the monitor unattended, it could get kicked into the trench, stepped on, or ignored. Its not a glorious job but someone has to do it. Always use a Hazmat Team to the best advantage

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HAZARD CONTROL OPTIONS


Atmospheric monitoring is a tool that identifies hazards and provides you with baselines from which to operate. To simply know that a hazard exists is only one part of the puzzle, and while it gives you the opportunity to protect against that specific hazard, it does not eliminate the hazard. Here are some hazard control strategies that you might consider. Ventilation: If its an atmospheric problem, it makes sense that you might be able to control it with ventilation. Ventilation is only as good as the technique you employ and of course the nature of the product. If you have a flammable reading which is at an action (alarm) level and you begin to ventilate are the readings dropping to acceptable levels? If not, why? Is it because your ventilation is not working, or is it because there is a liquid product that continues to give off vapors despite your best laid plans? Ventilation is the first method of choice during rescue operations since it is fast, and easily monitored. The point is that you cant expect ventilation to work for you every time. You must use your monitor as a guide and be prepared to make hard decisions based on facts. Leave it alone: If it is a Haz Mat call let the Haz Mat Team deal with the problem. Once the hazards, with regard to atmosphere or contamination have been eliminated, go to work.

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PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS STRAIGHT WALL TRENCH


Timber - Air - Hydraulic DESCRIPTION OF TRENCH The straight wall trench will require the rescuer to set a minimum of three sets of panels. One set directly over the victim and one set on either side of the middle to provide a safe area for rescuers to work. The number of shores that will be needed per set of panels is based on the soil classification and depth of the trench. PROCEDURES Set middle set of panels as directly over victim as possible For timber: Set top shore Set middle shore Set bottom shore For air: Set top shore Set middle shore Set bottom shore Consider middle, top, bottom. For hydraulic: Set and expand shores between uprights For screw jacks: Follow timber guidelines Set outside panels and shores using procedure appropriate for the type of shore available. Note: Rescuers can set the outside panels from inside the safe area of the trench. In that case all shores would be placed middle, bottom, and top.

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SINGLE WALL SLOUGH/OUTSIDE WALER


DESCRIPTION OF TRENCH This type of trench has a collapse of one wall. In this situation the protective system is designed with outside walers to span the opening and provide a backing for protective panels. PROCEDURES Place pickets to tie walers Place and tie off bottom waler Place and tie off top waler Set middle set of panels as directly over victim as possible Fill void behind middle panel with air bags or other material Expand to fill void but not to push out panels For timber: Set top shore Set middle shore Set bottom shore For air: Set top shore Set middle shore Set bottom shore For hydraulic: Set and expand between uprights For screw jacks: Follow timber guidelines Expand air bag to tighten system and completely fill void Fill voids in outside panels if necessary

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Set outside panels and shores using procedure appropriate for the type of shore available. Note: Rescuers can set the outside panels from inside the safe area of the trench. In that case all shores would be placed middle, bottom, and top.

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INSIDE WALERS
DESCRIPTION OF TRENCH Inside walers are used in a trench to span a set of panels for the purpose of creating an open space. The open space may be required as the result of a piece of equipment in the trench that cannot be moved, or to create space for a digging and extrication operation. PROCEDURES Place bottom walers in trench Place all panels Shoot middle shore on outside panel Place top walers and tie off to pickets or outside uprights Shoot shores between top walers Raise bottom waler on both sides and tie off to pickets or outside uprights Shoot shores between bottom walers Note: Additional strongbacks can be added to the system at any time before the walers are shot. The number of strongbacks needed is determined by the soil classification and depth of the trench.

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DEEP WALL TRENCH


15 FOOT TRENCH DESCRIPTION OF TRENCH Deep trenches are those trenches over 10 feet but not more than 15 feet. Deep trenches present extreme forces that require commercial techniques when over 15 feet. PROCEDURES Measure depth and width of trench Set pickets for tie backs (panels and wales) Prepare panels and wales Prepare shores Set deep wales on bottom floor of trench, picket back. If using aluminum wales and shore system, set in place at end of trench Prepare all other wales, as necessary (one set every four feet) appropriate size timber for depth of trench Note: Each trench is different at this depth. You may find that you have to shoot panels to capture wall before placing wales. You must make this decision based on stability of the soil and your comfort level. If you do this you will have to maneuver the wales into place between shores. Lower bottom sets of panels in place, in normal fashion, upright and tie back Place top panels at 90 degrees to bottom panels, laying them length wise across two panels Lower and place remaining sets of wales, not to exceed four (4) feet vertical spacing between wales. Tie back to pickets Shoot top panels using shore system. (No wales) Must be at least two feet from bottom of lip Shoot successive wale systems in place. Working from top to bottom Note: Each shore should have either one (1) 23 degree swivel or two (2) 15 degree swivels attached. When using one swivel shoot from the solid plate to the swivel side. NEVER EXCEED 30 DEGREES.

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At this depth more is better add shores as necessary to control environment. A maximum of four foot vertical spacing shall be maintained Check and adjust shores Void management as necessary

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T TRENCH
DESCRIPTION OF TRENCH The intersecting T Trench is a very unstable trench because not only is one wall exposed, but a section has been cut that intersects the other wall. The key here is to capture the corners as quick as possible, since they are the most unstable of the exposed areas. Inside walers are necessary to span the center panel because there is nothing to shore against where the T leg intersects with the long wall. PROCEDURES Limit activity at corners of intersection Set pickets for tie backs (panels and wales) Prepare panels and wales Prepare shores Set two panels on wall of T leg Shoot middle, top, and bottom shore of T leg to initially capture corners (low pressure) Place a bottom wale on trench floor along long wall Set remaining 6 panel. Two panels on opposite T leg corners Three panels on long wall Set middle shore on outside panels (full pressure) Place top waler and tie back to pickets or secure to the top of outside panels Shoot top shore from outside panels to waler Raise bottom waler and tie back to pickets or secure to the top of outside panels Shoot bottom shore from outside panels to waler Re-shoot shores on T leg Note: All wales and kick plates should be pre-drilled to accommodate a picket or rope in multiple locations along their lengths.

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L TRENCH
DESCRIPTION OF TRENCH The L Trench can be described as two trenches that intersect at their ends and form a right triangle. This type of trench presents a difficult scenario for rescuers because the inside and outside corners of the L are difficult to capture with standard protective equipment. PROCEDURES Note: All wales and kick plates should be pre-drilled to accommodate a picket or rope in multiple locations along their lengths. Limit activity at corners of intersection Measure depth and width of trench Set pickets for tie backs (panels and wales) Prepare panels and wales Prepare shores Set opposing inside L panels, tie back to pickets Place bottom wales on trench floor, both sides, tie back to pickets Place thrust blocks (one per shore) using joist hangers on inside L panels Shoot center shores at 50 to 75 PSI to capture corners a. Personnel on tag line from a ladder may accomplish this Place and picket top and bottom kick plates or 4x4 or 6x6 timber at bottom edge (toe) and top edge (lip) of outside L panels. Extend past lip far enough to picket in place without danger of secondary collapse Place two (2) outside L panels, move them to form a clean corner and skip shore the outside perimeter as necessary Set top and bottom wales (or as many as necessary based on depth of trench) Wales should form a clean corner at the outside intersection of the corner panels. Anchor these in place by tying back to pickets Place corner blocks on wales using joist hangers or toe nails

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Shoot (feather shores into place then shoot) angled shores from inside L panels to corner blocks simultaneously

Note: You should assure that you feather and then shoot both shores from opposing sides at once to avoid kick. Note: Use one 23 degree or two 15 degree swivels. If using one 23 degree swivel shoot it to the corner block side. Never exceed more than 30 degrees on angles. Repeat process for next set of shores Place and nail gusset plates on corner blocks Check and adjust shores Void management as necessary

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ISOLATION TUNNELS, SHAFTS, AND ENGINEERED CLASS C SYSTEMS


There is always the possibility that the soil profile will not allow you to excavate the area without the product running back in the trench as fast as you can remove it. Sand, coal, grain and other similar products are running debris, and therefore hard to sheet and shore. In these cases, special systems called isolation tunnels and shafts can be built. Isolation tunnels are cylinder objects that are placed over top of your patient and then worked around them as the material is moved. In the case of a coal worker who was trapped in running debris, a 55 gallon barrel with both ends cut out was used. Keep in mind that objects like the barrel are strong in the vertical orientation, but weak if laid horizontally. A similar method can be used to build and install a shaft. In the case of the shaft, the system will take longer to construct than other types of systems, but may be your only option for the worker who is trapped in running debris. The Engineered Class C System is a special system designed by an engineer to address problems created by the very worst Type C soil. In this type of system, each 4 X 8 piece of sheeting panel has three strongbacks. These strongbacks are toe nailed to the sheeting and then held in place using 6 x 6 walers. The shores are then shot to the point that the waler crosses the center strongback of each panel. This type of system utilizes many contact points, in order to transfer the tremendous forces created by a Type C soil surcharge

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COMMERCIAL TECHNIQUES
As bad as we may hate to admit it, there are times when the situation is well beyond our equipments ability to handle a trench collapse. In these cases, professional engineers and construction people should be called in to assist you with the extrication effort. This doesnt mean you give up responsibility for the situation. It just means that you recognize the situation is outside of your abilities as a rescuer. Keep in mind, we dont dig holes for a living, construction people do, and therefore, they are much better at it than we are. Consider using commercial techniques and professional help if any of the following occur: 1. The trench is deeper than 15 feet 2. There has been a massive cave-in 3. Workers are trapped in running debris 4. Environmental conditions prohibit the rescue effort Any protective system which is put in place for either rescue operations or commercial operations must be capable of withstanding all intended and reasonably expected loads. Protective systems are "engineered" for withstanding these forces. The decision on the type of protective system to use may vary based on the rescue operation, or in a commercial situation the type of job, location of adjacent structures and time. Regardless of the parameters, protective systems are based on a set of factors that are evaluated during each operation. These factors may include but are not limited to the following. * Adjacent structures * Existing hazards * Soil type * Water profile and hydraulic table * Depth and width * Purpose of operation (rescue versus utility installations) SLOPING OR BENCHING SYSTEMS Sloping or benching are used as a method to decrease the angle of the wall to a point that it does not want to collapse. This type of method reduces the gravitation

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forces and total amount of unconfirmed compressive strength that is present. It may also be applicable during a rescue operation or during a body recovery as an method to safe a large opening. Consider the following when evaluating the need for sloping or benching. * Requires tabulated data. * Requires the use of heavy equipment * Is time consuming * Takes a lot of room. TIP: Sloping may, in some cases, be referred to as cutting back to the angle of repose. This is the point where the material can support its own weight and is not expected to flow. Keep in mind that any sloping at the scene of a trench collapse should be at least 1.5 foot horizontal to 1 foot vertical. SUPPORT, SHIELD, AND OTHER SYSTEMS Other options that you may consider for commercial protective systems are support, and shield systems. These may be rabbit boxes, coffins, or other trench boxes that are wood, steel, or aluminum and commercially available. In general, keep the following in mind when looking at commercial systems, or designing a system to use during a rescue operation: * Any use of timber should follow the shoring appendices in the standard.

* The use of shields, air-shores, screw jack, beli-jacks, hydraulic speed shores or Airshore struts should be used in designs using the manufacturers tabulated data. * Any deviation from the data needs to be in writing and on site.

* You may have an engineer design a system for your specific environmental needs, but copies of the data need to be on site.

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VICTIM ACCESS, PACKAGING AND EXTRACTION


Once access is made to the victim and a minimal temporary safe zone has been established every attempt should be made to clear an airway and reduce the surface load on the victims torso if possible. Realize that a safe work zone is defined as two panels in place with properly spaced shores. Until this safe zone is established all work and efforts need to continue to develop this safe zone. If this is not possible due to the condition and configuration of the trench walls then spot shoring should be used to assist in achieving this goal. All personnel operating in the trench will be wearing class III harnesses. Tag lines will not be used with the exception of use as fall protection while working from ladders at steep angles at a height where an injury could be fatal (greater than 10) or the rope is needed to assist with balance. Disconnect any tag lines once at trench floor. Victim access will be done by hand. Traditional length tools often will be inadequate to dig in the limited space present. Folding shovels, mini handle shovels and trowels may be more appropriate. Consider metal spoons when digging around a patients face. Considerations for the patients rapid cooling should be considered. Halogen lights may be used to warm the area. Disposable space blankets may be used to retain the patients heat. A Rescue Paramedic should be used to evaluate the patient and determine if ALS intervention should be initiated in the trench. If this can be done without delaying the removal of the patient from the trench then this is appropriate. ALS intervention that will delay patient movement should be discussed with the Rescue Group Leader to determine the risk to the rescuers in the trench due to the type of shoring system in place. Due to the risk of introducing oxygen into a confined space prior to using medical oxygen the TR Safety and RGL should discuss the possible hazards. If it is determined that this will be a hazard, breathing air may be used from the confined space rescue patient air system. See photos. Patient movement is best accomplished with a rapid package/movement device. The Half Sked is good for performing a long axis drag and if they can be slid onto a ladder and pulled out than that may be a quick solution to victim removal. If c spine immobilization is a concern (often) then a device that will give more c spine immobilization such as the Spec Pak or LSP Halfback may be more viable options. If it is not possible to do a ladder slide or moving ladder slide for removal and vertical lift will be needed then a high directional anchor will be of great assistance. Simple is best for patient extraction. A ladder slide or moving ladder works well if the ladder can be manipulated through the struts. Having that as plan A is always good but you need to be prepared with a plan B. Often in training Techs struggle to attempt to drag a patient over struts and panels. With a 100 lb. dummy this is possible. With a 200 lb. adult this is not. Techs should practice rigging high directional systems for extraction. Aerial ladders can be used as a high directional as they can be parked 50 from the site and the aerial extended above the victim. A pulley can be suspended from the aerial and a manual haul system built or piggybacked on to the mainline. A pre-rigged 4:1 system can be attached to the tip of the serial. Due to the hazard of the victim getting caught on a strut only a manual haul system should be used. Dont use the aerial as a crane. Other options are the use of a ladder gin or ladder A frame. See drawings below of

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ladder gins and ladder A frames. When an aerial ladder wont reach the rescue site these are good solutions. The Arizona Vortex could be used as well.

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APPENDIX A - DEFINITIONS
ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICES: Those requirements that are compatible with standards of practice required by a registered professional engineer. ACTIVE SOIL: The ability of the soil to contain energy as it relates to movement. ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC SHORING: A pre engineered shoring system consisting of aluminum hydraulic shoring cylinders (cross braces), used with vertical rails (uprights) or horizontal rails (walers). Such a system is designed specifically to support the sidewalls of an excavation and prevent cave-ins. ANGLE OF REPOSE: The natural angle at which loose particulate products will support their own weight, and which can be expected not to flow from a standing position. AHJ: The acronym used to describe the authority having jurisdiction. Generally, this is the authority that certifies an individual competent in any particular rescue discipline. BELL PIER: A type of shaft or footing excavation in which the bottom is larger than the cross section above to form a bell shape. BENCHING: Modifying the walls of an excavation in such a way as to form horizontal steps with vertical faces, at predetermined angles and widths to prevent the soil from collapsing or sliding. CAVE-IN: The separation of a mass of solid or rock material from the side of an excavation, or loss of the soil from under a trench shield or support system, and its sudden movement into the excavation, either by falling or sliding in sufficient quantity so that it could entrap, bury, or otherwise injure and immobilize a person. CEMENTED SOIL: A soil in which a chemical agent similar to calcium carbonate holds together the particles, such that a hand size sample could not be crushed into powder or individual soil particles by finger pressure alone. COHESIVE SOIL: Clay (fine grain soil), or soil with high clay content, which has cohesive strength. Cohesive soil does not crumble, can be excavated with vertical slide slopes, and is plastic when moist. Cohesive soil is hard to break up when dry, and exhibits significant cohesion when submerged. Cohesive soils include clay silt, sandy clay, silty clay, and organic clay. COMPETENT PERSON: The individual, usually the supervisor or director of rescue operations who meets the OSHA standard for determining soil profiles, safety concerns, protective mechanisms and other requirements. CROSS BRACES: The horizontal members of a shoring system installed perpendicular to the sides of the excavation, the ends of which apply pressure against either the uprights or walers. DEEP TRENCH: Deep trenches are those trenches over 10 feet in depth but not greater than 20 feet. Deep trenches present extreme forces that require commercial techniques when over 20 feet. DRY SOIL: Soil that does not exhibit visible signs of moisture content. ENDS: The part of the trench where the walls meet the end.

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EXCAVATION: A man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in an earth surface, formed by earth removal. This opening is usually wider than it is deep. FAILURE: The breakage, displacement, or permanent deformation of a structural member or connection that reduces its structural integrity and its supportive capabilities. FISSURE: A break along a definite plane with little resistance, or a material that exhibits open cracks, such as tension cracks in an exposed surface. FLOOR: The bottom of the trench/excavation. GRANULAR SOIL: Gravel, sand, or silt with little clay content. Granular soil has no cohesive strength. Some moist granular soils exhibit apparent cohesion, but crumble when dry and cannot be molded. GROUND PADS: Protective materials placed along the lips and ends of the trench in a flat fashion to disperse the weight or rescue personnel. Ground pads are commonly made up of sheets of plywood or miscellaneous lumber. HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE: An atmosphere that may be explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, irritating, oxygen deficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful, and may cause injury, illness, or death. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE: Pertaining to trench rescue it is the pressure that results from the effects of water contained in soil. KICK OUT: The accidental release or failure of a cross brace. L TRENCH: The L Trench can be described as two trenches that intersect at their ends and form a right angle. This type of trench presents a difficult scenario for rescuers because the inside and outside corners of the L are difficult to capture with standard protective equipment. LEL: An acronym for Lower Explosive Limit, which represents the minimum concentration of product in air that will support combustion in the presence of a source of ignition. LAYERED SYSTEM: Two or more distinctly different soil or rock types arranged in layers. LIP: The area 360 degrees around the opening of the trench. LOAM: A soil consisting of a friable mixture of varying proportions of clay, silt, and sand. MOIST SOIL: A condition in which the soil looks and feels damp. Moist cohesive soil can be easily shaped into a ball and rolled into small diameter threads before crumbling. Moist granular soil that contains some cohesive material will exhibit signs of cohesion between particles. OSHA: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration that is a Federal office and also an agency in some states. PANELS: These could be interconnected uprights, or horizontal in the form of sheets of timber, multiple layers of plywood, or typically shore-form panels. These are placed in contact with the walls of the trench. They function as a shield system with uprights, walers, and other engineering systems. PCF: The acronym that describes the term pounds per cubic foot.

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PPE: The acronym that describes the term person protective equipment. PASSIVE SOIL: That characteristic that describes a soil with no potential for movement. PLASTICITY: The property that allows the soil to be deformed or molded with out appreciable change in total volume. PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS: Pre-engineered systems or system components designed to protect construction employees or rescue personnel from cave-ins, collapses, falling material, and other equipment. RAMP: An inclined walking or working surface used to enter one point from another, and constructed from earth or other structural materials such as steel or wood. REGISTERED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: A person who is officially registered as a professional engineer in the state where they are working. However, a professional engineer registered in any state is deemed to be a registered professional engineer within the meaning of this standard when approving designs for manufactured protective systems or tabulated data to be used in interstate commerce. ROTATIONAL FAILURE: The result of a scoop shaped collapse that starts back form the trench lip and transmits itself to the trench wall in a half moon shape. SABA: The acronym used to describe the supplied air breathing apparatus. The SABA system is used to provide a remote supply of air to the rescuer or victim for respiratory purposes. SCBA: The acronym used to describe the self-contained breathing apparatus. It is used to supply air from a system worn by the rescuer and does not require a remote source of air. SATURATED SOIL: A soil in which the voids are filled with water. Saturation does not require flow. Saturation or near saturation is necessary for the proper use of pocket penetrometer or shear vane soil testing devices. SHEAR WALL COLLAPSE: The result of a section of soil losing its ability to stand and collapsing into the trench alone a mostly vertical plane. SHEETING: These could be interconnected uprights, sheets of timber or shore-form panels used in contact with the walls of the trench. They function as a shield system with uprights, walers, and other engineering systems. SHIELD (SHIELD SYSTEM): Permanent or portable structures, such as trench boxes, rabbit boxes, coffins, etc., designed to withstand the forces of a collapse or cave-in. SHORE: Horizontal members, installed perpendicular to the wall of the trench, whose ends press against the uprights, walers, or panels to create pressure zones and support. SHORE: A component in the protective system that carry the force from one side of the trench to the other. They are typically made up of timbers/wedges, pneumatic struts, hydraulic struts, or screw jacks. SHORING: A system made of timber, metal, hydraulic, or mechanical members that support the walls and prevent cave-ins. Used to support sheeting in conventional rescue operations.

66

SILT: An earth matter comprised mostly of sand that is carried by water and deposited as sediment. SLOPING (SLOPING SYSTEM): Excavating the walls so that they incline way from the excavation at a predetermined angle according to the soil profile to prevent cave-in or soil movement. SLOUGH FAILURE: The loss of par of the trench wall that can be the result of several conditions. SPOIL PILE: The dirt taken out of the trench and piled along the side of the trench. The spoil pile must have at least two-foot setback from the trench lip. SPOIL PILE SLIDE: The result of the excavated earth placed too close to the lip of the trench adding excessive weight, resulting in the lip of the trench collapsing and sliding into the trench. SPOT SHORING: : A technique used with pneumatic or hydraulic shores where sheeting is not used and the shore is placed using a 2x2 plywood piece in place of sheeting or an airshore spot shore rail is used. STABLE ROCK: A natural solid material that can be excavated with vertical sides and will remain intact when exposed. Unstable rock is considered stable when the rock material on the sides of the excavation is secured against movement by rock bolts, or another protective system designed by a registered professional engineer. STRAIGHT TRENCH: See TRENCH. STRONGBACK: A dimensional piece of lumber measuring 2 x 12 x 12. Strong backs are used in conjunction with panels to provide support and distribute pressure issued from the shores and disperse it to the panel. Strong backs are often pre-bolted to shore-form panels for efficiency of deployment. STRUCTURAL RAMP: A ramp built of steel or wood, used for vehicular access. Ramps made of soil or rock are not considered structural ramps. SUPPORT SYSTEM: A structure such as underpinning, bracing, or shoring, which provides support to an adjacent structure, underground installation, or sides of an excavation. T TRENCH: The T trench is composed of two trenches that meet at the end of one trench and intersect mid-span of the opposing trench, creating the formation of a T. The T trench can be described as a very unstable trench, not only because one wall is exposed, but also a section has been cut that intersects the other wall. TABULATED DATA: Tables and charts representing information approved by a registered engineer and used to design and construct a protective system. These are found in the shoring tables in the OSHA manual, and my be constructed by your own engineer but must be predicted on pre engineered data. TSF: The acronym for the term tons per square foot. TOE: The area where the walls and floor intersect at a 90-degree angle at the bottom of the trench and two feet up the walls. TOE FAILURE: A slough failure that occurs at the bottom of the trench where the floor meets the wall. As the soil falls into the trench it creates an opening at the bottom that is characteristic of a cantilever.

67

TRENCH: A narrow excavation in relation to its length made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width is not greater than 15 feet. TRENCH BOX: A pre-fabricated steel box that is placed into a trench by heavy operating equipment to provide a protective system for those operating in that space. See shield. TYPE A SOIL: Type A soils are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 TSF or greater. Examples of this type of soil include clay, silty clay, clay loam, and sandy clay loam. Cemented soils are also considered type A. TYPE B SOIL: Type B soils are cohesive materials with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 TSF but less than 1.5 TSF, or a granular cohesion less material including angular gravel, silt, silt loam, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam. This also includes previously disturbed soils. TYPE C SOIL: Type C soils are those cohesive materials with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 TSF or less. These include granular soils, sand, and sandy loam. Type C soils are also submerged soils from which water is freely flowing. UNPROTECTED TRENCH: Any trench greater than 4 in depth without a proper protective system in place. UPRIGHTS: Vertical members placed in contact with the walls, or panels (sheeting), that may or may not contact each other. More than one upright may be used on each sheeting system. VACTOR (VACUUM) TRUCKS: Large service vehicles equipped with large diameter hard suction hoses and strong vacuum pumps powered by the vehicle. These vehicles are designed to vacuum up water, various soils, and small stones and rocks. These can be an invaluable resource provided by Public Works, Water Departments, and other Utility Jurisdictions to aid in trench rescue/recovery operations. WALER: Horizontal members of a shoring system placed parallel to the walls and whose sides bear against the uprights or the excavation shoring system or face. Walers can be 6 x 6, 8 x 8, or 10 x 10 wood timbers or comprised of various steel and aluminum components. WALL: The vertical or inclined earth surfaces inside the trench/excavation formed by excavation work. WEDGE FAILURE: This type of failure normally occurs with intersecting trenches. It is characterized by an angle section of earth falling from the corner of two intersecting trenches.

68

TRENCH RESCUE POSITION DEFINITIONS


RESCUE GROUP LEADER: This individual coordinates rescue operations and the groups associated with all activity in the rescue area. They serve as the on-site competent person, and should be trained to the Technician level. TECHNICAL RESCUE SAFETY OFFICER: This individual is responsible for monitoring safety at the trench rescue/recovery site and will coordinate actions with the site Safety Officer. The Technical Rescue Safety Officer has the authority to stop any and all rescue/recovery site actions deemed unsafe and immediately report to the Incident Commander. This person should be trained to the Technician level. This individual reports to the IC. ENTRY TEAM LEADER: This individual controls access into the trench/excavation. He/she is responsible for completing the confined space entry permit. They direct/coordinate entry team personnel in disentanglement and removal operations. This individual reports to the Rescue Group Leader. PANEL TEAM LEADER: This individual coordinates the deployment and installation of panels, walers, back filling into the trench. These operations may be assisted by Operations level personnel. This individual reports to the Rescue Group Leader. SHORE TEAM LEADER: This individual coordinates the measuring, selection, and placing/shooting of shores either of pneumatic, hydraulic, or mechanical as required by the incident. These operations may be assisted by Operations level personnel. This individual reports to the Rescue Group Leader. EXTRICATION TEAM LEADER: This individual is responsible for any rescue/recovery extrication that needs to be done to remove the patient from the trench/excavation by means of rope systems, ladders, and other means necessary. This individual reports to the Rescue Group Leader. SUPPORT TEAM LEADER: This individual oversees several responsibilities and tasks including but not limited to; utilities, lighting, and debris removal. This individual reports to the Rescue Group Leader. EQUIPMENT CACHE: This individual oversees the technical rescue equipment cache available at the scene. This person may assist in retrieving specified equipment requested and also advise/recommend the needs of additional equipment when the cache is being depleted. This individual reports to the Rescue Group Leader. CUTTING TEAM: These personnel are responsible for setting up a cutting station with various saws and workbenches to facilitate the needs of the shoring team. They must be able to cut lumber to specific measurements in a timely fashion. This team/group reports to the Shore Team Leader.

69

TIMBER TRENCH SHORING -- MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS *


SOIL TYPE C P(a) = 80 X H + 72 psf (2 ft Surcharge)
____________________________________________________________________
|

| SIZE (ACTUAL) AND SPACING OF MEMBERS ** |_____________________________________________________________ DEPTH | | CROSS BRACES OF |_____________________________________________________________ | | | | HORIZ.| WIDTH OF TRENCH (FEET) | VERT. TRENCH|SPACING|_______________________________________| SPACING | | | | | | | | | UP TO | UP TO | UP TO | UP TO | UP TO | (FEET)| (FEET)| 4 | 6 | 9 | 12 | 15 | (FEET) ______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ | | | | | | | | UP TO | | | | | | | 6 | 6X8 | 6X8 | 6X8 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 5 5 |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ | | | | | | | TO | UP TO | | | | | | | 8 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 8X10 | 5 |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ 10 | | | | | | | | UP TO | | | | | | | 10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 10X10 | 5 |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ | | | | | | | | See | | | | | | | Note 1| | | | | | ______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ | | | | | | | | UP TO | | | | | | | 6 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 8X8 | 8X10 | 5 |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ 10 | | | | | | | | UP TO | | | | | | | 8 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 10X10 | 5 |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ TO | | | | | | | | See | | | | | | | Note 1| | | | | | |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ 15 | | | | | | | | See | | | | | | | Note 1| | | | | | ______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ | | | | | | | | UP TO | | | | | | | 6 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 8X10 | 10X10 | 5 |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ 15 | | | | | | | | See | | | | | | | Note 1| | | | | | |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ TO | | | | | | | | See | | | | | | | Note 1| | | | | | |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ 20 | | | | | | | | See | | | | | | | Note 1| | | | | | ______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_____________ |

OVER

SEE NOTE 1
70

APPENDIX B MANUFACTURERS INFORMATION

71

A.R.T RESCUE TOOLS


INFORMATION AND OPERATIONS MANUAL

The Airshore Rescue Tool is a lightweight, positive locking, aluminum support strut which is activated manually or by air. The tools removable attachments and bases adhere to all shapes, surfaces, and situations. Designed for vertical, horizontal, and angled support and stabilization, the Airshore Rescue Tool will secure your rescue environment.

FEATURES TROUBLE FREE: The simple design and rugged construction ensures the Airshore Rescue Tool will
operate under the worst rescue site conditions. Mud, dirt, sand, or water will not affect the tools operation.

MAITENANCE FREE: No operation maintenance is required. Periodic cleaning is all that is necessary. MATERIALS: LIGHTWEIGHT: PNEUMATIC OR MANUAL: INSTALLATION: PORTABLE: ADAPTABLE:
All aluminum and stainless steel construction for long life and weatherproof operation. The Rescue Tool weights range from 9 Lbs. (4.1 kg) to 45 Lbs. (20.4 kg).

Safe, clean - No contaminants.

Fast, simple, and fool proof. No special tools required. Easy to handle and transport.

Large variety of attachments and bases allows the tool to be used with all types and combinations of materials and configurations.

POSITIVE LOCK: Mechanical lockout. No chance of creep back. TESTED:


Independent tests confirm crush strength of 61,000 lb. (27,700 kg) up to 4 ft (1.2m), 49,000 lb. (22,272 kg) up to 8 ft (2.4m), and 42,000 lb. (19,000 kg) up to 12 ft (3.6m) using two locking pins.

AIRSHORE RESCUE TOOL INSTALLATION


1. Determine the proper size and support configuration that will be required.

2. Select the individual accessory heads and bases. Insert them into the Rescue Tool making sure the hole in the attachment lines up with the quick connect. 3. 4. Make sure pins are out of piston and lock collar. Place the rescue tool in the desired position.

5a. MANUAL - Extend the rescue tool until the accessory heads and/or base plates are in contact with the surfaces to be held apart. Place pin in closest piston hole, turn collar up using T-handle until it is snug up against the pin. Tighten T-handles and insert second pin in the next closest hole to the collar. (If required secure accessory heads and bases with nails, screws or bolts.) 5b. AIR - Connect the Regulator of your AIR-049R, AIR-050R or AIR051R to the Air Bottle, slowly turn Air Bottle on. Check Regulator to ensure there is adequate pressure in the bottle. Set Regulator to desired pressure (200 psi) for Trench Rescue (100 psi) for Building Collapse. Attach Quick Couplers on the end of each hose to the A.R.T. Struts. Trench Rescue: Recommended 200 psi / 14 BAR Building Collapse and Confined Space: Recommended 35 psi / 2.45 BAR Set Regulator at 100 psi Using the Dump Valve or Dual Strut Controller pressurize strut until heads and/or base plates are in contact with surfaces to be held apart. Place the pin in the closest piston hole to collar. Turn collar up using T-handles until it is snug up against the pin and tighten T-handles. It is not necessary to insert the second pin for Trench Rescue. Release the pressure and disconnect the air supply hose (secure accessory heads and bases with nails, screws, or bolts.) 6. Check to see that the rescue tool is secure and continue with rescue.

REMOVAL
** Take down is accomplished by removing the load pressure **

MANUAL: Unscrew T-Handles and turn collar downward taking pressure off of the pins; pull pins out of piston, place rescue strut out of your way.

AIR: Reconnect quick coupler to the ART and re-pressurize. Unscrew T-Handles and turn collar downward. Pull pins out of piston and de-pressurize system; disconnect Quick Coupler and place rescue strut out of your way.

NOTE: Hole Through Collar: When the pin is put through the collar hole it also goes through the hole in the piston, this prevents the piston and barrel from separating when storing the strut or when carrying to a rescue scene.

SAFETY INFORMATION
Only trained and qualified personnel familiar with the equipment and situation should use the Airshore Rescue Tool (A.R.T.). Personnel not directly involved in the operation should keep at a safe distance from the compromised area. Airshore Rescue Tools are to be operated manually or with compressed air or CO2 gas only. (Under no circumstances should any other gases be used). Keep hands and feet clear of the Airshore Rescue Tool when stabilizing or supporting with air pressure. Before using, ensure the Airshore Rescue Tool is complete, intact and in good working condition. Do not use the ART if there are signs of any damage. The Airshore Rescue Tool has been designed and tested for trench rescue, structural collapse, support and stabilization of light and heavy vehicles. Improvising or adapting the ART for other purposes could cause serious injury. For specific safety questions or concerns contact Airshore International 1-800-947-9472 or contact your local dealer.

MAINTENANCE INFORMATION
Periodic cleaning and inspection should be standard procedure. This should also be done after every use. 1. Pull piston complete with collar from barrel. NOTE: Hole in collar: When separating the piston from the barrel for routine inspection or cleaning, putting the pin through this hole will prevent the collar from separating from the piston. Remove any dirt, sand or water. Inspect for any signs of damage. Be sure to check the following: i. Nipple/Safety Limit Ports: Not plugged with debris. ii. T-Handle on Collar: Threads are clean and T-handle threads in easily iii. Cup Rubber: Check to see that it is secure and round; periodically spray with a non-petroleum based silicone. Its a good idea to flare out the rubber cup by hand every 2-3 months to help it maintain its shape. 4. Clean strut by wiping, washing or steam cleaning. DO NOT immerse piston cup rubber in solvents or petroleum-based products. Assemble piston and barrel. Pull the piston up and down to ensure free smooth movement. Clean and inspect all accessories and bases. Ensure all adjusting screws, bolts, pins and connectors are in place and in good working order.

2. 3.

5. 6. 7.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR

RESCUE SUPPORT SYSTEMS


(LOCKSTROKE STRUT SYSTEM) (ACME THREAD STRUT SYSTEM) (LOW CLEARANCE SUPPORT SYSTEM)

PARATECH INCORPORATED P.O. BOX 1000 1025 LAMBRECHT ROAD FRANKFORT, ILLINOIS 60423-7000 TELEPHONE (815) 469-3911 FAX (815) 469-7748

P/N 22-796198

15 JUNE 2001
QAP20/130/A

CHAPTER 2 OPERATION 2-1 INTRODUCTION. The Rescue Support Systems are designed for use in rescue situations involving collapse, containment or stabilization. These situations include such diverse incidents as building collapse, structural containment, rescue from transportation accidents, industrial emergencies, and excavation collapse and containment. The specific situation requiring use of a RSS will generally determine whether low clearance support(s) alone are required, whether lockstroke strut(s) or acme thread strut(s) alone are required, or whether supports and struts are required to be utilized in combination with each other. 2-2 PREPARATION FOR USE. 2-2.1 LOW CLEARANCE SUPPORT SYSTEM. a. Low clearance supports are pre-rescue devices that are used where support is required before rescue work can commence. Refer to paragraph 1-3.4 for the optional base plates available for use with low clearance supports. Low clearance fixed supports a. Lockstroke struts consist of extendible struts plus the optional base plates, refer to paragraph 1-3.4, and the strut extensions designated in paragraph 1-6.2.f. The lockstroke extendible strut automatically locks in increments of 0.400" (1 cm). This feature permits the comparatively coarse extension and hands free locking of the lockstroke support system from a remote location. function in conjunction with close clearance lifting devices such as air bags, hydraulic or manual jacks. b. Once the proper support configuration is determined and the individual components (rigid strut/extension and base(s) and/or base plug) selected, it is only necessary to clean, where required, the individual components sufficiently to clear them of any contaminants that would prevent their full engagement and proper locking to each other. Refer to Table 2-1 for the overall lengths of low clearance supports when used with various bases and extensions. 2-2.2 LOCKSTROKE AND ACME THREAD STRUT SYSTEMS. (Refer to Figure 2-1 for Typical Hook-Up).

ACME THREAD STRUT


REGULATOR NUT

DUAL DEADMAN CONTROLLER AIR HOSE SHAFT

BASE PLATE

BODY

AIR HOSE

RELEASE RING

AIR SOURCE

LOCKSTROKE STRUT Figure 2-1. Typical Rescue Support System Hook-Up 2-1

2-7. CAPACITIES AND SAFETY LIMIT CHARTS. 2-7.1 ACTIVATION FORCE. The lockstroke and acme thread struts have an axial crush strength in excess of 50,000 pounds (22,680 kg). When pneumatically activated, the struts will exert the forces in Table 2-3. Table 2-3. Activation Force Width of Trench Activation Pressure PSI (Bar) 50 (3.4) 100 (6.9) 150 (10.3) 200 (13.8) 250 (17.2) 300 (20.7) 350 (24.1) Force Lb (kg) 245 (111) 491 (223) 736 (334) 982 (445) 1227 (557) 1472 (668) 1718 (779) Depth Vertical Up to of Spacing 4 ft. Trench (1.2 m) Over 4 Over 6 ft. Over 8 ft. ft. (1.8 m) (2.4 m) (1.2 m) To 8 ft. To 10 ft. To 6 ft. (2.4 m) (3 m) (1.8 m)

Table 2-4. Trench Work Collapse Spacing Chart Type A Soils

Horizontal Spacing Over 5 ft. (1.5 m) Up to 10 ft. (3 m) Over 10 ft. (3 m) Up to 15 ft. (4.6 m) Over 15 ft. (4.6 m) Up to 20 ft. (6.1 m) 4 ft. 8 ft. 5.5 ft. (1.7 m) 7.5 ft. (2.3 m) 3.5 ft. (1.1 m) 5 ft. (1.5 m) 2.5 ft. (0.8 m) 3.5 ft. (1.1 m) 3 ft. (0.9 m) 4 ft. (1.2 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 5 ft. * (1.5 m) 3 ft. * (0.9 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 3.5 ft. * (1.1 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 5 ft. * (1.5 m)

(1.2 m) (2.4 m) 3 ft. 8 ft.

2-7.2 SPACING CHARTS. When used as horizontal struts for trench collapse work, refer to Tables 2-4 through 2-6 to determine maximum spacing. Table 2-5. Trench Work Collapse Spacing Chart Type B Soils Width of Trench Depth Vertical Up to of Spacing 4 ft. Trench (1.2 m) Over 4 Over 6 ft. Over 8 ft. ft. (1.8 m) (2.4 m) (1.2 m) To 8 ft. To 10 ft. To 6 ft. (2.4 m) (3 m) (1.8 m)

(0.9 m) (2.4 m) 4 ft. 7.5 ft.

(1.2 m) (2.3 m) 3 ft. 8 ft.

(0.9 m) (2.4 m) 4 ft. 5.5 ft.

(1.2 m) (1.7 m) 3 ft. 7.5 ft.

Horizontal Spacing Over 5 ft. (1.5 m) Up to 10 ft. (3 m) Over 10 ft. (3 m) Up to 15 ft. (4.6 m) Over 15 ft. (4.6 m) Up to 20 ft. (6.1 m) 4 ft. 8 ft. 8 ft. (2.4 m) 8 ft. (2.4 m) 6 ft. (1.8 m) 8 ft. (2.4 m) 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) 6 ft. (1.8 m) 5 ft. (1.5 m) 6.5 ft. (2 m) 3 ft. (0.9 m) 4 ft. (1.2 m) 5 ft. * (1.5 m) 3.5 ft. (1.1 m) 4.5 ft. * (1.4 m) 6 ft. * (1.8 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 3 ft. (0.9 m)

(0.9 m) (2.3 m)

* Use 2 struts together

(1.2 m) (2.4 m) 3 ft. 8 ft.

(0.9 m) (2.4 m) 4 ft. 8 ft.

NOTE: A strut must be within 2 ft (0.6 m) of the top and bottom of the trench. Use 150 psi (10.3 Bar) installation pressure. For Table 2-4 (Type A Soil) and 200 psi (13.8 Bar) installation pressure for Table 2-5 (Type B Soils).

(1.2 m) (2.4 m) 3 ft. 8 ft.

(0.9 m) (2.4 m) 4 ft. 8 ft.

(1.2 m) (2.4 m) 3 ft. 8 ft.

(0.9 m) (2.4 m)

2-9

Table 2-6. Trench Work Collapse Spacing Chart Type C Soils Width of Trench Depth Vertical Up to of Spacing 4 ft. Trench (1.2 m) Over 4 Over 6 ft. Over 8 ft. ft. (1.8 m) (2.4 m) (1.2 m) To 8 ft. To 10 ft. To 6 ft. (2.4 m) (3 m) (1.8 m)

2-7.3. LOAD CHART. Each strut, depending on its length, has a maximum axial working load capacity of 20,000 pounds (9090 kg) to 3,500 pounds (1590 kg). When used for collapse/rescue stabilization, refer to Table 2-7 for capacity by length of strut. Table 2-7. Collapse/Rescue Working Load Chart Length of Strut Ft (Cm) 2 (61) 3 (91) 4 (122) 5 (152) 6 (183) 7 (213) 8 (244) Working Load Lb (Kg) 20000 (9072) 20000 (9072) 20000 (9072) 13600 (6169) 9650 (4377) 7100 (3220) 5400 (2449)

Horizontal Spacing Over 5 ft. (1.5 m) Up to 10 ft. (3 m) Over 10 ft. (3 m) Up to 15 ft. (4.6 m) Over 15 ft. (4.6 m) Up to 20 ft. (6.1 m) 4 ft. 7 ft. 3 ft. (0.9 m) 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 3 ft. (0.9 m) 3 ft. * (0.9 m) 4 ft. * (1.2 m) 3 ft. * (0.9 m) 3.8 ft. * (1.2 m) 2.5 ft. (0.8 m) 3 ft. * (0.9 m)

(1.2 m) (2.1 m) 3 ft. 8 ft.

(0.9 m) (2.4 m) 4 ft. 4.5 ft.

(1.2 m) (1.4 m) 3 ft. 6 ft.

(0.9 m) (1.8 m) 4 ft. 3 ft.

NOTE: As the length of the strut increases, the working load decreases due to the ratio of the diameter to the length.

(1.2 m) (0.9 m) 3 ft. 4 ft.

(0.9 m) (1.2 m)

* Use 2 struts together

NOTE: A strut must be within 2 ft (0.6 m) of the top and bottom of the trench. Spacing is based on using wales with a section modulus of 3.5 cu in. (57.4 cu cm). Use 250 psi (17.2 Bar) installation pressure.

2-10

CHAPTER 3 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE 3-1 INTRODUCTION. The major components of the RSS and accessories require little maintenance to ensure optimum performance. This chapter provides preventative maintenance procedures. 3-2 MAINTENANCE PLAN. Preventative maintenance of the RSS is accomplished in accordance with the RSS maintenance schedule, Table 31. 3-3 GENERAL MAINTENANCE. 3-3.1 GENERAL. General maintenance shall be performed as detailed in this chapter using the maintenance schedule in Table 3-1. This chapter will provide the step-by-step procedures that are necessary to verify that the RSS and its accessories are operating satisfactorily. 3-3.2 SURFACE CLEANING. a. Keep the exterior of all components clean of all dirt, grit, oil and grease accumulations. Wipe exterior surfaces with a lint-free cotton machinery wiping towel lightly dampened with clean water. Then dry the surfaces thoroughly with a clean, dry lint-free cotton machinery wiping towel or low pressure compressed air. Compressed air may be used for cleaning in less accessible areas. b. During operation, verify the delivery pressure gauge (s) reads a relatively constant pressure regardless of the inlet pressure and flow rate. Also check for air leakage around any connection or main housing fitting. Any leakage of air at these mating interfaces denotes either a loose connection or a defective Oring seal that necessitates replacement. c. If during the last three (3) months struts and ancillary equipment have not been used for training or collapse incidents they should be field tested to ensure they do not leak and are fully operational in preparation for their next use. 3-3.4 LOCKING PIN ASSEMBLY REPLACEMENT. To replace the locking pin assembly, pull up and turn the locking pin knob to expose the bonnet. Use a wrench on the bonnet hex and unscrew the defective locking pin assembly. Thread in by hand the replacement locking pin assembly, then pull up and turn the locking pin knob to expose the bonnet and use a wrench on the bonnet hex to fully tighten the locking pin assembly. 3-3.3 INSPECTION. a. Do not paint any of the RSS components. Check for loose hardware and cracked or deformed parts. Check for O-ring seal leakage while the system is pressurized.

Table 3-1. Maintenance Schedule Frequency During Use After Use Quarterly Maintenance Requirement Check for erratic movement of the delivery pressure gauge needle. Check for air leakage at all connections and from all components. Clean all dust, dirt , oil and grease from the RSScomponents and accessories. If not used periodically for training or collapse incidents, the full complement of equipment shall be field tested to ensure its integrity and flawless operational capability. Applicable Paragraph 3-3.3 3-3.2 2-4

3-1/(3-2 blank)

OPERATION, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE AND PARTS SUPPORT MANUAL FOR

MAXIFORCE AIR LIFTING BAG SYSTEMS

PARATECH INCORPORATED P.O. BOX 1000 1025 LAMBRECHT ROAD FRANKFORT, ILLINOIS 60423-7000 TELEPHONE (815) 469-3911 FAX (815) 469-7748

22-890800

1 FEBRUARY 2005

SAFETY FIRST
Personnel safety and the prevention of equipment damage were primary considerations during the design and expected utilization of MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems. When MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems are properly used in combination with good common sense, an extremely safe method of applying force is realized. Although the following safety first list is quite extensive, the majority of the precautions are just good common sense for any personnel qualified in the use of lift bags. However, some of the precautions are not obvious and Paratech strongly recommends that all operating/assisting/maintenance personnel read and understand the complete safety first procedures in order to ensure personnel and equipment safety. Since there are four distinct operational phases of lift bag use: Prior to Inflation, During Inflation and While Inflated, During Deflation, and After Removal, the safety first list is charted to reflect these applications. As shown in the following table, during each operational phase, each safety procedure may be required Always (A), If Time Permits (ITP), or Depending Upon Application (DUA). DURING INFLATION AND WHILE INFLATED

SAFETY FIRST PROCEDURE Regardless of the condition for lift bag use, safety first is primary to prevent injury or death and/or equipment damage. All personnel at the immediate lift bag site must be trained and qualified. All personnel at the immediate lift bag site must be properly suited up (protective clothing, helmet, eye protection, gloves, footwear, etc.) at all times. Never exceed the maximum inflation pressure marked on the lift bag. (Normally 118 psi / 8 bar) Do not handle hoses or lift bags while the system is pressurized. Do not connect or disconnect system components when the system is pressurized. The only exception is disconnection of a safety in-line relief valve from a controller. Refer to the technical manual for multiple lift bag use.

PRIOR TO INFLATION

DURING DEFLATION

AFTER REMOVAL

A ITP A

A A

A A A A A

Observance of the following safety first procedures will assure the safe and efficient utilization of the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System.

ii

SAFETY FIRST PROCEDURE Always be on the opposite side of any expected movement Always stand clear of a load that is only supported by lift bag(s). Never be below a lift bag supported load that has no blocking or cribbing for positive support Use blocking, shoring and cribbing where ever possible to support and sustain loads. Use locking rings on couplings to prevent release of air pressure due to accidental disengagement of system components Always center load on lift bag or it may be violently ejected from under load during pressurization Be extremely careful to stabilize, as much a s possible, unstable (off-center) loads. Be careful that hoses are not kinked. Check visually that equipment is not damaged (scuffs, kinks, tears, ply separation, etc) and audibly for the leakage of air.

PRIOR TO INFLATION

DURING INFLATION AND WHILE INFLATED

DURING DEFLATION

AFTER REMOVAL

DUA

A DUA A A ITP

A A A A

A A A A A A

Never stack more than two lift bags on each other during operation.

If required to stack two lift bags for increased height, always place smaller bag centered on the top. Use proper sized lift bag(s) for the load conditions encountered. During transport of lift bags, carry in such a way so as to protect the inflation nipple. Use two men on large lift bags over 30 pounds (14 kg).

iii

SAFETY FIRST PROCEDURE Protect bag with thermal blanket, plywood, etc. whenever a lift bag will contact a surface in excess of 150F (65C). Never use a lift bag where contact temperatures are in excess of 220F (105C). Never work in the dark. Use flash lights or floodlights to provide shadow-free illumination of work area Inflate only enough to achieve desired lift If force must be applied to a small diameter or small area object, always use plywood/dimension lumber or other larger area rigid material between the lift bag and the object to distribute the load more evenly over the lift bag surface. Otherwise safe maximum lifting force cannot be applied. Always evaluate the condition prior to execution in order to determine which size lift bag to use and where to apply it to achieve the desired result. Always inflate a lift bag slowly to prevent possible shifting of load. Stop if load begins to shift, stabilize and block load before continuing. Be sure all valves between air source and lift bag(s) are in a closed position before turning on air source to system. This will prevent an uncontrolled lift. Also open air supply source slowly to prevent damage to regulator. Never lift with a lift bag directly in contact with sharp or pointed objects that may puncture, abrade or otherwise damage the lift bag.

PRIOR TO INFLATION

DURING INFLATION AND WHILE INFLATED

DURING DEFLATION

AFTER REMOVAL

ITP

A (storage) A (storage) ITP ITP

A ITP

A A

ITP

DUA

iv

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INFORMATION 1-1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. Refer to the Safety First procedures preceding Chapter 1, General Information and Safety Precautions for the procedures to be observed to assure safe and efficient utilization of MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems. 1-2 SCOPE OF MANUAL. This technical manual provides instructions for the operation, preventive maintenance and parts support for MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems manufactured by Paratech Incorporated, 1025 Lambrecht Road, Frankfort, Illinois 60423-7000. 1-3 ARRANGEMENT. Refer to the Table of Contents for arrangement of the subject matter in this manual. 1-4 EQUIPMENT FUNCTION . 1-4.1. MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems are multiapplication, portable inflation systems used for lift and displacement of heavy rigid objects, up to 146,000 pounds (66,637 kilograms), while requiring less than 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) of bag insertion clearance. Total capable lift (utilizing two stacked lift bags) is 40 inches (100 centimeters). Inflation may be obtained from any air source (self-contained compressed air cylinder, air compressor, truck air brake system, building compressed air system, foot pump, etc.) capable of supplying 118 psi (8.1 Bar) pressure. 1-4.2 MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems are designed for use in emergency situations such as building collapse, structural containment, vehicular extrications, industrial entrapment, and excavation collapse and containment. 1-4.3 In addition to use during emergency situations, MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems are also effectively used for: a. Preventive and/or corrective maintenance procedures where positioning and aligning heavy equipment and machinery in mills, manufacturing facilities and maintenance shops is required such as removing wheels, pulleys and gears from large machinery. b. Lifting or shifting pipelines requiring welding and maintenance. 1-1 Refer to figure 1-1 for the interrelationship of the six basic components (air source, pressure regulator, controller, safety in-line relief valve, interconnecting hose, and lift bag) comprising MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems and their relative sizes. c. Breaking out granite and marble blocks and slabs in quarrying operations. d. Re-railing railroad and mining cars, pre-stressing support columns, general maintenance requiring lifting in rail, mining, underground and subway work. e. Lifting operations underwater or on unstable, soft ground (mud, sand, snow, strewn debris, etc.) where conventional jacking equipment tends to sink. f. Since the lift bags contain no spark producing parts, they may also be used safely in explosive environments. 1-5 INTERRELATIONSHIP OF COMPONENTS.

PRESSURE REGULATOR AIR SOURCE

SAFETY IN-LINE RELIEF VALVE

CONTROLLER LIFT BAG

INTERCONNECTING HOSE

Figure 1-1. Typical MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System

1-6 EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION. 1-6.1 LIFT BAGS. MAXIFORCE Lift Bags (figure 1-2) are composite items fabricated from neoprene, reinforced with six layers (three per side) of Kevlar reinforced fabric for strength and rigidity even at full inflation pressure of 118 psi (8.1 Bar). All Lift Bags incorporate non-slip molded surfaces designed for maximum friction and holding capability. A bright yellow "X" is molded into each side to provide high visibility during pre-inflation centering. Each Lift Bag is proof tested at twice the operating (full inflation) pressure and has a minimum burst pressure of four times the operating (118 psi (8.1 Bar) pressure. Refer to Table 1-1 for a summary of the technical data for each MAXIFORCE Lift Bag.
AIR INLET FITTING INFO & WARNING LABEL

DELIVERY PRESSURE GAUGE SHUT-OFF VALVE ASSEMBLY PRESSURE ADJUSTING KNOB ASSEMBLY

SUPPLY PRESSURE GAUGE

Figure 1-4 Diaphragm Type Pressure Regulator Each pressure regulator is a self-contained, direct-acting, pressure-reducing type utilizing spring-loading to balance the outlet pressure and thereby reduce the effect of decaying or variations in the inlet pressure. The regulators are designed primarily for use with a SCBA (selfcontained breathing apparatus) air cylinder or a SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus; adapter required) air cylinder. However, a CGA-580 nitrogen cylinder adapter is available as optional equipment. The standard nipple and knob assembly may also be replaced to permit an optional DIN nipple and nut assembly or a British nipple and knob assembly to be installed in order to interface the pressure regulators with alternate breathing air cylinders. Each pressure regulator incorporates a piston or diaphragm sensor and soft seated main valve to provide bubble tight service. The adjusting mechanism on the piston regulator, activated by a pressure adjusting knob, incorporates a high load thrust bearing to provide the desired setting sensitivity while maintaining a low operating torque. The pressure regulators will operate with any breathing air. When using any gaseous media, it is necessary to remove moisture to prevent "icing"; a condition that occurs at high expansion ratios during regulator operation. A 10 micron internal filter is incorporated in the pressure regulator. However, if excessive contamination is a problem, a slightly coarser filter with increased capacity may be installed on the supply side of the pressure regulator. 1-6.3 CONTROLLERS (SAFETY RELIEF AND CONTROL VALVE). Four controllers are available for use with MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems. a. The single safety relief and control valve (figure 15) is a single input/single output controller incorporating quick disconnect hose fittings and single knob controls to apply and release air pressure to one lift bag. A gauge is provided to monitor the air pressure applied to the lift bag and a 118 psi (8.1 Bar) relief valve is incorporated to limit the applied air pressure. Inflation and deflation is accomplished by turning the associated valve knob.

CENTERING MARK TETHERING EYELETS

RAISED INTERLOCKING SURFACE

Figure 1-2. Typical MAXIFORCE Lift Bag 1-6.2 PRESSURE REGULATORS. Two pressure regulators are available for use with MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag Systems. a. A piston type high pressure regulator (figure 1-3) that reduces inlet pressure of up to 6,000 psi (414 Bar) to 135 psi (9.3 Bar). The pressure regulator is designed to mate with a CGA-346/347 adapter fitting.
DELIVERY PRESSURE PRESSURE ADJUSTING

SHUT-OFF VALVE ASSEMBLY SUPPLY PRESSURE GAUGE

Figure 1-3. Piston Type High Pressure Regulator b. A diaphragm type standard pressure regulator (figure 1-4) that reduces inlet pressure of up to 3,000 psi (206.8 Bar) to 135 psi (9.3 Bar). The pressure regulator is designed to mate with a CGA-346 adapter fitting.

1-2

DOWN (DEFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

DELIVERY PRESSURE GAUGE

BYPASS VALVE ASSEMBLY

DOWN (DEFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

UP (INFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

UP (INFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

DELIVERY PRESSURE GAUGE

Figure 1-5. Single Safety Relief and Control Valve b. The dual safety relief and control valve (figure 1-6) is a single input/dual output controller incorporating quick disconnect hose fittings and dual knob controls to apply and release air pressure to either one or two lift bags. Two gauges are provided to monitor the air pressure applied to either one or two bag(s) and a 118 psi (8.1 Bar) relief valve is incorporated to limit the applied air pressure. Inflation and deflation is accomplished by turning the associated valve knob.
DELIVERY PRESSURE GAUGE

Figure 1-7. Single Push-button Safety Relief and Control Valve with Bypass d. The dual "deadman" safety relief and control valve (figure 1-8) is a single input/dual output controller incorporating quick disconnect hose fittings and dual push-button controls to apply and release air pressure to either one or two lift bags. Two gauges are provided to monitor the air pressure applied to either one or two bag(s) and a 118 psi (8.1 Bar) relief valve is incorporated to limit the applied air pressure. Inflation and deflation is accomplished by depressing the associated valve spring loaded push-button.
UP (INFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY DELIVERY PRESSURE GAUGE

DOWN (DEFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

UP (INFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

DOWN (DEFLATE) CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

Figure 1-6. Dual Safety Relief and Control Valve c. The single safety relief and control valve with bypass (figure 1-7) is a single input/single output controller incorporating quick disconnect hose fittings and single push-button controls to apply and release air pressure to a single lift bag. One gauge is provided to monitor the air pressure applied to the lift bag(s) and a 118 psi (8.1 Bar) relief valve is incorporated to limit the applied air pressure. Inflation and deflation is accomplished by depressing the associated valve spring loaded push-button. The bypass, located between the inflation and deflation valves, is used to bypass the inflation valve. This allows a continuous flow of air supply to a lift bag without having the operator manually keep the inflation valve open by constantly depressing the inflation valve. The use of the bypass compensates for any pressure drop inside of the lift bag that can be caused by a shifting load, undetected air leaks, etc... It is activated by turning the bypass knob counter-clockwise.

Figure 1-8. Dual Deadman Safety Relief and Control Valve 1-6.4 HOSES. Hoses are used to convey air from the air supply source to the lift bag(s). All hoses are equipped with dual locking quick disconnect fittings to prevent their accidental disconnection. All hoses are general purpose 3/8 inch inside diameter, pvc (vinyl) core, single spiral poly yarn braid reinforced and a pvc abrasion resistant cover. The service temperature range is -15F to +150F (25C to +65C). All hoses have a working pressure of 300 psi (20.7 bar) with a 4 : 1 safety factor. Available hose lengths are 16 foot (5 meter), 32 foot (10 meter) and 50 foot (15 meter). Available colors in all lengths are red, yellow, blue, green, gray and black . 1-6.5 SAFETY IN-LINE RELIEF VALVE. The safety in-line relief valve (figure 1-9) is designed to keep MAXIFORCE lift bags fully and properly inflated when the lift bag(s) are; 1. Disconnected from the controller (safety relief and control valve) and 2. When excess pressure must be automatically relieved due to shifting 1-3

loads and/or temperature changes. The safety in-line relief valve consists essentially of an air inlet and air outlet (with safety locking ring) quick disconnect fitting, a shut-off valve to isolate the associated lift bag and an internal, non-adjustable spring loaded mechanism designed to relieve lift bag pressures in excess of 135 psi.

1-7 REFERENCE DATA. Reference data pertaining to MAXIFORCE Lift bags and Lift bag System Components are summarized for quick reference in Tables 1-1 and 1.2. 1-8 EQUIPMENT, ACCESSORIES AND DOCUMENTS

SHUT-OFF VALVE

1-8.1 EQUIPMENT SUPPLIED. Data pertaining to the dimensions and weight of MAXIFORCE Lift Bags are presented in Table 1-2. 1-8.2 ACCESSORIES. Accessories used in conjunction with MAXIFORCE Lift Bag Systems are listed with sufficient descriptive information regarding their use and application in Chapter 4, Parts List. 1-8.3 DOCUMENTS. No documents other than this publication are required as supporting literature for MAXIFORCE Lift Bag Systems.

Figure 1-9. Safety In-Line Relief Valve 1-6.6 FITTINGS. A variety of adapters, couplings and air fittings are available to permit alternate air sources to inflate the MAXIFORCE lift bag(s) or enable various air-powered tools and accessories to be equipped with the same fittings permitting convenience of operation and/or combining equipment resources such as hoses, regulators, self-contained compressed air cylinders, etc.

Table 1-1. MAXIFORCE Lift Bag Reference Data LIFT BAG CONSTANTS: Base Material ...........................................................................................................................................................Neoprene Reinforcing Material .................................................................................................................................................... Kevlar Number of Reinforcing Layers (Each Side)...........................................................................................................................3 Surface Type ............................................................................................................................................... Molded Non-Slip Short Term Temperature Range F (C) ........................................................................................... -75 (-60) to +220 (+105) Continuous Duty Temperature Range F (C) .................................................................................... -40 (-40) to +150 (+65) Maximum Working Pressure PSI (Bar) .................................................................................................................... 118 (8.1) Test Pressure PSI(Bar) ........................................................................................................................................... 236 (16.2)

1-4

AIRCRAFT FLAT TIRE SUPPORT & REPAIR

HALF-TRAK TIRE REPAIR

VEHICLE JACKING OPERATION

RAISING EARTH MOVER MIRED IN MUD

POSITIONING OF HEAVY MACHINERY

RAISING PIPELINE FOR INSPECTION

LIFTING SECTION OF COLLAPSED HIGHWAY OVERPASS

RAISING SECTION OF COLLAPSED BUILDING TO ALLOW RESCUE ACCESS

JACKING UP CANAL LOCK GATE DURING MAINTENANCE

LIFTING AND STABILIZING CUTTER

OPENING DOOR OF GRINDING MACHINE TO FREE VICTIMS ARM

ALIGNING AND STABILIZING PIELINE SECTIONS

PRYING OPEN FENCE TO RESCUE TRAPPED ANIMAL

Figure 2-11. Typical Applications

2-9

injury and damage in the event of a drop and/or load shift (Figure 2-12). The top support cribbing/bracing layer must be sufficiently solid to prevent a cribbing/ bracing shift and collapse during inflation when the lift bag(s) take on the characteristic double dome shape. Build safety cribbing/bracing after the desired lift to minimize the drop distance in the event of air loss after inflation. A generally applied safety rule is: lift between one and two inches (three and six cm.), then safety crib/brace between one and two inches (three and six cm.). After full safety cribbing/bracing is in place, the lift bag may be slowly deflated and removed, and the support cribbing/bracing removed, allowing the load to rest fully on the safety cribbing/ bracing.

g. If the lift height requirement demands the use of two stacked lift bags, (Figure 2-14) the smaller lift bag shall be on the top (A) and the bottom lift bag inflated first until the top lift bag contacts the load (B). The top lift bag is then inflated to achieve the desired lift (C). If additional lift is required at full inflation of the top lift bag, the bottom lift bag is further inflated (D).

WHEN LIFTING, BUILD SAFETY CRIBBING/BRACING IN STAGES TO MINIMIZE THE CHANCE OF INJURY OR DAMAGE.

IF THE LOAD SHIFTS, THE SAFETY CRIBBING/BRACING WILL PREVENT IT FROM DROPPING TOO FAR.

Figure 2-14. Correct Method for Inflating Stacked Lift Bags h. When lifting large cylindrical objects (Figure 2-15), use a lift bag on both sides of the cylinder and wedges to provide an even lift.

Figure 2-12. Correct Method of Safety Cribbing/Bracing

f. Lifting capacity does not increase by stacking two lift bags one on top of the other; only lifting height increases. Lifting capacity is controlled by the smaller bag capacity. Use lift bags, side-by-side, to additively increase capacity by inflating the lift bags simultaneously. (Figure 2-13)

Figure 2-15. Using Two Lift Bags to Lift Cylindrical Objects 2-10 LIFT BAG CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY. Use the following chemical compatibility table only as a guide in determining the MAXIFORCE Lift Bag resistance to solvents, acids, salts and other chemical solutions. Each commodity is assigned an alpha character to denote its expected effect upon the lift bag. The specific ratings in this table are based upon published literature from various polymer suppliers and manufacturers and Chemical Resistance Guide For Elastomers II published by Compass Publications, copyright 1994. Paratech is unable to guarantee their accuracy and therefore assumes no liability for the use thereof.

Figure 2-13. Lift bag Stacking and Tandem Combinations

2-10

CHAPTER 3 MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE 3-1 GENERAL. The major components and accessories of a MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System require little maintenance to ensure optimum performance. However, this maintenance must be performed to ensure personnel and equipment safety, and the assurance that when the system is to be utilized, it will function as designed and intended. This chapter provides preventive and corrective maintenance procedures that are necessary to verify that the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System will operate satisfactorily. careful to remove all dirt, sand, grit, etc. from quick connect couplings and nipples. Swirl in a bucket with the soap and water solution until clean. Rinse with a wiping towel LIGHTLY dampened with clean water. Then dry the surfaces thoroughly with a clean, dry wiping towel or low pressure compressed air. Also clean the lift bag with a soap and warm water solution, but scrub the lift bag with a stiff bristle broom or brush and rinse by spraying with cold water. If the cleaning solution or rinse water gets into the lift bag through the nipple, allow the lift bag to dry thoroughly before its next use. 3-3.2 INSPECTION. a. While the lift bag is still wet with the cleaning solution, inflate to 30 psi and check for air bubbles denoting a leak(s). Except for air leakage from between the air inlet fitting and the male nipple, replace rather than attempt to repair a leaking lift bag. If air leakage is detected from around the male nipple threads, proceed as follows: 1. Deflate the lift bag. 2. Disconnect the quick connect coupling from the lift bag male nipple.

CAUTION
Do not drag or drop the bag on the nipple, as this can cause breakage of the brass inflation fitting and render the bag useless. BREAKAGE OF THE BRASS INFLATION FITTING IS NOT COVERED UNDER WARRANTY. 3-2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PLAN. Preventive maintenance of the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System is accomplished in accordance with paragraphs 3-3 and 3-4. 3-3 POST OPERATION PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. Because of the contaminants present where a MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System is generally used (maintenance sites, construction sites, accident sites, etc.), it is important that the system components be thoroughly cleaned, inspected and prepared for their next use before being placed in storage. 3-3.1 CLEANING.

WARNING
When removing/installing a replaceable male nipple from/into a lift bag inlet fitting, be sure to hold the inlet fitting stationary while turning the male nipple. Turning the inlet fitting, or allowing it to turn, will loosen its bond with the lift bag. During operation, this will result in air leakage or possibly the ejection of the fitting, resulting in a hazardous condition and rendering the lift bag useless. 3. Unscrew the lift bag male nipple while holding the inlet fitting stationary. 4. Clean the interfacing threads and inspect the male nipple for visual damage. If damaged, discard. If not damaged, wrap teflon tape (two wraps) around the male nipple threads and tighten back into the inlet fitting. 5. Reconnect the lift bag to an air source, reinflate to 30 psi and recheck for air leaks. If none are found, deflate the lift bag, disconnect the quick connect coupling and install a protective cap (optional part) over the male nipple in preparation for storage. 3-1

CAUTION
Do not use any petroleum base product to clean components of the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System. Petroleum base products could adversely react with the non-metallic parts of the system components and may result in a component failure when none should be expected or tolerated. a. Keep the exterior of all components clean of all dirt, grit, oil and grease accumulations. Except for the lift bag(s), wipe exterior surfaces with a lint-free cotton machinery wiping towel LIGHTLY dampened with a soap and warm water solution. Be particularly

b. After a lift bag is clean and dry, all surfaces should be thoroughly inspected for cuts, abrasion, air bubbles and bulges (ply separation), and other similar damage. Remove all debris from the surface. Minor surface cuts and abrasion can be repaired with rubber cement and should not be considered a problem unless they are deep enough to expose the kevlar reinforcment layer. c. Inspect hose assemblies for cuts, cracks, crimps and brittleness. Inspect the hose quick connect coupling and nipple for secureness of attachment and burrs, nicks, corrosion or other similar damage that would prevent a leak proof interconnection. d. Refer to the separate instruction manuals provided with the pressure regulator and controller (safety relief and control valve) to inspect these components. e. If during the last three (3) months the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System and accessories have not been used for training or actual operational functions, they should be field tested to ensure they do not leak and are fully operational in preparation for their next use. 3-3.3. REPAIR. The only repairs authorized on the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System components are those designated in the separate instruction manuals provided with the pressure regulator and controller (safety relief and control valve) and the following procedures detailing replacement of the quick connect couplings and nipples.
FERRULE HOSE

release the nipple. Discard the nipple and ferrule. 2. Screw a new ferrule counterclockwise fully onto the hose and back the ferrule out 1/2 turn. There should be approximately 1/16 inch clearance between the ferrule inside shoulder and the end of the hose. 3. Hold the ferrule stationary and turn the nipple clockwise into the ferrule until it is fully seated (not required for emergency or field replacement). b. AIR HOSE QUICK CONNECT COUPLING REPLACEMENT. Refer to figure 3-2 and replace a worn or otherwise damaged air hose quick connect coupling in accordance with the following procedure.
AIR HOSE
FERRULE COUPLING

Figure 3-2. Air Hose Quick Connect Coupling Replacement 1. Square cut the air hose just behind the ferrule to release the quick connect coupling stem and the assembled ferrule (quick connect coupling). Discard the quick connect coupling. 2. Unscrew the new ferrule from the quick connect coupling stem. Screw the new ferrule counter clockwise fully onto the hose and back the ferrule out 1/2 turn. There should be approximately 1/16 inch clearance between the ferrule inside shoulder and the end of the hose. 3. Hold the ferrule stationary and turn the quick connect coupling stem clockwise into the ferrule until it is fully seated (not required for emergency or field replacement) .

NIPPLE

Figure 3-1. Air Hose Nipple Replacement a. AIR HOSE NIPPLE REPLACEMENT. Refer to figure 3-1 and replace a worn or otherwise damaged air hose nipple in accordance with the following procedure. 1. Square cut the air hose just behind the ferrule to 3-2

c. COMPONENT QUICK CONNECT COUPLING AND NIPPLE REPLACEMENT. The quick connect couplings and nipples assembled into the pressure regulator, controller (safety relief and control valve) and the safety in-line relief valve are screw-type fittings. When their replacement is required, it is only necessary to unscrew the damaged part (quick connect coupling and/or nipple), remove and discard the "O" ring and screw in a replacement part using a new "O" ring. If an "O" ring is not used, be sure to wrap the male threads with two turns of teflon tape to assure a leak free connection. 3-4 STORAGE. 3-4.1 Storage of the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System components at a stationary facility requires the following: a. The short term (1 hour or less) temperature range must be within the limits of -75F (-60C) to +220F (+105C). The continuous temperature range must be within the limits of -40F (-40C) to +150F (+65C). b. The components must be protected from any extreme environmental conditions where blowing dust, sand, grit and other similar materials could cause damage. If these environmental conditions are likely to be encountered, plastic wrap all components for protection. c. Regardless of whether the lift bag(s) are to be stored flat or upright, the inlet nipple shall be covered with a protective cap over the inlet nipple. If stored upright, be sure the inlet nipple is upright where it will not rub the floor or sides of its storage container.

3-4.2 Storage of the MAXIFORCE Air Lifting Bag System components in a truck or at a movable facility requires the following: a. System components (pressure regulator, controller, safety in-line relief valve and other metallic items) that are stored in a truck compartment where they are subjected during transport to constant bumping will eventually be damaged. It is strongly recommended that these components be stored in their own cushioned cartons. It is further recommended that all components be strapped down, braced or otherwise secured within the compartment during transport. b. The short term (1 hour or less) temperature range must be within the limits of -75F (-60C) to +220F (+105C). The continuous temperature range must be within the limits of -40F (-40C) to +150F (+65C). c. The components must be protected from any extreme environmental conditions where blowing dust, sand, grit and other similar materials could cause damage. If these environmental conditions are likely to be encountered, plastic wrap all components for protection. d. Regardless of whether the lift bag(s) are to be stored flat or upright, the inlet nipple shall be covered with a protective cap over the inlet nipple. If stored upright, be sure the inlet nipple is upright where it will not rub the floor or sides of its storage container.

3-3/(3-4 blank)

AIR LIFT SYSTEMS

AIR CUSHIONS
SERIES A - J3
( 7.25 PSI / 0.5 Bar )

OPERATION MANUAL
EFFECTIVE OCTOBER 12,1994
PARATECH INCORPORATED 1025 LAMBRECHT ROAD P.O. BOX 1000 FRANKFORT, ILLINOIS 60423-7000 U.S.A. TELEPHONE 1-815-469-3911 FAX 1-815-469-7748 QAP20/013/A

INTRODUCTION The Paratech Series A - J3 ( 7.25 PSI / 0.5 Bar ) Low Pressure Air Lift Systems are specially designed for Fire Service use and are mainly intended for the rescue of trapped personnel and a variety of operational situations encountered at road accidents, aircraft crashes, collapsed tunnels or trenches, where conventional jacking methods may be difficult or impossible to apply without lengthy preparation. The Air Cushions are particularly useful on soft, irregular or rubble strewn ground, during snowy or icy conditions. The broad surfaces of Series A - J3 cushions ensure their suitability for exerting uniformly distributed lift pressure against accepted weak parts of vehicles e.g. sides, roof, wings, hood, trunk, etc., light aircraft, rescue of animals bogged down in pits or ponds. The height of lift enhances access possibilities for medical attention or extrication after ensuring chocks are in position.
WARNING
ALWAYS INFLATE AIR CUSHIONS SLOWLY TO MINIMIZE

Data
Type Part Number Diameter Lift @ Max. Pressure Maximum Pressure Height Inflated Height Deflated ins. cms. lbs. kgs. psi bar ins. cms. ins. cms. A B C D D1 D2 J3

22-887005 22-887010 22-887015 22-887020 22-887025 22-887030 22-887035 24 61 3280 1488 7.25 0.5 17 43 2 5 8 222 35 15 30 76 5126 2325 7.25 0.5 23.3 59 2 5 16 450 38 17 36 91 7379 3347 7.25 0.5 24 61 2 5 24 673 50 22 48 122 13,120 5951 7.25 0.5 40 100 4 10 67 1900 56 25 48 122 13,120 5951 7.25 0.5 48 122 4 10 73 2100 65 29 48 122 13,120 5951 7.25 0.5 60 153 4 10 94 2800 70 32 60 153 20,500 9300 7.25 0.5 78 198 4 10 191 5400 104 47

Air cu. ft. Requirement ltrs. Weight Packed lbs. kgs.

PARATECH SERIES A - J3 AIR LIFT SYSTEM


COMPONENTS: 1. Series A - J3 Air Cushion 2. Air Hose 3/8 in. / 10 mm. Diameter P/N 22-890516 3. Piston Type Regulator P/N 22-890501 for CGA 347 or CGA 346 Air Bottles 4. Air Hose 1 in. / 25 mm. Diameter P/N 22-887400, 22-887405, 22-887410 5. Dual Controller with Gauges and Safety Relief Valves P/N 22-887300 6. Repair Kit 7. Carrying Valise ( not shown)

4 5

Repair Kit Tube of Adhesive Assorted Patches 60 Grit Emory Cloth

PARATECH SERIES A - J3 AIR CUSHION

Working Surfaces..................3-ply Neoprene-Coated Belt (.2 in. / 5 mm. nominal thickness ) Inflation Port.........................Molded Neoprene Flange / Tube Inlet Nipple and Clamp..........P/N 22-887460 & 22-887448 Restraint Webs......................Nylon Web 1 in. / 25 mm. wide (2399 lb. / 1088 kg. breaking strain) Side Wall...............................Heavy Coated Neoprene Nylon Fabric ( coated both sides)

PARATECH SERIES A - J3 DELIVERY HOSE


1 in. / 25 mm. Bore, fabric reinforced Thermoplastic hose. Max. Working Pressure @ 70 F (21 C) - 150 PSI (10.3 Bar) Service Temperature Range - 14 F (-10 C) to 150 F (65 C) Standard lengths supplied: 20 ft. / 6 M., 40 ft. / 12 M., and 60 ft. / 18 M. 3/8 in. / 10 mm. diameter hose supplied in 16 ft. / 5M. length.

PARATECH DUAL CONTROLLER P/N 887300


2 3 1 6 8 5 4

7 9 11

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ITEM PART # DESCRIPTION QTY. 1. ....... 22-890990 . Relief Valve, 7.25 psi (0.5 bar), 3/4 NPT .... 2 2. ....... 22-890625 . Gauge, 15 psi ................................................. 2 3. ....... 22-890697 . Neoprene Gauge Cover ................................. 2 4. ....... 22-890710 . Coupling, 1/2 Male ....................................... 1 5. ....... 22-890656 . 1/2 St. Elbow ................................................ 2 6. ....... 22-890655 . 1/2 Tee .......................................................... 1 7. ....... 22-890659 . 3/4 NPTF Tee, Gauge .................................. 2 8. ....... 22-890450 . Valve, 1/2 NPTM X 1/2 NPTM................... 2 9. ....... 22-550360 . Coupling, 3/4 NPTM .................................... 2 10. ....... 22-890662 . Bushing, 3/4 Male X 1/2 Female ................ 2 11. ....... 22-890654 . 3/4 St. Elbow ................................................ 2 DUAL SAFETY RELIEF AND CONTROL VALVE (CONTROLLER) is used to inflate and deflate the air cushions The two pressure relief valves are factory pre-set at 7.25 PSI (0.5 Bar) preventing over inflation of bags. There are separate control valves to safely operate 2 bags independently. The operation of the Controller is as follows: 1. The supply hose is connected from the CONTROLLER to an air cushion. Air will flow through the supply hose and the air cushion will inflate. Now operate the inflation valves. The Inflation Valves (A) are turned counterclockwise allowing air to flow to the bag. To stop the inflation, turn Inflation Valve clockwise. C A

B D

A C B D

PRESSURE REGULATOR PISTON TYPE P/N-890401

OPERATIONAL USE The following notes are intended as guidance: 1. Safe lifts depend on preservation of stability. 2. Successful lifts depend on careful assessment and observation. 3. Take all the normal precautions against the danger of outbreak of fire, such as laying out charged line of hose or foam branch as appropriate. 4. Look carefully to assess the situation to determine priorities. Think how safe lifts may be achieved, then only, ACT. 5. Ensure the side walls are folded inwards in regular fashion and that the upper working surface is "square" with the lower by reference to the web loops placed at quadrant positions. 6. Determine the best location for inserting air cushions. Avoid contact with sharp or jagged surfaces, particularly on side walls; hot exhausts should be covered with a folded fire and heat resistant blanket. 7. Ensure delivery hoses are well-laid and not "kinked". Position cushions as far as possible under load but, if this is impractical, inflate to obtain clearance, pack and reposition cushions. 8. Ensure valves are in "off" position. Connect delivery hoses to controller maintaining clear line to respective cushions. 9. Air sources other than regulated cylinder supply should not exceed 145 PSI / 10 Bar. 10. Before actually inflating, consider the effect of lift on stability. Remember, a three-point lift is the safest, i.e. one side or end of a vehicle in contact with the ground and two air cushions wherever possible. 11. Commence inflation by activating appropriate valves, balancing air input by attention to controller gauges. 12. Pack and block as lift proceeds, taking care to see blocks are placed so that, if necessary, they can support the load. 13. Web loops are provided to "hang" cushions between shuttering, collapsed trenches, or vehicles, skips etc., tight to walls. 14. Paratech 7.25 PSI / 0.5 Bar cushions have been successfully used to raise submerged vehicles, small cruisers etc. Exercise caution with respect to thrust and strength of bulkheads. 15. Extension delivery hose lengths should be made available for 13. and 14. 16. The following precautions should be observed: Ensure equipment is used only by trained personnel. Series A -J3 Cushions should never be inflated without the control equipment supplied. Keep clear of load unsupported by chocks during lifting operations. Operator should be positioned away from the direction of anticipated thrust. Do not use hoses or inflation port for retrieving or re-positioning cushions. 11

CARE AND MAINTENANCE ROUTINE, PERIODICALLY, AND AFTER OPERATIONAL USE: Paratech Series A - J3 Air Cushions are constructed to a standard which effects a minimum burst pressure of three times working pressure, irrespective of size, the largest cushion in the range, the Type J3, being selected as the minimum factor. This design criterion is corroborated and certified by an independent source.. Each cushion will have a label placed prominently on the cushion giving the following information; 1. Maximum Working Pressure 2. Date of Manufacture 3. Serial Number 4. Paratech Logo 5. Series Identification A Log Card, serially numbered, shall be issued, carrying particulars of the Works Acceptance Test as initial entry. The following Maintenance and Test Procedure should be observed: QUARTERLY Check control equipment as detailed under item heading. Couple up and inflate cushions to working pressure, checking audible relief function with gauge read-out on controller. Check delivery hose connections with brush and soapy water. Visually inspect cushions for integrity of seam adhesion. AFTER OPERATIONAL USE After drills and operational use, air cushions should be inflated to approximately 2 PSI / .14 Bar and thoroughly washed down using warm, soapy water. Wash down carrying valise, ensuring no grit or gravel adheres to inner surface. Check side walls thoroughly for evidence of scuffing by abrasion. Note: The strength of the side wall fabric is essentially the nylon core. Using brush and soapy water, check for leaks, concentrating on the side wall. Mark off for repair action (see Repair Instructions). After repairs are effected, inflate to approximately 2 PSI / .14 Bar and check integrity of repairs using brush and soapy water. If side panels have tears or abrasions and nylon core is damaged more than 1 in. / 25.4 mm. in either direction, return cushion to Paratech Incorporated. Proceed on the basis of a quarterly drill. It is recommended that within a maximum of five years, the complete kit should be returned to the manufacturers for proof test and survey. STORAGE Air cushions in valise should, where possible, be stowed on appliance with flat side on floor of locker, ensuring no damage is caused by proximity to other pieces of equipment.

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REFERENCE FOR TRENCH OUTLINE


OSHA CFR 1926 SUBPART P EXCAVATIONS NFPA 1670 STANDARD FOR TECHNICAL RESCUE TRAINING AND OPERATIONS NFPA 1006 STANDARD ON RESCUE TECHNICIAN GARGAN, JAMES TRENCH RESCUE 2ND EDITION VIRGINIA BEACH FIRE DEPARTMENT SPECIAL OPERATIONS STANDARD OPERATIONAL PRECEDURES TECHNICAL RESCUE 2001 SARGENT, CHASE TRENCH RESCUE OPERATIONS FIRE RESCUE MAGAZINE OCTOBER 1998 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND RESCUE TECHNICIAN OPERATIONAL READINESS FOR RESCUE PROVIDERS OSHA 1910.146 PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACES FOR GENERAL INDUSTRY IFSTA FIRE SERVICE RESCUE 6TH EDITION MARTINETT, CECIL TRENCH RESCUE OPERATIONS GUIDE SPEC.RESCUE INTERNATIONAL MARIO COUNTY FIRE CHIEFS ASSOCIATION - BASIC EMERGENCY RESCUE TECHNICIAN PROGRAM - BERT AIRSHORE INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL PRODUCT INFORMATION 2001 PARATECH INCORPORATED TECHNICAL PRODUCT INFORMATION 2001 SPEED SHORE INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL PRODUCT INFORMATION 2001 AIR BAG OPERATIONS AND APPLICATIONS SPEC.RESCUE INTERNATIONAL COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PROGRAMS TRENCH RESCUE TRAINING PROGRAM 1996 UNITED STATES FIRE ADMINISTRATION FEMA TECHNICAL RESCUE PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT MANUAL, AUGUST 1995

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