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Paper accepted for presentation at 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, June 23th-26th, Bologna, Italy

A Network Distribution Power System Fault Location Based on Neural Eigenvalue Algorithm
L. Sousa Martins, J. F. Martins, Member IEEE, C. M. Alegria and V. Ferno Pires, Member IEEE

Abstract A new approach to fault location for distribution network power system is presented. This approach uses the Eigenvalue and an artificial neural network based learning algorithm. The neural network is trained to map the non-linear relationship existing between fault location and characteristic Eigenvalue. The proposed approach is able to identify, to classify and to locate different types of faults such as: single-line-to-ground, double-line-to-ground, double-line and three-phase. Using the Eigenvalue as neural network inputs the proposed algorithm is able to locate the fault distance. The results presented show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for correct fault diagnosis and fault location on a distribution power system networks. Index Terms Artificial Neural Networks, ClarkeConcordia Transformation, Eigenvectors and eigenvalues, Fault Location on Distribution Network Power Systems.

I. INTRODUCTION n this paper a new approach is presented for the diagnosis and location of anomalies on electrical power distribution system networks. Fault diagnosis is of great importance even in a medium voltage network. Likewise, fault diagnosis is an importance factor for quality service (related with fast maintenance response to fault situations), in electrical distribution networks. The use of artificial neural networks (ANN) for fault diagnosis and location on electrical power networks is not new. Often ANN is applied in association to phasor computation [1], [2], or used as a pattern classifier to improve the performance of a distance relay and for fault classification [3]-[5].

Some of the fault location algorithms consist mainly in computing impedance of the fault line, based on voltage and current phasors data. Thus, a relationship between impedance and fault distance is established, assuming as previously known line parameters [6], [7]. Others use voltage and current forward and backward traveling waves, which change their shape at a discontinuity, therefore, allowing fault location [8]. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the Clarke-Concordia transformation [9] and also on the eigenvalue-eigenvector approach associated to an artificial neural network algorithm [10], [11]. The main purpose of the global algorithm is to classify and to locate the fault, where the following fault types can be identified: Single-line-to-earth fault, Double-line-to-ground fault, Double-line fault; Three-phase short-circuit. This methodology has been applied to an electric distribution power network, consisting in two interconnected sources, feeding a unique load located on a third node, as in Fig. 1.
i12
1

l12 l13
3

i13

l23
Source S2

Source S1 Load

L. Sousa Martins is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setbal, Instituto Politcnico de Setbal, 2910-761 Setbal, Portugal (e-mail: smartins@est.ips.pt). J. F. Martins is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setbal, Instituto Politcnico de Setbal, 2910-761 Setbal, Portugal (e-mail: jmartins@est.ips.pt). C. M. Alegria is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing, I.S.T., Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal. V. Ferno Pires is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setbal, Instituto Politcnico de Setbal, 2910-761 Setbal, Portugal (e-mail: vpires@est.ips.pt).

Fig. 1.

Electric Power Distribution Network.

To study the effectiveness of the proposed method, a model for the physical components of the system (sources, network lines and load) is considered. This system model uses lumped parameters and adopts the differential equations representing each of the possible fault or steady-state situations. Fault conditions simulations were establish on Matlab/Simulink software.

0-7803-7967-5/03/$17.00 2003 IEEE

A main advantage of the proposed methodology is the fact that only current signals are needed. As only current transformers are used there is significant cost reduction compared with other methods of fault location.

II. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The proposed methodology is based on three distinct steps. In the first one, line currents are transformed into 0 current components by applying Clarke-Concordia Transformation (1). In the second step an eigenvectoreigenvalue analysis is performed. Thirdly and finally, the development of an artificial neural networks algorithm is considered. In this approach it is considered that axis coincides with phase a, of three-phase system. Therefore, the axis lags the axis by /2. A third axis (0-axis), normal to plan, it is also considered.

What is of major importance is that the main orientation of the distributed data sample in 0 space characterizes the fault type, allowing a pattern definition for each type of fault. For that purpose at least one period of 20 ms must be considered to the length of the sample train, (10 kHz). Furthermore it is possible to establish a relationship between the eigenvalue of the previous current distribution and the location of the fault [10], [11]. Therefore, fault location may be established by considering the current distribution on 0 coordinates. Considering the data parameters shown on the case study, Fig. 2 presents the distribution of the phase currents on the 0 coordinates, in the steady state (absence of any fault), after applying (2). Figures 3 to 5 present the distribution of the phase currents for some type of fault. For three-phase short-circuit, the distribution of the phase currents on the 0 coordinates is similar to Fig. 2 apart the current magnitude, which is greater enough than the rated value of the system.

[TC ]

2 3

1 2 3

0 2 1 2 1 2

3 2 1 2
1 2

(1)
i zero

0.5

-0.5

By applying the Clarke-Concordia Transformation to the three-phase system current instant values obtained during a specified period, the figure of a circle is obtained in the plane. The radius of this circle is proportional to phase current magnitude. The eigenvalue is used as a method for quantifying that radius. For asymmetric fault situations during the period, the obtained curve is an ellipse. The main direction of the ellipse main axis indicates fault type and the phase or phases in which the fault occurred. The eigenvalue quantifies the modulus of that axis, which is a function of fault current magnitude. The nearer to the origin (position point of the current detector) the fault occurs, the greater the fault current magnitude, hence the longer the main direction of ellipse. So it is possible to characterize the different fault states, by current components i, i i0, analysis, which will be obtained considering the following:

-1 400 200 0 -200 0 -200 -400 -400 200 400

i beta

i alpha

Fig. 2. Fault Classification Pattern for steady state (Absence of fault).

1000

500

i zero

-500

-1000 400

i i = i0

[TC ]

ia ib ic

200 0 -200 0 -1000 -400 -2000 1000

2000

(2)

i beta

i alpha

Fig. 3. Fault Classification Pattern for single-line-to-ground fault (phase a).

Distance [p.u.]
1000

1
500

Single-line-to-ground
0.8

i zero

-500

0.6

-1000 2 1 x 10
4

0.4
4 0 -1 0 -2 -2 -4 x 10 2
4

Double-line Double-line-to-ground

0.2

i beta

i alpha
0 0

Three-phase
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Fig. 4. Fault Classification Pattern for double-line-to-ground fault (phases a-b).

Eigenvalue Fig. 6. Distance versus eigenvalue after ANN application.

0.5

1 2 3

i zero

-0.5

-1 2 1 x 10
4

4 0 -1 0 -2 -2 -4 x 10 2
4

kf

4 5 Input layer Hidden layer Output neuron

i beta

i alpha

Fig. 5. Fault Classification Pattern double-line fault (phases ab).

To decode and evaluate the above results, obtained by Clarke-Concordia transformation, an eigenvalue/eigenvector approach will be used. Eigenvalues (, , 0) are non-linearity related with the distance of the fault, as it can be observed on Fig. 6. Therefore the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) is a good way to represent that relationship. In fact, ANN presents, among others, some advantages as: capability to deal with nonlinearities; adaptive, they can learn from data; they can handle noise or uncertain data; good predictive accuracy and they can operate quickly.

Fig. 7. Artificial Neural Network Topology.

The applied ANN is of the feed forward type. Since it is a well-adapted training algorithm, error-back-propagation was considered. B. Algorithm Structure The main steps of the proposed algorithm are the following: Step 1) Data acquisition (phase currents); Step 2) Clarke-Concordia transformation of sample data and Eigenvalue approach obtaining eigenvectors and eigenvalues; Step 3) Fault Detection - Compare fault and pre-fault characteristic eigenvalues. Step 4) Fault Classification Compare characteristic eigenvectors with fault patterns. Step 5) Fault Location/Distance calculation

III. PROPOSED ALGORITHM A. Artificial Neural Network The topology of the proposed neural network (Fig. 7) is comprised of two input vectors (eigenvalue data " and fault type vector kf), one hidden layer, composed by five neurons, and one output layer. The output of the network will be the distance of the fault (m).

It corresponds to the application of ANN algorithm for location of fault point.


1000 800

IV. CASE STUDY A. Power Distribution Network Data

600 400 200

The case study corresponds to an electric power distribution network (as presented in Fig. 1), formed by: Sources - Substation power transformer of 20 MVA, 60/20 kV, Y/d, 50 Hz, artificial neutral formed by short-circuit current limiting impedance to 1 kA;

i beta

0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -1000 -1000

Load - Assumed as symmetrical and concentrated on a defined point. This corresponds to the power distribution transformers (MV/LV). Feeders corresponding to underground three aluminum conductors cables, PEX insulated, with S = 95 mm; R = 0.382 Ohm/km; L= 0.34 mH/km. Three different feeders with lengths of: l12 = 2.0 km, l13 = 1.0 km and l23 = 1.5 km. B. Simulated Results The following fault types were considered: Single-line-toground fault, line-to-line fault and three-phase short circuit. The steady state (fault absence) is also studied. The steady state results are important as a base standard for fault classification and fault location patterns. The following basic conditions were considered: Each sample train (10 kHz) has one period total length (20 ms).

-500

500

1000

i alpha

Fig. 8. Network under harmonics influence in case of the absence of fault.

The distortions caused by harmonics on the distribution data sample in 0 space in fault conditions do not assume significant values. As an example, for double-line fault, the curve on plan (Fig. 9) is an ellipse just like the obtained under normal conditions (without harmonics).

x 10 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

i beta

Admissible distance fault of 0 to 100% of total line length; Resistance fault Rd of 1 for ground faults and of 0 for phase faults; Total harmonic distortion of 8 %, due to the 3 , 5 and 7th.
rd th

0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -2 -1 0 1 2 x 10


4

C. Sensitivity to Harmonics In the absence of a fault the distortion caused by harmonics on the distribution data sample in 0 space does not assume a special meaning. In fact, the curve on plan (Fig. 8) is practically a circle with a slide distortion, as expected. The total eigenvalue deviation is less then 0.012 %. Obtained results for fault absence with and without harmonics are: = 159.88 (under optimal conditions) = 159.90 (under harmonics influence)

i alpha

Fig. 9. Network under harmonics influence in case of a double-line fault.

Figure 10 shows the obtained results with a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 8%, for different fault conditions occurring along the line length. For single-line-to-ground fault the distortion is practically equivalent to zero. For the other types of fault, the distortion assumes a very low value, which increases with the proximity of the feeder end-side.

5 From the obtained results it is possible to verify that the influence of the harmonics over the proposed location algorithm is minimum.

0,050 0,040

[%]

0,030 0,020 0,010 0,000 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

V. CONCLUSIONS In this paper a new approach for fault location in distribution power networks was proposed. This approach uses the eigenvalue/eigenvector and an artificial neural based learning algorithm. The main characteristics and particularities of the proposed method are: Reduced number of input signals (this is an importance aspect due to the non-use of voltage detectors); Recognition of the faults type and identification of faulty line or lines; Location of the fault, independent of his presence at the moment of the analysis; Almost independent on harmonics influence. Simulation results presented show that the proposed algorithm is a promising technique for Fault Location on distribution power systems.
b)

Distance [pu]

a)
0,50 0,40

[%]

0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

Distance [pu]

0,50 0,40

VI. REFERENCES
A. Poeltl, K. Frohlich; Two New Methods for Very Fast Fault Type Detection by Means of Parameter Fitting and Artificial Neural Networks. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. Vol. 14, N 4, October 1999, pp. 12691275. [2] Z. Chen, J.C. Maun; Artificial Neural Network Approach to SingleEnded Fault Locator for Transmission Lines. IEEE Trans. on Power Systems. Vol. 15, N 1, February 2000, pp. 370-375. [3] D. V. Coury, D. C. Jorge; Artificial Neural Network Approach to Distance Protection of Transmission Line. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery; Vol. 13, N 1, Jan 1998, pp. 102-108. [4] Aggarwal, Xuan, Dunn, Johns, Benne; A Novel Fault Classification Techique for Double-circuit lines Based on a Combined Unsupervised/supervised Neural Network. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery; Vol. 14, N 4, October 1999, pp. 1250-1256 [5] Jun Zhu, David L. Lubkeman, Adly A.Girgis; Automated Fault Location and Diagnosis on Electric Power Distribution Feeders. IEEE Trans. on Power Systems; Vol. 12, N 2, April 1997, pp. 801-809. [6] Takagi T, Yamakoshi Y, Yamura M, Kondow R, Matsushima T. Development of a new type Fault Locator Using the One-Terminal Voltage and Current Data. IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems 1982; 101(8): 2892-2898. [7] Jun Zhu, David L. Lubkeman, Adly A. Girgis; Automated Fault Location and Diagnosis on Electric Power Distribution Feeders. IEEE Trans. on Power Systems; Vol. 12, N 2, April 1997, pp. 801-809. [8] Bollen MHJ. Travelling-Wave-based Protection of Double-Circuit Lines. IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distribution 1993; 140(1): 37-47. [9] Jones CV. The unified theory of electrical machines. Plenum Press, 1967. [10] Sousa Martins L, Pires VF, Alegria CM. A New Accurate Fault Location Method Using Space Vector Algorithm. 14th PSCC (Power Systems Computation Conference), June 2002, PS 08 (3), pp. 1-6. [11] Sousa Martins L, Martins JF, Pires VF, Alegria CM. The Application of Neural Networks and Clarke-Concrdia Transformation in Fault Location on Distribution Power Systems. IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition 2002: Asia/Pacific, October 2002, Vol. 3, pp 2091-2095. [1]

[%]

0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

Distance [pu]

c)
0,50 0,40

[%]

0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

Distance [pu]

d) Fig. 10. Eigenvalue deviation due to harmonics: a) singleline-to-ground; b) doubleline-to-ground fault; c) doubleline fault; d) three-phase short-circuit.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES
L. Sousa Martins graduated in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST), (Technical University of Lisbon) Lisbon, Portugal, in 1975 and received an Msc. Degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from IST in 1989. At the present date he is preparing his Doctoral degree. His employment experience included the Siderurgia Nacional, Portugal, and Voest Alpine, Angola. He has been an Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setbal (ESTS), Instituto Politcnico de Setbal, Portugal, since 1991. His primary areas of interest are in electric power networks, design and protection, electrical installations. He is presently engaged in research on advanced power systems protections.

J. F. Martins graduated in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST), Thecnical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal, in 1990. He obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D. Degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal, in 1996 and 2003, respectively. He is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setbal (ESTS), Instituto Politcnico de Setbal, Portugal. He is also with the Mechatronics Laboratory. His research areas are in control of electrical drives, advanced learning control techniques for electromechanical systems and non-linear systems. He has published articles in international scientific journals such as the IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics and Pattern Recognition Letters.

C. M. Alegria graduated in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST), Thecnical University of Lisbon, Portugal, in 1975 and received Msc. and Ph.D. Degrees in Electrical Engineering from Imperial College, University of London, in 1976 and 1980. He is Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tcnico of Lisbon Portugal, since 1977.

V. Ferno Pires received a B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior de Engenharia (Higher Institute of Engineering) Lisbon, Portugal, in 1988 and M.Sc. and Ph.D. Degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal, in 1995 and 2000, respectively. Since 1991 he has been a member of the teaching staff in the Electrical Engineering Department of Escola Superior de Tecnologia (School of Engineering) of the Polytechnic Institute of Setbal. Currently he is a Professor, teaching Power Electronics and Control of Power Converters. He is also researcher at Centro de Automtica of UTL. His present research interests are in the areas of LowDistortion Rectifier topologies, Converter Control, Modeling and Simulation.