Anda di halaman 1dari 1


I. Cardiovascular Fitness & Endurance Cardiovascular Fitness- ability of the heart, lungs, and organs to consume, transport and utilize oxygen. It is brought about the sustained Physical activity. VO2 Max-stands for maximal oxygen uptake and refers to the amount of oxygen your body is capable of utilizing in one minute. It is a measure of your capacity for aerobic work and can be a predictor of your potential as an endurance athlete Cardiovascular system- A system of the body comprised of the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels. This system is responsible for transporting blood. BODY SUPERIOR & INFERIOR VENA CAVA RIGHT ATRIUM TRICUSPID VALVE RIGHT VENTRICLE PULMONARY ARTERY LUNGS PULMONARY VEIN LEFT ATRIUM MITRAL VALVE LEFT VENTRICLE AORTA BODY 3 Major Blood Circulations: Pulmonary circulation- it carries oxygen depleted blood away from the heart and to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. OXYGENATED BLOOD LUNGS Systematic circulation- transports oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the rest of the body, and returns oxygendepleted blood back to the heart. OXYGENATED BLOOD BODY Coronary circulation- the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply blood to and from the heart muscle. OXYGENATED BLOOD HEART Cardiovascular Endurance- The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity. Metabolic training- completing structural and compound exercises with little rest in between exercises in an effort to maximize calorie burn and increase metabolic rate during and after the workout. 2 Types of Metabolic Training: Aerobic Exercise- a physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energygenerating process. Aerobic exercise conditions the heart and lungs by increasing the oxygen available to the body and by enabling the heart to use oxygen more efficiently Examples: Running, Jogging, Cycling, Swimming, Kickboxing, Skipping Rope/jumping rope. Anaerobic Exercise- exercise intense enough or trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by athletes in nonendurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Examples: Pull ups, Sit ups, Squats, Sprints. Pushups II. Muscular Endurance Muscle Endurance- defined as the ability of a muscle or group of muscle to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time. Two Types of muscle fibers: 1. Slow twitch muscle fiber- Cannot exert as much force as fast twitch, but can sustain an effort over a much greater period of time. 2. Fast twitch muscle fiber- Can exert a great amount of force but for very limited amount of time. Examples: Squats, Hammer curls, plank, dips, push-ups. III. Muscular Strength Muscular strength- The greatest amount of force that a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort. Examples: Weightlifting, Calisthenics, Isometric exercises, plyometric. IV. Flexibility Flexibility (Limberness)- The absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints, and length in muscles that cross the joints. Activities that promote flexibility: 1. Basic stretching- consist of exercise that target the major muscle groups 2. Pilates- method of body conditioning that also focuses on improving muscle and joint flexibility. 3. Yoga-improves and maintains muscle flexibility and joint mobility. Stretching-Is a type of physical activity done with the intent of improving flexibility. Types of stretching: 1. Ballistic stretching- uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion. 2. Dynamic stretching-Consists of controlled leg and arm swings that take you to the limits of your range of motion. 3. Active stretching-You assume a position and then hold it there with no assistance other than using the strength of your agonist muscle. 4. Passive stretching-You assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body, or with the assistance of a partner or some other apparatus. 5. Static stretching-used to stretch muscles while the body is at rest V. Body Composition Body Composition- The technical term used to describe the different body compartments that make up a persons body weight. It is also known as Body Fat Percentage. 1. Caliper-Measures the thickness of subcutaneous fat in Multiple places in the body. 2. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)- Uses the resistance of electrical flow through the body to estimate body fat. Somatotypes- The structure or build of a person, especially to the extent to which it exhibits the characteristics of an ectomorph, an endomorph, or a mesomorph. Endomorphy-Focused on the digestive system, particularly the stomach (endoderm) Round physique, Slow metabolism, Finds it hard to lose fat, Gains muscle and fat very easily Mesomorphy- Focused on the musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm) Athletic, Strong, Hard body with well define muscles, Rectangular shaped body Ectomorphy- Focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) Thin, Flat chest, Fast metabolism, Finds it hard to gain weight, Small delicate frame and bone structure