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Mengenal Seluk Beluk Phylum Annelida

Diarsipkan di bawah: Klasifikasi — gurungeblog @ 5:37 am


Tags: Annelida, cacing berambut banyak, Hirudinea., Oligochaeta, Polychaeta

worm_lumbricus

Annelida (dalam bahasa latin, annulus = cincin) atau cacing gelang adalah kelompok
cacing dengan tubuh bersegmen.
Berbeda dengan Platyhelminthes dan Nemathelminthes, Annelida merupakan hewan
tripoblastik yang sudah memiliki rongga tubuh sejati (hewan selomata).Namun Annelida
merupakan hewan yang struktur tubuhnya paling sederhana.

Ciri tubuh
Ciri tubuh annelida meliputi ukuran, bentuk, struktur, dan fungsi tubuh.

Ukuran dan bentuk tubuh


Annelida memiliki panjang tubuh sekitar 1 mm hingga 3 m.Contoh annelida yang
panjangnya 3 m adalah cacing tanah Australia.Bentuk tubuhnya simetris bilateral dan
bersegmen menyerupai cincin.

Struktur dan fungsi tubuh


Annelida memiliki segmen di bagian luar dan dalam tubuhnya.Antara satu segmen
dengan segmen lainya terdapat sekat yang disebut septa.Pembuluh darah, sistem ekskresi,
dan sistem saraf di antara satu segmen dengan segmen lainnya saling berhubungan
menembus septa.
Rongga tubuh Annelida berisi cairan yang berperan dalam pergerakkan annelida dan
sekaligus melibatkan kontraksi otot.
Ototnya terdiri dari otot melingkar (sirkuler) dan otot memanjang (longitudinal).
Sistem pencernaan annelida sudah lengkap, terdiri dari mulut, faring, esofagus
(kerongkongan), usus, dan anus.Cacing ini sudah memiliki pembuluh darah sehingga
memiliki sistem peredaran darah tertutup.Darahnya mengandung hemoglobin, sehingga
berwarna merah.Pembuluh darah yang melingkari esofagus berfungsi memompa darah ke
seluruh tubuh.
Sistem saraf annelida adalah sistem saraf tangga tali.Ganglia otak terletak di depan faring
pada anterior.Ekskresi dilakukan oleh organ ekskresi yang terdiri dari nefridia, nefrostom,
dan nefrotor.Nefridia ( tunggal - nefridium ) merupaka organ ekskresi yang terdiri dari
saluran.Nefrostom merupakan corong bersilia dalam tubuh.Nefrotor merupaka npori
permukaan tubuh tempat kotoran keluar.Terdapat sepasang organ ekskresi tiap segmen
tubuhnya.

Cara hidup dan habitat


Sebagian besar annelida hidup dengan bebas dan ada sebagian yang parasit dengan
menempel pada vertebrata, termasuk manusia.Habitat annelida umumnya berada di dasar
laut dan perairan tawar, dan juga ada yang segaian hidup di tanah atau tempat-tempat
lembap.Annelida hidup diberbagai tempat dengan membuat liang sendiri.

Reproduksi
Annelida umumnya bereproduksi secara seksual dengan pembantukan gamet.Namun ada
juga yang bereproduksi secara fregmentasi, yang kemudian beregenerasi.Organ seksual
annelida ada yang menjadi satu dengan individu (hermafrodit) dan ada yang terpisah pada
individu lain (gonokoris).

Klasifikasi
Annelida dibagi menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu Polychaeta (cacing berambut banyak),
Oligochaeta (cacing berambut sedikit), dan Hirudinea.

Polychaeta

polychaeta

Polychaeta (dalam bahasa yunani, poly = banyak, chaetae = rambut kaku) merupakan
annelida berambut banyak.Tubuh Polychaeta dibedakan menjadi daerah kepala
(prostomium) dengan mata, antena, dan sensor palpus.
Polychaeta memiliki sepasang struktur seperti dayung yang disebut parapodia (tunggal =
parapodium) pada setiap segmen tubuhnya.Fungsi parapodia adalah sebagai alat gerak
dan mengandung pembuluh darah halus sehingga dapat berfungsi juga seperti insang
untuk bernapas.Setiap parapodium memiliki rambut kaku yang disebut seta yang tersusun
dari kitin.
Contoh Polychaeta yang sesil adalah cacing kipas (Sabellastarte indica) yang berwarna
cerah.Sedangkan yang bergerak bebas adalah Nereis virens, Marphysa sanguinea, Eunice
viridis(cacing palolo), dan Lysidice oele(cacing wawo).
Oligochaeta

cacing-tanah

Oligochaeta (dalam bahasa yunani, oligo = sedikit, chaetae = rambut kaku) yang
merupakan annelida berambut sedikit.Oligochaeta tidak memiliki parapodia, namun
memiliki seta pada tubuhnya yang bersegmen.Contoh Oligochaeta yang paling terkenal
adalah cacing tanah.Jenis cacing tanah antara lain adalah cacing tanah Amerika
(Lumbricus terrestris), cacing tanah Asia (Pheretima), cacing merah (Tubifex), dan cacing
tanah raksasa Australia (Digaster longmani).Cacing ini memakan oarganisme hidup yang
ada di dalam tanah dengan cara menggali tanah.Kemampuannya yang dapat menggali
bermanfaat dalam menggemburkan tanah.Manfaat lain dari cacing ini adalah digunakan
untuk bahan kosmetik, obat, dan campuran makan berprotein tinggi bagi hewan ternak.

Hirudinea
Hirudinea merupakan kelas annelida yang jenisnya sedikit.Hewan ini tidak memiliki
arapodium maupun seta pada segmen tubuhnya.Panjang Hirudinea bervariasi dari 1 - 30
cm.Tubuhnya pipih dengan ujung anterior dan posterior yang meruncing.
Pada anterior dan posterior terdapat alat pengisap yang digunakan untuk menempel dan
bergerak.Sebagian besar Hirudinea adalah hewan ektoparasit pada permukaan tubuh
inangnya.Inangnya adalah vertebrata dan termasuk manusia.Hirudinea parasit hidup
denga mengisap darah inangnya, sedangkan Hirudinea bebas hidup dengan memangsa
invertebrata kecil seperti siput.Contoh Hirudinea parasit adalah Haemadipsa (pacet) dan
hirudo (lintah).
Saat merobek atau membuat lubang, lintah mengeluarkan zat anestetik (penghilang sakit),
sehingga korbannya tidak akan menyadari adanya gigitan.Setelah ada lubang, lintah akan
mengeluarkan zat anti pembekuan darah yaitu hirudin.Dengan zat tersebut lintah dapat
mengisap darah sebanyak mungkin.
Annelid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Annelids
Fossil range: Cambrian - Recent

Glycera sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Annelida
Lamarck, 1809
Classes and subclasses
Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?)
Class Clitellata (see below)
Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc.
Branchiobdellida
Hirudinea - leeches
Class Myzostomida
Class Archiannelida
(polyphyletic)

The annelids, collectively called Annelida (from Latin anellus "little ring"), are a large
phylum of animals comprising the segmented worms, with about 15,000 modern species
including the well-known earthworms and leeches. They are found in most wet
environments, and include many terrestrial, freshwater, and especially marine species
(such as the polychaetes), as well as some which are parasitic or mutualistic. They range
in length from under a millimeter to over 3 meters (the seep tube worm Lamellibrachia
luymesi).

Contents
[hide]
• 1 Physiology
o 1.1 Asexual reproduction
o 1.2 Sexual reproduction
• 2 Fossil record
• 3 Relationships
o 3.1 Classes and subclasses of Annelida
• 4 References
• 5 Further reading

• 6 External links

Physiology
Annelids are bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic protostomes with a coelom (which
makes them coelomates), closed circulatory system and true segmentation. Their
segmented bodies and coelom have given them evolutionary advantages over other
worms. Oligochaetes and polychaetes typically have spacious coeloms; in leeches, the
coelom is filled in with tissue and reduced to a system of narrow canals; archiannelids
may lack the coelom entirely. The coelom is divided into a sequence of compartments by
walls called septa. In the most general forms each compartment corresponds to a triple
segment of the body, which also includes a portion of the nervous and (closed)
circulatory systems, allowing it to function relatively independently. The closed
circulatory system consists of networks of vessels containing blood with oxygen-carrying
hemoglobin. Dorsal and ventral vessels are connected by segmental pairs of vessels. The
dorsal vessel and five pairs of vessels that circle the esophagus of an earthworm are
muscular and pump blood through the circulatory system. Tiny blood vessels are
abundant in the earthworm's skin, which function as its respiratory organ. Each segment
(metamere) is marked externally by one or more rings, called annuli. Each segment also
has an outer layer of circular muscle underneath a thin cuticle and epidermis, and a
system of longitudinal muscles. In earthworms and in daria the longitudinal muscles are
strengthened by collagenous lamellae; the leeches have a double layer of muscles
between the outer circulars and inner longitudinals. In most forms they also carry a
varying number of bristles, called setae, and among the polychaetes a pair of appendages,
called parapodia.
Polychaeta: "A variety of marine worms" plate from Das Meer by M. J. Schleiden (1804–
1881)

Anterior to the true segments lies the prostomium and peristomium, which carries the
mouth, and posterior to them lies the pygidium, where the anus is located. The digestive
tract is quite variable but is usually specialized. For example, in some groups (notably
most earthworms) it has a typhlosole (to increase surface area) along much of its length.
Different species of annelids have a wide variety of diets, including active and passive
hunters, scavengers, filter feeders, direct deposit feeders which simply ingest the
sediments, and blood-suckers. Annelids can also grow up to six inches.

The vascular system and the nervous system are separate from the digestive tract. The
vascular system includes a dorsal vessel conveying the blood toward the front of the
worm, and a ventral longitudinal vessel which conveys the blood in the opposite
direction. The two systems are connected by a vascular sinus and by lateral vessels of
various kinds, including in the true earthworms, capillaries on the body wall.

The nervous system has a nerve cord from which lateral nerves come in contact with each
segment. Every segment has an autonomy; however, they unite to perform as a single
body for functions such as locomotion. Growth in many groups occurs by replication of
individual segmental units, in others the number of segments is fixed in early
development.

Depending upon the species, annelids can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction by fission is a method used by some annelids and allows them to
reproduce quickly. The posterior part of the body breaks off and forms a new identical
worm. The position of the break is usually determined by an epidermal growth.
Lumbriculus and Aulophorus, for example, are known to reproduce by the penis breaking
into such fragments. This complete regeneration is noteworthy as these Annelid species
are the most highly organized animals to have this capability.[1] Many other taxa (such as
most earthworms) cannot reproduce this way, though they have varying abilities to
regrow amputated segments.

Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction allows a species to better adapt to its environment. Some annelida
species are hermaphroditic, while others have distinct sexes.

Most polychaete worms are gonochoristic, that is, they have separate males and females
and external fertilization. The earliest larval stage, which is lost in some groups, is a
ciliated trochophore, similar to those found in other phyla. The animal then begins to
develop its segments, one after another, until it reaches its adult size.

Earthworms and other oligochaetes, as well as the leeches, are hermaphroditic and mate
periodically throughout the year in favored environmental conditions. They mate by
copulation. Two worms which are attracted by each other's secretions lay their bodies
together with their heads pointing opposite directions. The fluid is transferred from the
male pore to the other worm. Different methods of sperm transference have been
observed in different genera, and may involve internal spermathecae (sperm storing
chambers) or spermatophores that are attached to the outside of the other worm's body.
The clitella lack the free-living ciliated trochophore larvae present in the polychaetes, the
embryonic worms developing in a fluid-filled "cocoon" secreted by the clitellum.

Fossil record

Serpulid tubes on a marine shell; Duck Harbor Beach on Cape Cod Bay, Wellfleet,
Massachusetts.
The annelid fossil record is sparse, but a few definite forms are known as early as the
Cambrian - or perhaps even before.[2] Because the creatures have soft bodies, fossilization
of a body is an especially rare event. However, a few annelids, such as the living
polychaetes in the Serpulidae, secrete calcareous tubes, and such tubes are fairly common
as fossils (although these are not necessarily from annelida, as other animal phyla can
also secrete tubes). A fossil group has recently been assigned to the annelids, the
machaeridians. These forms were polychaetes with rows of dorsal overlapping shell
plates. The hard jaws of certain polychaetes, known as scolecodonts, are known from the
Ordovician onward, and are common enough to be used for stratigraphic correlation in
some cases. The best-preserved and oldest annelid body fossils come from the Cambrian
Lagerstätten such as the Burgess Shale of Canada, and the Middle Cambrian strata of the
House Range in Utah. The Annelids are also diversely represented in the Pennsylvanian-
age Mazon Creek fauna of Illinois. A few small groups have been treated as separate
phyla: the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera, now included in the family Siboglinidae, and
the Echiura.

Relationships
The arthropods and their kin have long been considered the closest relatives of the
annelids, on account of their common segmented structure, giving rise to the grouping of
Articulata. However, a number of differences between the two groups suggest this may
be convergent evolution. The other major phylum which is of definite relation to the
annelids are the molluscs, which share with them the presence of trochophore larvae.
Annelids and Molluscs are thus united as the Trochozoa, a taxon more strongly supported
by molecular evidence.

Sipuncula, Echiura and Siboglinidae have traditionally been placed in their own phyla,
while Clitellata has been considered separated from the polychaete annelids. But recent
research indicates that all of them actually belongs within the Polychaete, even if some of
these groups have lost their segmentation[1].

Classes and subclasses of Annelida

• Clitellata
o Oligochaeta - The class Oligochaeta includes the megadriles
(earthworms), which are both aquatic and terrestrial, and the microdrile
families such as tubificids, which include many marine members as well.
As traditionally defined, the Oligochaeta are paraphyletic.
o Leeches (Hirudinea) - These include both bloodsucking external parasites
and predators of small invertebrates.
o Acanthobdellidea and Branchiobdella - small leech-like clitellates
formerly included with the Hirudinea.
• Aphanoneura
• Polychaeta - This is the largest group of annelids and the majority are marine. All
segments are identical each with a pair of parapodia. The parapodia are used for
swimming, burrowing and the creation of a feeding current.