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1. What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus or parasite. Staphylococcus is a gram positive spherical bacterium. Its cells form a grape like clusters single division takes place in more than one plane. It is mostly found as a commensal associated with the skin, mucous membranes, and the skin glands. The golden pigmentation of the aureus colonies is caused by the presence of carotenoids, and has been reported to be virulence factor protecting the pathogen against oxidants produced by the immune system. Infectious diseases are contagious from one person to another when the causative agent of the disease moves from one host to another. Staphylococcus bacteria can be founded on some healthy people without signs of infectious, commonly in the nose area. Stap infection can be cleaned up with basic antibiotics. 2. How is this infectious agent transmitted through food and water? Food-borne zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. Infectious agents in foodstuffs include bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter, viruses such as nor virus or hepatitis A virus, and parasites such as Trichinella.The infectious agent which causes Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle can also be transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated meat causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Unlike other food-borne diseases which are spread by microorganism, (BSE) is caused by a prion, which is an abnormal form of a protein. By vectors living organisms which transmit infectious agents from an infected animal to a human or another animal. Vectors are frequently arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas and lice and can transmit diseases such as malaria, West-Nile virus and Lyme disease. Through direct contact or close proximity with infected animals. Diseases that is mainly transmissible to other animals or humans. Food workers who carry Staphylococcus and then handle food without washing their hands contaminate foods by direct contact. The bacterium can also be found in unpasteurized milk and cheese products. Staphylococcus is salt tolerant

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and can grow in salty foods like ham. As the bacterium multiplies in food, it produces toxins that can cause food poisoning. Staphylococcal toxins are resistant to heat and cannot be destroyed by cooking. Foods at highest risk of producing toxins from Staphylococcus aureus are those that are made by hand and require no cooking. Some examples of foods that have caused staphylococcal food poisoning are sliced meat, puddings, pastries and sandwiches. The foods may not smell bad or look spoiled in order to produce the toxins. 3. What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States? The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported an outbreak having many typical elements of staphylococcal food poisoning. The type of food involved, means of contamination, inadequate food handling measures and symptoms all pointed to S. aureus. The outbreak one meal served to 5,824 schoolchildren at 16 sites in Texas. A total of 1,36children developed typical staphylococcal food poisoning. Investigations revealed that 95% of the ill children had eaten chicken salad which contained S. aureus at high levels. The meal was prepared in a central kitchen the day before. Frozen chickens were boiled for 3 hours after being cooked, the chickens were deboned, cooled to room temperature using a fan, ground into small pieces, placed into 30.5-cmdeep pans, and stored overnight in a walk-in refrigerator at 5.5 to 7C. The following morning, the other salad ingredients were added and the mixture was blended. The food was placed in containers and trucked to the schools between 9:30 and 10:30 a.m. It was kept at room temperature until served between 11:30 a.m. and noon. The chicken was probably contaminated after cooking when it was deboned. The storage of the warm chicken in the deep pans prevented rapid cooling. It provided a good environment for staphylococcal growth and toxin production. Holding the food in warm classrooms gave an additional opportunity for growth. The screening of food handlers to identify S. aureus carriers, cooling the chicken more rapidly, and refrigerating the Salad after preparation could have prevented the incident.

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4. What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any? Minor skin infections are usually treated with an antibiotic ointment such as a nonprescription triple-antibiotic mixture. In some cases, oral antibiotics may be given for skin infections. If abscesses are present they are surgically drained. More serious and life-threatening infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the susceptibility of the particular staphylococcal strain as determined by culture results in the laboratory. 5. What steps can be taken to prevent further outbreaks? Include individual as well as environmental precautious and methods? Its easiest to prevent foodborne illness if you Remember 5 basic rules: 1. Practice good personal hygiene. 2. Cook foods adequately. 3. Avoid cross-contamination. 4. Keep foods at safe temperatures. 5. Avoid foods and water from unsafe sources