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ABBREVIATIONS

ADB CPCB CTSDF EKW EMIS ESRI GIS GOWB HWGU HWM ICT IESWM IWMED KEIP KMA KMC KMDA MOEF NGO NOC PM10 RPM SWOT WAPCOS WBPCB

Asian Development Bank Central Pollution Control Board Common Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility East Kolkata Wetlands Environmental Management Information System Environment Systems Research Institute, USA Geographic Information System Government of West Bengal Hazardous Waste Generating Units Hazardous Waste Management Intercontinental Consultants and Technocrats, Pvt. Ltd. Institute of Environmental Studies and Wetlands Management Institute of Wetlands Management and Ecological Design Kolkata Environment Improvement Project Kolkata Metropolitan Area Kolkata Municipal Corporation Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority Ministry of Environment and Forests (Government of India) Non Gazetted Official No Objection Certificate Particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter Respirable Particulate Matter Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats Water & Power Consultancy Services (India) Ltd. West Bengal Pollution Control Board (Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal)

WBSWAN West Bengal State Wide Area Network

CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


1 2 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................... 1 METHOD............................................................................................................... 1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 4 Assessing Vehicle Emissions .................................................................... 1 Area Source Emissions ............................................................................. 3 Open Burning, Diesel Trains, Cooking & Asphalt Hot Mix......................... 3 Industrial Sources...................................................................................... 4

SUMMARY & APPORTIONMENT OF RPM EMISSIONS.................................... 4 CONCULSIONS.................................................................................................... 6

LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Apportionment by Inventory ................................................................................. 4

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Video Survey Team ............................................................................................ 1 Figure 2 Vehicle Emissions Inventory Apportionment ...................................................... 2 Figure 3 Road Dust Surveys............................................................................................. 3 Figure 4 Inventory Apportionment..................................................................................... 4 Figure 5 RPM Emission Reduction Trends ....................................................................... 5 Figure 6 Trends in Premature Deaths within the KMA...................................................... 6

RECOMMENDED PROJECT SUMMARY ....................................................................... 7

Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. Introduction The Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) covers an area of 1,246 sq. km and is comprised of 29 municipalities, 3 municipal corporations and nearly 500 units of local government. With a population of about 11.8 million people, air pollution from mobile, industrial and area sources is a serious public health problem and affects the livability of the city. Measurement made at 17 air monitoring stations operated by the West Bengal Pollution Control Board and the Central Pollution Control Board indicate that respirable suspended particulate matter (RPM) is the principal pollutant of concern. Annual average concentrations approach 100 ug/m3 as compared to the India National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 ug/m3 annual average. The activities conducted under this TA were designed to identify and apportion RPM emission sources within the KMA based on emission inventory methods. The principal tasks completed during the project included a video survey and traffic counts of on-the-road vehicles. This data was used as the basis for calculating vehicle fleet emissions for all of the major pollutants under current conditions. A survey of several categories of small-scale industrial sources was also conducted and combined with existing information on RPM emissions from power plants and brick kilns operations. Further, a significant effort was also made to quantify paved road dust RPM emissions based on the first-ever survey of road dust silt content loadings at 39 locations within the KMA . RPM emissions data related to cooking in slum areas, open burning, asphalt hot mix operations and diesel trains operations were also compiled in an attempt to develop a full and complete RPM emission inventory for the KMA. Results were then compared to an independent aerosol apportionment study based on chemical analysis of aerosol samples collected in Kolkata in 2001.Emission projections for all source types were developed for the period 2004-2014. Finally, emission reduction strategy recommendations were developed and evaluated. All of the emission calculations and documentation were completed within a single, integrated emissions modeling spreadsheet, the Kolkata Air Pollution Potential Reductions Model (KAPPER) which can be easily updated or revised as future needs dictate. 2. METHODS Each of the methods used to estimate emissions are briefly described below. All are based on established emission calculation protocols developed by the USEPA or, where possible, rely on Central Pollution Control Board emission factors and other local data. 2.1 Assessing Vehicle Emissions The vehicle emission inventory developed in this study is based on vehicle counts made at multiple highways, arterial and residential-commercial roadsides. Nearly 10,000 vehicles were counted from video tapes made during daytime and night surveys conducted in November, 2004. (See Figure 1)

Figure 1 : Video Survey Team

The percentage of vehicles in each of seven categories that correspond to CPCB emission factor information (cars and taxis; 3-wheelers, 2-wheelers, large buses, small buses, large trucks and small trucks) were then calculated from the survey data. Results indicate that 57.5% of the vehicles on-the-road within the KMA are
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petrol cars and taxis. Three wheelers (8.5%), 2-wheelers (15.6%), large diesel buses (6.9%), small petrol buses (2.5%), small petrol trucks (4.6%) and large diesel trucks (4.4%) make up the rest of the vehicle fleet. These data are within a few percentage points of agreement with the West Bengal National Information Center 2003 vehicle registration data which was used to determine the age distribution each vehicle type by CPCB emission factor category. These data were then used with information on vehicle daily use (km/day) to estimate the total number of km/day driven within the KMA by each vehicle-type and vehicleage category. Results indicate that the 1.07 million vehicles within the KMA travel a total of about 47.6 million km/day. The average age of passenger cars within the KMA is about 10 years but over one-quarter of the large diesel trucks are over 30 years old. Across the distribution, about 16% of the passenger cars are diesel. The average age of large diesel buses used in the KMA is about 13 years. The age of the vehicle fleet suggests that there is little turnover in the fleet. This minimizes the air quality benefits of new, low emission standards on new vehicles. Given information on the number of vehicle-km driven and the age distribution by each category, emission factors published for India by the CPCB were used to calculate RPM, CO, Sox, NOX and HC emissions. Since CPCB emission factors are not available for pre-1986 vehicles, emissions from this group of vehicles are likely underestimated. The 1986-1990 factors were used in their absence. These and all other emission calculations were done within the KAPPER emissions model.
Kolkata Vehicle Fleet RPM Emissions, 2003
47% 0%

9% 16% 16% 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large 9% 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small
2% 1%

Figure 2 Vehicle Emissions Inventory Apportionment

Results indicate that, with respect to RPM emissions, large diesel buses are the largest source within the fleet at 7,627 tons per year followed by small buses at 2,722 tons per year. Large diesel buses account for nearly one-half of the vehicle fleet RPM emissions. Large and small buses are also a principal source of NOx, while 3-wheel 2-stroke vehicles are the strongest source of CO and HC within the vehicle fleet. (See Figure 2). Studies conducted by the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority project indicate that the number of registered vehicles will increase from 1.07 to 1.68 million by the year 2011. These emissions will continue to degrade Kolkata air quality. Based on these estimates, RPM emission projections for the fleet were then prepared for the ten year period 2004-2014 by vehicle category. Fleet RPM emissions are expected to grow from 16,115 to 29,941 tons per year over this period. These results were then merged with estimates of future year emission projections from industry and area sources.

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2.2

Area Source Emissions Paved Road Dust Emissions Review of the aerosol source apportionment study conducted in 2001 underscores the significance of dust as a principal source of RPM emissions in Kolkata. This is consistent with PM10 (a particle size fraction similar to RPM) aerosol apportionment studies conducted in other cities throughout the world. Therefore, a special effort was made to inventory paved road dust RPM emissions in Kolkata using well established USEPA road dust silt loading sampling and measurement protocols. Resuspended particulate emissions from paved roads originate from and result in the depletion of loose materials present on the surface of the road. These materials are continuously being replenished by other sources most notably carryout (trackout) of soil from adjoining roadways, road shoulders or area with broken pavement. Construction materials spilled from trucks, and trackout of roadside construction materials onto the roadways are also important sources. Trackout of soil from thousands of small sources throughout the KMA appears to be common. Paved road dust surveys were conducted at 31 locations on highways, arterials and residential-commercial roadways throughout Kolkata. (See Figure 3). The selected locations were, in most cases, the same as or close to those used in the video surveys. This work was done in cooperation with the Kolkata Metropolitan Traffic Police and other police agencies within the KMA which provided traffic management during the survey work. Their assistance was greatly appreciated. Results from this work indicate that the overall weighted average silt loading is 0.531 g/m2 based on an average vehicle weight for the Kolkata fleet of 3.9 tons and the vehicle count distribution from the video surveys. These data, when used with 30 year average rainfall statistics for Kolkata (82 wet days per year), result in an estimated RPM emission rate of 45,881 tons of road dust per year. Significantly, the trends in the monthly calculations of these emissions generally follow the same trend Figure 3 : Road Dust Surveys in the RPM air quality measurements. Again, these emission estimates are based on established USEPA methods that were incorporated into the KAPPER model and then merged with the vehicle emissions data. Road dust emission projections are based on the same growth rate as used for the vehicle fleet emissions (5.5% per year).

2.3

Open Burning, Diesel Trains, Cooking & Asphalt Hot Mix Studies conducted in India, 2004 indicate that about 25% of the leaves and other vegetation found in the 3,700 metric tons of municipal solid waste generated in Kolkata is burned. Using emission factors developed in India, an estimated 4.388 tons per year of RPM is estimated to be emitted from open burning. Population growth rate was used to project these emissions into the future. Train emissions were estimated from the quantify of diesel fuel burned per year by the South Eastern and Eastern Railways which operate a total of 406 locomotives transporting over 25 million passenger-km per year. RPM emissions were estimated at 162 tons per year. Domestic cooking using wood, distillate oil and LPG is about 1,211 tons per year almost exclusively from wood fuel use. This estimate is based on a slum population of about 1.5 million people. Emission projections follow population growth.
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Asphalt hot mix operations used for road repair were classified as area source emissions since they do not occur in fixed locations. There are about 125 such operations within the KMA, burning 13,500 tons/year of light distillate oil (LDO). RPM emissions are estimated at 810 tons per year. Emission projections follow vehicle registration growth. 2.4 Industrial Sources These sources include coal-fired power plants, brick kiln operations and a number of small scale industries including rubber products facilities, foundries, battery manufacturing, restaurants, dyeing and bleaching operations, bakeries and paper products. These are very small, often family-run businesses. RPM emission estimates were based on fuel use data obtained by project industrial engineers that visited a number of these facilities during the project. With the exception of foundry operations, RPM emissions from these facilities both individually and collectively, are minor. Foundry emissions, however, are estimated at 3,200 tons per year. This is likely to be an underestimate, however, as data on process emissions were not available and most facilities do not have operating control systems. There are nearly 400 brick manufacturing facilities within the KMA producing construction materials for a growing city. RPM emissions from coal fuel kilns based on 275 days of operation per year is about 1,176 tons per year. Since this excludes fugitive dust emissions and process emissions, brick kiln emissions may also be underestimated. Four coal-fired power plants within the KMA have been extensively studied by the West Bengal Pollution Control Board and data provided by the Board has been used in this study. RPM emissions prior to December, 2005 were estimated at 934 tons per year. After December, 2005, the Cessipore plant will install electrostatic precipitator controls systems with at least 90% collection efficiency, reducing total power plant emissions to 836 tons per year. All emission projections in this group are based on the expected growth of the industrial sector in India, about 6% per year. Total RPM industrial emissions are estimated at 6,454 tons per year. 3. SUMMARY & APPORTIONMENT OF RPM EMISSIONS In total, RPM emissions within the KMA are estimated at about 75,140 tons per year apportioned as shown in Table 1 and Figure 4. Table 1 Apportionment by Inventory Source Categories Cars, 2 & 3 Wheeler Buses & Trucks Dust Sources Industry & Power Plants Other Area Sources Total RPM TPY 3,621 12,494 45,881 6,454 6,690 75,140 Total 4.8% 16.6% 61.1% 8.6% 8.9% 100.0%

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Emission & Public Health Projections Collectively, RPM emissions from vehicles, road dust, other area sources and industry will grow from an estimated 75,140 to 136,796 tons per year at the projected growth rates if significant efforts are not made to reduce emissions and improve air quality. Assuming a proportional change in RPM air quality, 2003 air quality would be expected to degrade by an estimated 7 ug/m3 to 107 ug/m3 annual average. Using published mortality response factors, this further degradation in RPM air quality would be likely to result in a total of about 6,700 additional RPM-related premature deaths within the KMA by 2014. Recommended Control Strategies Restoration of healthful air quality within the KMA will require an aggressive program to reduce paved road dust emissions, mobile source emissions (with emphasis on large diesel trucks and buses); industrial emission by compliance with WBPCB regulations and reductions in open burning emissions.
Kolkata RPM Annual Apportionment
Note: CMB-based Apportionment = 60% dust
60%

17% 5% Cars, 2 & 3 Wheeler Dust Sources Other Area Sources 9%

9%

Buses & Trucks Industry & Power Plants

Figure 4 Inventory Apportionment

A major program to improve roadways by installing curbing to keep vehicles off of unpaved shoulders; control of trackout associated with construction materials in roadways as well as manual and mechanical sweeping for road cleanup will be needed if dust emissions are to be reduced. These programs will need to be implemented over several years and will be costly but they will significantly improve RPM air quality. As a first step, a series of demonstration programs need to be undertaken to measure, in Kolkata, the actual cost and effectiveness of various mitigation measures. A similar program is underway in Bangkok. Reductions in diesel emissions in large buses in trucks through alternative fuels programs, including conversions of buses to LPG as done in Delhi or bans on older vehicles (especially diesels) unable to pass visible emission tests are needed. Enhanced compliance and enforcement of industrial facilities with adopted WBPCB regulations. Significant reductions in industrial emissions could be achieved if existing control requirements were enforced. Ban on open burning of trash by 2007 within the KMA implemented over 2 years.

The expected trend in annual RPM emissions under this set of controls is shown in Figure 5. RPM annual average air quality would be expected to improve significantly, achieving the ambient air quality annual standard of 60 ug/m3 by 2010. Figure 6 illustrates the cumulative number of avoided premature deaths within the KMA if emissions are controlled as well as the additional (cumulative) premature deaths that would be expected to occur if control programs are not implemented.

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4.

CONCLUSION An emission inventory study to apportion RPM emissions within the Kolkata Metropolitan Area has been completed. Mobile, area and industry sources were incorporated into the study including, for the first time in India, paved road dust. The emission inventory apportionment is in good agreement with independent receptor-based aerosol apportionment studies.
Kolkata Controlled RPM Emissions
T/YR RPM 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 20132,014 Year Road Dust Diesel Vehicles Petrol Vehicles Industry Other

An emission inventory model, Figure 5 RPM Emission Reduction Trends KAPPER, was developed for WBPCBs use in developing future emissions analysis, conducting updates and changes in source activities as new information becomes available. Emission projections to 2014 have also been developed and preliminary control strategies recommended. Implementation of the emission reductions proposed would significantly improve RPM air quality in Kolkata and have important public health benefits, preventing an estimated 36,000 RPM-related premature deaths over the next decade. As Figure 6 shows, failure to implement controls on these sources will likely result to addition estimated 6,000 premature RPM-related deaths over the next ten years.
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
10,000 Premature Deaths

The project team wishes to thank the staff of the West Bengal Pollution Control Board for the technical assistance and direction during the course of this study. The kind assistance of the Kolkata Traffic Police while conducting the road dust street surveys was also appreciated. This work was funded under Asian Development Bank TA No. 3423-IND. September, 2005

0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

-10,000

-20,000

-30,000

-40,000 Year
Uncontrolled Controlled

Figure 6 Trends in Premature Deaths within the KMA

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RECOMMENDED PROJECT SUMMARY TA3423 Project Title: Road Improvements & Maintenance to Sector: Air Quality Minimize Dust

Purpose and An assessment of respirable particulate matter (RPM) in Kolkata indicates that nearly two-thirds of the RPM is dust caused by carryout of Need: soil onto roadways. Road improvements including curbing to keep vehicles off of unpaved shoulders and improved road maintenance have been clearly shown elsewhere as the only effective way to reduce dust emissions. RPM air quality would improve dramatically as a result. Description: There are 800 km of roadways within the Greater Kolkata Area, some 40% of which are in poor repair or have no curbing to keep vehicles on paved surfaces. Road maintenance is notoriously poor. This project would build properly constructed roads over 320 km within the CMA over a 5-year period including drainage and adjacent walkways to minimize dirt carryout from adjacent lands. Road maintenance and cleaning using mechanical sweepers (60%) and manual sweeping (40%) at least once per week year around is also required. Dust disposal costs are included. To determine the most cost-effective means of reducing road dust silt loading, a demonstration project is needed in Kolkata to test various methods of road cleaning effectiveness. Public outreach is also required. An enforcement program is needed to keep construction materials which trackout onto the roads, off of the public highways and arterials. Lead Agency: Schedule: Capital Cost: Possible Funding: Kolkata Metropolitan Development Agency Five years on line by 2010 Approximately 300 crore Rs. (US$ 67 million) Private/public partnership (Government MOEF, WBPCB; Developer; other equity participants)

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RECOMMENDED PROJECT SUMMARY TA3423 Project Title: Diesel Bus Conversion & CNG Clean Sector: Air Quality Fuels Program

Purpose and New studies of RPM emissions within the Kolkata Metropolitan Area demonstrate that diesel buses and trucks are about 37% of the PM 2.5 Need: emissions that most severely affect public health. Large diesel buses, which account for 48% of the vehicle fleet RPM emissions, are the most significant source of diesel emissions within the KMA. Visible emissions from these old (average age 13 years) vehicles are a common source of public complaint. Transport officials are proposing to ban nearly 7,500 of the older buses to improve air quality, creating a need to replace these older vehicles with new, low-emitting buses. An additional 1,500 trucks also need to be replaced or converted to clean fuels. Description: The programs should follow the CNG Bus conversion program successfully completed in Delhi which has been highly acclaimed, worldwide. Experience with the technology, policy development and implementation is locally available to guide this process. Significant benefits by providing clean fuels to industry will also follow, permitting the phase out of coal within the KMA. A GNG bus conversion and replacement program with the objective of phasing out 10,000 diesel engines over 10 years, greatly reducing diesel emissions in Kolkata. Such measures would significantly improve air quality and greatly benefit public health. Based on the Delhi experience, the cost is expected to be about 375 crore rupees to put retrofit 10,000 old diesel buses to CNG using available. The choice of LPG or CNG fuel will largely be based on fuel availability, specifically whether a CNG pipeline will be built in the near future. Development of a CNG infrastructure to fuel the bus fleet and provide a new source of clean fuel to Kolkata. Again, based on the Delhi experience, another 150 crore rupees will be needed to set up a network to distribute CNG at 100 dispensing units to fuel the buses.

Lead Agency: Schedule: Capital Cost: Possible Funding:

WBPCB Five years on line by 2010 Approximately 525 crore Rs. (US$ 119 million) Private/public partnership (Government MOEF, WBPCB; Developer; other equity participants)

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CONTENTS 1 2 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 1 KOLKATA AIR QUALITY........................................................................................... 1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 Legislative Context .................................................................................... 2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards .................................................... 2 Ambient Air Quality.................................................................................... 2 Health Studies ........................................................................................... 5

ASSESSING VEHICLE EMISSIONS.......................................................................... 6 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Video Traffic Survey Methods ................................................................... 6 Traffic Speed Survey ................................................................................. 7 Video Traffic Survey Results ................................................................... 10 Traffic Congestion Corridors.................................................................... 13 Vehicle Fleet Age and Fuels ................................................................... 14 CPCB Emission Factors .......................................................................... 16

VEHICLE EMISSION ESTIMATES .......................................................................... 16 4.1 4.2 Emission Estimates for 2003 ................................................................... 16 Fleet Future Year Projections (Without Emission Control) ...................... 19 4.2.1 4.2.2 The KMA Vehicle Fleet................................................................ 21 Air Pollution Emissions from 30-Year-Old Vehicles..................... 21

AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT......................................................... 21 5.1 Paved Road Dust .................................................................................... 22 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Paved Road Dust Surveys .......................................................... 22 Paved Road Dust RPM Emissions .............................................. 24 Paved Road Dust Estimate Uncertainties ................................... 24

Open Burning .......................................................................................... 25 Asphalt Hot Mix Plants ............................................................................ 25 Diesel Trains ........................................................................................... 25 Domestic Cooking in Slum Areas ............................................................ 26

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EMISSIONS..................................................... 26 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Coal-fired Power Plants........................................................................... 26 Ceramics Industrial Sources.................................................................... 26 Brick Kilns Emissions .............................................................................. 27 Cast Iron Foundry Emissions .................................................................. 27 Secondary Lead Smelters ....................................................................... 28 Bakeries .................................................................................................. 28 Bleaching & Dyeing ................................................................................. 28
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6.8 6.9 7

Rubber Products Industries ..................................................................... 28 Restaurants ............................................................................................. 28

APPORTIONMENT OF KOLKATA PARTICULATE EMISSIONS........................... 28 7.1 7.2 Apportionment of RPM Emissions........................................................... 28 Apportionment of PM 2.5 Emissions ....................................................... 30

8 9

HEALTH EFFECTS PROJECTIONS ....................................................................... 31 EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGIES...................................................................... 32 9.1 Vehicle Emission Reduction Strategies................................................... 33 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.2 9.3 9.4 Current Vehicle Emission Reduction Programs .......................... 34 Current Vehicle Inspection Programs.......................................... 35 New Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions............................. 35

Area Source Emission Reduction Strategies........................................... 39 Paved Road Dust Control Strategies....................................................... 39 9.3.1 A Paved Road Dust Program for Kolkata .................................... 40 Mitigation of Industrial Emissions ............................................................ 41

10

SUMMARY................................................................................................................ 42 LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for India.4 Table 2 Percent Contributions to Kolkata PM-2.5 Aerosol...................................................... 4 Table 3 Estimated Percent Contribution to RPM .................................................................... 5 Table 4 Kolkata RPM Air Quality by Month for Residential Sites, 2003.................................. 8 Table 5 Video Traffic Survey Locations .................................................................................. 9 Table 6 Kolkata Video Survey Data: Fleet Distribution ......................................................... 11 Table 7 Daily Km Driven by Vehicle-Type ............................................................................ 13 Table 8 Kolkata Vehicle Fleet Age Distribution ..................................................................... 14 Table 9 Mobile Source Emissions Summary (Metric Tons per Year), 2003 ......................... 17 Table 10 CPCB Emission Factors (gm/km) ......................................................................... 18 Table 11 KMA Vehicle Age Distribution ................................................................................ 21 Table 12 Kolkata Vehicle Weight .......................................................................................... 23 Table 13 Road Dust Silt Loading Summary......................................................................... 23 Table 14 Power Generating Plant Emissions (Tons per year).............................................. 26 Table 15 Kolkata Emission Inventory RPM Apportionment .................................................. 29 Table 16 CMB Vs RPM By Inventory Apportionment ........................................................... 29 Table 17 Increases in Mortality Associated with Emission Growth from 2003...................... 31 Table 18 RPM Emissions for 30-Year Old Commercial Vehicles ......................................... 39

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Kolkata Metropolitan Area ........................................................................................ 3 Figure 2 Kolkata RPM Annual Trends .................................................................................... 5 Figure 3 Traffic Video Survey Team ....................................................................................... 7 Figure 4 Kolkata Traffic by Time of Day................................................................................ 10 Figure 5 Kolkata Vehicle Fleet: Percent by Vehicle-Type ..................................................... 12 Figure 6 Traffic Congestion Corridors................................................................................... 15 Figure 7 Vehicle-Type Contributions to Fleet 2003 RPM Emissions .................................... 17 Figure 8 Vehicle Fleet RPM Emission Projection 2003-2014 ............................................... 19 Figure 9 Kolkata Vehicle-Type Contributions By Pollutant, 2003 ......................................... 20 Figure 10 Road Dust Sampling............................................................................................ 23 Figure 11 Monthly Variations in Road Dust .......................................................................... 24 Figure 12 Kolkata RPM Air Quality & Road Dust Emissions ................................................ 25 Figure 13 Kolkata Annual RPM Apportionment by Inventory................................................ 30 Figure 14 Kolkata PM2.5 Apportionment by Inventory ......................................................... 31 Figure 15 RPM - Related Premature Death Trends within the KMA..................................... 32 Figure 16 Trends in Controlled RPM Emissions ................................................................... 33 Figure 17 Controlled vs. Uncontrolled RPM Emission Trends .............................................. 33

ANNEXES Annex 1: Thermal Power Plant Specifics Annex 2: KAPPER Model Documentation Annex 3: KAPPER Model Inputs & Emission Calculation Tables & Figures Table 3A: Motor Vehicle RPM Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3B: Motor Vehicle CO Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3C: Motor Vehicle HC Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3D: Motor Vehicle NOX Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3E: Motor Vehicle All Pollutant Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3F: Motor Vehicle Paved Road Dust Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3G: Industry RPM Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3H: Industry NOX Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3I: Industry SOX Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3J: Area Source RPM Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003 Table 3K: Summary of RPM Emissions, All Sources, Uncontrolled
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Table 3L: Summary of NOX Emissions, All Sources, Uncontrolled Table 3M: Controlled RPM Emission Projections Table 3N: Kolkata Industrial Survey Summary & Emissions Table 3O: Summary of Kolkata Small Scale Industry Emissions Table 3P: Kolkata Video Survey Vehicle Counts, February 2005 Table 3Q: Kolkata Video Survey Vehicle as Percentage of Hourly Count, February 2005 Table 3R: Kolkata Vehicle Fleet Model Inputs Table 3S: Kolkata Vehicle Fleet Emissions by Vehicle Type & Age Class Table 3T: Summary of Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions 2003 Table 3U: Kolkata Road Dust Silt Loading Data, 2005 for Paved Road Dust Emissions Table 3V: Paved Road Dust Silt Loading Weight Average Calculation for PRD Table 3W: Kolkata Vehicle Weight Analysis for PRD Emissions Figure 3A: Vehicle Fleet Emission Graphics Figure 3B: Vehicle Fleet Emission Pie Charts Figure 3C: Vehicle Fleet Emission Projections Figure 3D: Projections for All Sources, Paved Road Dust & RPM Apportionment Figure 3E: Control Strategy Analysis Graphics Figure 3F: Control Strategy & PM2.5 Apportionment Annex 4: Example Calculations

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AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1 INTRODUCTION The Kolkata City Corporation (KMC) covers an area of 185 sq km (71 sq mi). It lies near the southern third of the larger Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) which covers an area of 1,246 sq km (481 sq mi) and is comprised of nearly 500 units of local government, including three municipal corporations and 29 municipalities. The KMA is the second largest metropolitan area in India. Roads and railways make up the main traffic arteries, and a bypass road has been built east of the city to facilitate through traffic. The Hooghly River runs through the KMA with industries located on both banks and along the railroad lines. Financial, administrative, and trade activities are concentrated in the citys business district, which lies just east of the Hooghly River. Figure 1 shows the KMA and KMC boundaries as well as other political boundaries referred to in this report. According to the 2001 census, the KMC had a population of 4,390,500, with an extremely high population density of 23,720 persons per sq km (61,970 persons per sq mi). The metropolitan area (KMA) had a population of 11,860,000 million in 2001 and a density of 8,600 persons per sq km (24,760 persons per sq km). The growth rate of the KMC metropolitan area population was 2.4 percent between 1991 and 2001i. The number of registered motor vehicles within the KMA (2003) was over 1.07 millionii. Within the KMC area, one-half of the roadways have average traffic speeds of less than 20 km/hr. The number of registered vehicles is projected to continue to increase to 2.5 million by 2011 and about 3 million by 2025.iii With increasing urbanization, the distances that vehicles travel typically travel increases thereby greatly increasing vehicle emissions. The current vehicle density is 5,685 per sq. km, much higher than found in Delhi where there are 26 million km of road length compared to 1,404 km in Kolkata. This high vehicle density results in severe traffic congestions and very slow traffic speeds in Kolkata. Because of the growth of vehicles and vehicle emissions, air pollution associated with transportation sources has been a major concern of the West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB), public stakeholders and International Development Agencies. Past efforts to assess transport emissions have been limited by the lack of vehicle fleet information specific to Kolkata. As a result, new studies to more clearly define the on-the-road fleet, vehicle emission characteristics and emission rates were required to guide control efforts. This information must be combined with estimates of industrial, commercial and area source emissions to correctly apportion pollutant emissions. 2 KOLKATA AIR QUALITY Kolkata air quality is monitored at 17 stations operated by WBPCB and CPCB located throughout the KMA including 2 continuous air monitoring stations. These stations continuously measure Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM) which is roughly equivalent to PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, O3, hydrocarbons and meteorological parameters. SPM and lead is monitored using high volume samplers at all stations while manual wet-chemical methods are used for SO2 and NO2 monitoring at the 15 stations that do not use continuous methods.

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2.1

Legislative Context Air pollution regulation began with the Bengal Act III of 1905, Smoke Nuisance Act which set limits for the density of smoke from furnaces. Modern legislative authorities for air pollution control are contained in the Acts, Rules and Notifications of the Government of West Bengal, Department of Environment found in the 1981 Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, as amended, and Rules made there under. The 1981 Act provides State Pollution Control Boards with the authority to regulate air pollution and defines the powers and function of the Boards. It also describes regulations to control and prevent air pollution, including penalties and procedures to enforce air pollution regulations. Air pollution emission standards for a number of pollutants for various industrial sources were adopted under Section 17(I)(g) of the 1981 Act. This same section describes minimum stack height requirements. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules adopted in November, 1982 establishes procedures to b0e followed by the Boards and their committees as well as a budget for the Central Pollution Control Board. The Environmental Protection Rules of 1986 was enacted as an umbrella Act to cover all aspects of environmental pollution. It also set emission standards and testing procedures for petrol and diesel motor vehicles.

2.2

National Ambient Air Quality Standards Under the provisions of the section 16(2)(h) of Air (Prevention and Control of Air Pollution) Act, 1981, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board in 1982, which is applicable throughout the country. In 1994, the standards were modified by including ambient standards for more pollutants. Although the standards are parameter and area specific, the WBPCB places first priority to achieving air quality standards in commercial-residential areas.

2.3

Ambient Air Quality Data from the air monitoring stations is reported by the West Bengal Pollution Control Board on a regular basis. Analysis of this data indicates that the pollutant of prime concern is respirable particulate matter (RPM) which is roughly equivalent to PM10. The annual RPM mean concentrations reported by the WBPCB for Kolkata mixed residential-commercial monitoring stations (see Table 4) of 99 g/m3 annual average can be compared to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 g/m3 annual average for residential areasiv Source apportionment studies were conducted between March 2001 and January 2002 in Kolkata by Georgia Institute of Technology. Twenty samples of the PM2.5 (only) fraction with an average mass concentration of 108 g/m3 were used to estimate seasonal average source contributions. These estimates can be used to estimate the likely apportionment of the RPM fraction based on knowledge of the PM2.5/PM10 mass of each of the source categories. For example, it is likely that the entire RPM secondary aerosol is within the PM2.5 fraction. Recent studies by USEPAv report that new paved road dust studies indicate a midpoint PM2.5/PM10 ratio of 0.09 (9% of PM10 is within the PM2.5 fraction), with a range of 0.03 to 0.10. Similar ratios for diesel, gasoline, coal and biomass burning are 0.8, 0.9, 0.5 and 0.8, respectively. Given these ratios, the annual average data in Table 2 has been converted to the equivalent RPM percentages. The estimates in Table 3 provide the best available point of comparison to the emission inventory.

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Figure 1 Kolkata Metropolitan Area

BANSBERIA

KALYANI
GAYESPUR

LEGEND
CMA BOUNDARY MUNICIPAL CORPORATION AREAS
NAIHATI HALISAHAR KANCHPARA

MUNICIPAL AREAS NOTIFIED AREAS

HOOGHLYCHINSURAH

IV

ER

NON MUNICIPAL URBAN AREAS OUT GROWTH RURAL AREAS

CHANDANNAGAR M.C

BHATPARA

BHADESWAR GARULIA

5 km
BAIDYABATI

GHL
NORTH BARRACKPORE BARRACKPORE SERAMPORE TITAGARH RISHRA KHARDAH

CHAMPDANI

BARASAT

MADHYAMGRAM KONNAGAR PANIHATI NEW BARRACKPORE

UTTARPARA NOTRUNG

KAMARHATI

NORTH DUMDUM

BARAHNAGAR BALLY

DUM DUM

RAJARHAT GOPALPUR

HOWRAH M.C
L Y

IV

ER

SOUTH DUMDUM

SALTLAKE

R
ULUBERIA

IV

R
MAHESHTALA

HLY HOOG
PUJALI N.A

BUDGE BUDGE

CALCUTTA M.C

RAJPUR

BARUIPUR

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Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for India


Pollutants Time weighted average Annual average* 24 Hours average** Annual average* 24 Hours average** Annual average* 24 Hours average** Annual average* 24 Hours average** Annual average* 24 Hours average** 8 Hours average** 1 Hour average Annual average* 24 Hours average** Concentration in ambient air Residential, Sensitive Industrial Rural and areas Area other areas 80g/m
3

Method of measurement

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Respirable Particulate Matter(Size less than 10 m) (RPM) Lead (Pb)

60g/m

15g/m

120g/m3 80g/m3 120g/m3 360g/m3 500g/m3 120g/m3


3

80g/m3 60g/m3 80g/m3 140g/m3 200g/m3 60g/m3


3

30g/m3 15g/m3 30g/m3 70g/m3 100g/m3 50g/m3

Improved West & Gaeke method Ultraviolet Fluorescence Jacob & Hochheiser modified (Sodium Arsenite) method Gas Phase Chemiluminescence High Volume Sampling (average flow rate not less than 1.1 m3/minute)

150g/m
3

100g/m

75g/m

Respirable Particulate Matter Sampler

1g/m

0.75g/m 1g/m3 2mg/m


3

0.5g/m

1.5g/m3 5mg/m
3

0.75g/m3 1mg/m
3

AAS method after sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper Non Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Ammonia (NH3)


* **

10mg/m3 0.1mg/m3 0.4mg/m3

4mg/m3 0.1mg/m3 0.4mg/m3

2mg/m3 0.1mg/m3 0.4mg/m3 --

Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval. 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days. National Ambient Air Quality Standard: The levels of air quality necessary with adequate margin of safety, to protect the public health, vegetation and property. Whenever and wherever two consecutive values exceed the limit specified above for the respective category, it would be considered adequate reason to institute regular/continuous monitoring and further investigations.

Table 2 Percent Contributions to Kolkata PM-2.5 Aerosol


Season Spring Summer Autumn Winter Average Diesel Vehicles 24% 61% 43% 15% 36% Gasoline Vehicles 11% 8% 21% 9% 12% Road Dust 28% 21% 7% 5% 15% Coal Burning 4% 1% 5% 13% 6% Biomass Burning 19% 24% 32% 17% 23% Sec. 2 SO4 15% 10% 8% 4% 9% Sec. NO32% 3% 1% 3% 2% Sec. NH4+ 3% 1% 2% 3% 2% Total 107% 130% 120% 70%

Note: Total apportioned mass may exceed 100% due to uncertainties in the analysis.

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3 Estimated Percent Contribution to RPM


Season Annual Diesel Vehicles 16% Gasoline Vehicles 5% Road Dust 60% Coal Burning 4% Biomass Burning 10 % All Sec. Aerosols 5% Total 100%

Trends in annual average RPM concentrations are shown in Figure 2. There is concern that the RPM trend toward better air quality seen from 1997 to 2003 may not continue. RPM concentrations are still far above the adopted ambient air quality standard of 60 g/m3 annual average. Figure 2 Kolkata RPM Annual Trends

200
Annual Average 150

100
RPM (g/m3)

50 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004


Year

Review of RPM data collected during 2003 at the Baishnabghata residential monitoring site on the southeast boundary of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation Area shows that concentrations rarely fall below 25 g/m3 24-hour averages even during the monsoon season. This value was therefore taken as the clean air background value for the KMA. The difference between the background value and the KMA average annual concentration (99 25 g/m3) of 74 g/m3 is therefore the annual RPM concentration associated with emission sources within the KMA boundary which are subject to regulatory control. Table 3 is a tabulation of RPM data reported for 2003. Note that there are significant seasonal variations in the data that correlate with the monsoon season. During the winter months of November through February, RPM concentration increase dramatically. As a result, any strategy designed to lower the annual average concentration of RPM in Kolkata may not succeed in improving winter-season air quality sufficiently to attain 24-hour RPM air quality standard of 100 g/m3. The annual averages of other pollutants including SO2, NO2 and CO are generally within the national standards although there is some concern about increasing NOX concentrations. Lead concentrations within the KMA are also within standards. SPM concentrations also exceed NAAQS but are of less concern due to the greater health risks associated with RPM aerosols. Any strategy to reduce RPM concentrations would, however, also reduce SPM concentrations. 2.4 Health Studies According to a new study by the World Health Organization, approximately 350,000 people die every year in Europe because of exposure to air pollution. Since the population of Europe is about 350 million people, this is about 0.1% of the continents population. If we apply this percentage to Kolkatas urban population of about 13 million people, then 13,000 persons would die prematurely due to air pollution
Final Report 5

Volume V : Air Quality Management

assuming similar pollutant concentrations. Using these estimates and the value of a statistical life in India ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 million USD, the cost of premature mortality associated with air pollution in Kolkata would range from 1.3 to 3.9 billion USD. This is probably an underestimate given the far poorer air quality in Kolkata. The health effects of urban air pollution were studied by WBPCB in 2002.vi Over 1,310 people were involved in these studies. They concluded that the lungs of Kolkata population are highly burdened with respirable particulate matter with suggestive indications of inflammatory and allergic lung response and microscopic hemorrhage of lung. The investigators found that symptoms related to upper respiratory problems were found in 41.3% of urban people in contrast to 35% of rural controls, concluding that residents of Kolkata display substantially more symptoms during the winter months when pollution levels are highest. RPM concentrations appear to be the key factor related to these symptoms. These same concerns are present today. 3 ASSESSING VEHICLE EMISSIONS The most critical element of the on-road emissions analysis is the nature of the vehicle technology that operate on the streets of Kolkata. Different vehicle technologies produce very different rates of emissions with some vehicles emitting as much as 300 times as much as another. The fraction of various types of vehicles in the local fleet and the fraction of the various types of vehicles actually operating on the roadways may be quite different because some vehicles are operated much more than others. Estimates of air pollution emissions from Kolkata motor vehicles are based on Central Pollution Control Board emission factors for various vehicle-classes, by year (Table 9). These emission factors are used with information on the number of vehicles plying the streets of the KMA, the percentage of on-the-road vehicles of each vehicle-type, the age and fuel-use (e.g., diesel vs. petrol passenger cars) distribution of each vehicle-type. Finally, an estimate of the kilometers that each vehicle-type travels per day is also required. This information was obtained from the recent work in Pune and data from the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority. Video traffic surveys were conducted to improve the accuracy of the fraction of the various vehicle-types actually operating on the city streets. Vehicle age and fuel distribution data was obtained by analysis of National Information Centres current vehicle registration data. A brief traffic speed survey was also conducted. The video survey methods used in this study have also been used in several cities around the world including Pune, India in March, 2003vii. 3.1 Video Traffic Survey Methods Video taping allows the determination of the fraction of truck, buses, passenger vehicles, 2-wheelers, 3-wheelers and other vehicles actually operating on the roadways. In order to insure that the most representative data is collected, video surveys were carried out from 0700 (7AM) in the morning to 1840 (6:40PM) in the evening over 9 work days at 39 locations including 3 representative highway, arterial and residential-commercial road sections of Kolkata. About three-quarters of the vehicle-kilometers driven per day usually occur within the daylight hours surveyed. In addition, night surveys were conducted between 2000 (8PM) and 0700 (7AM) on each of three different nights, one night at one selected highway, arterial or commercial-residential street location with suitable lighting and security. The sites were selected with the assistance of the West Bengal Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering Directorate and the West Bengal Pollution Control Board to provide data representative of Kolkata.

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

The video camera was used to record traffic during a 40 minute period of each hour of interest. The actual 20 minute period of video used for the vehicle counts was random but provided sufficient data and allows time for assembly/disassembly of the cameras at each location and transport to the next location. The video was recorded on CDs which were then reviewed following the surveys in slow and stop action as needed to yield accurate analysis of the traffic vehicle distribution. Nearly 10,000 vehicles were counted during these surveys. The survey schedule, locations and video start/stop times are noted in Table 5. 3.2 Traffic Speed Survey Vehicle emissions vary as a function of speed which places different power demands on the engine. On December 28 and 29, 2004 and again on January 2, 2005, a passenger car was driven on arterial roads in Kolkata between the hours of 8AM and 5PM along a prescribed route. Data on vehicle speed, location and local time were recorded every 5-minutes during this period, providing about 180 observations. During the survey, the driver duplicated typical driving behavior and speeds. The average speed was found to be 18 km/hr during the 8AM to 5PM period when most of the vehicle traffic is on the road. This is in reasonable agreement with data from the Kolkata Metropolitan Planning which indicates an average speed on 50% of Kolkata District arterials during the year 2000 was 17 km/hr. The tabulated video survey data is shown in Table 6 which lists road type, time, total number of vehicles per hour and the percentage of 2-wheelers (motorcycles), 3-wheelers, passenger cars, small buses, large buses, small trucks and large trucks actually on-the-road . Figure 3 is a photo of the video survey staff at a typical location.

Figure 3 Traffic Video Survey Team

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Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 4 Kolkata RPM Air Quality by Month for Residential Sites, 2003
Behala Chowr asta 228 215 115 73 72 49 37 50 53 59 233 233 118

Month January February March April May June July August Sept Oct. Nov. Dec. Overall Monthly Avg Overall Average All Stations

Dunlop 181 194 88 60 64 46 46 51 52 65 137 239 102

Tollyg unge 168 193 104 61 56 53 49 47 51 62 153 239 103

Ultada nga 204 179 77 61 61 56 45 43 48 59 154 247 103

Picnic Garden 178 186 91 46 53 39 34 38 37 48 125 227 92

Minto Park 192 184 87 68 59 54 37 45 51 53 133 206 98

Shyam bazar 226 172 101 68 61 42 47 50 53 62 148 244 106

Belagh ata 232 159 99 65 53 37 42 42 41 55 138 205 97

Momin pur 201 187 63 40 44 42 37 41 44 46 122 208 90

Bashha bghata 156 133 65 35 39 30 29 33 35 40 89 159 70

Salt Lake 183 171 92 55 47 40 35 38 39 44 99 199 87

Moulali 218 198 111 68 72 51 46 50 51 66 154 235 110

Gariah at 217 175 73 61 56 46 48 52 56 61 140 230 101

Paribesh Bhavan 271 132 130 59 37 42 42 27 22 94 189 237 107

Rajbhawan 248 104 67 45 47 48 42 37 48 116 191 223 101

99 g/m

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 5 Video Traffic Survey Locations


Street Type Highway - 1 Highway - 1 Highway 1 Highway 1 Highway - 2 Highway - 2 Highway 2 Highway 2 Highway - 3 Highway - 3 Highway 3 Highway 3 Arterial - 1 Arterial 1 Arterial 1 Arterial 1 Arterial 2 Arterial 2 Arterial 2 Arterial 2 Arterial 3 Arterial 3 Arterial 3 Arterial 3 Resid. Coml - 1 Resid. Coml - 1 Name B.T. Road: Shyambazar Dunlop Bridge B.T. Road: Shyambazar Dunlop Bridge B.T. Road: Shyambazar Dunlop Bridge B.T. Road: Shyambazar Dunlop Bridge Kestopour-Chingrihata Hwy Kestopour-Chingrihata Hwy Kestopour-Chingrihata Hwy Kestopour-Chingrihata Hwy Vidyasagar Setu-No. 4 Bridge Hwy. Vidyasagar Setu-No. 4 Bridge Hwy. Vidyasagar Setu-No. 4 Bridge Hwy. Vidyasagar Setu-No. 4 Bridge Hwy. Rabindra Setu Park Street Road Rabindra Setu Park Street Road Rabindra Setu Park Street Road Rabindra Setu Park Street Road Behala Chowrasta Khidderpur Road Behala Chowrasta Khidderpur Road Behala Chowrasta Khidderpur Road Behala Chowrasta Khidderpur Road Elgin Road & A.T. Mukherjeee Road Elgin Road & A.T. Mukherjeee Road Elgin Road & A.T. Mukherjeee Road Elgin Road & A.T. Mukherjeee Road Garia Ballygunge Phari Road Garia Ballygunge Phari Road Location H-1-1: Dunlop Bridge H-1-2: Chiriamore H-1-3: Cossipore H-1-4: Shyambazar H-2-1: Kestopur H-2-2: Lake town H-2-3: Ultadanga H-2-4: Chingrihata H-3-1:Toll Tax H-3-2: Police Train. Sch. H-3-3: Minto Park H-3-4: No. 4 Bridge A-1-1: Xing Strand Road A-1--2:Great Eastern Hotl A-1-3: Xing Esplanade A-1-4: Park Street A-2-1 Behala Chowrasta A-2-2 Taratala A-2-3 Ekbalpur A-2-4 Khidderpur A-3-1: Ranikuthi A-3-2: Tollgunge Tram Depot A-3-3: Xing Rashbehari A-3-4: Elgin/AT Mukherjee Rd Xing R-1-1: Garia R-1-2: Jadavpur 8B Bus Stand
Final Report 9

Survey Date 2004 Wed., 11/3 Wed., 11/3 Wed., 11/3 Wed., 11/3 Thurs, 11/4 Thurs, 11/4 Thurs, 11/4 Thurs, 11/4 Fri, 11/5 Fri, 11/5 Fri, 11/5 Fri, 11/5 Mon, 11/8 Mon, 11/8 Mon, 11/8 Mon, 11/8 Tue, 11/9 Tue. 11/9 Tue, 11/9 Tue, 11/9 Wed, 11/10 Wed, 11/10 Wed, 11/10 Wed, 11/10 Thurs, 11/11 Thurs, 11/11

Survey Start / Stop Time 0700-0740 1000-1040 1300-1340 1600-1640 0800-0840 1100-1140 1400-1440 1700-1740 0900-0940 1200-1240 1500-1540 1800-1840 0700-0740 1000-1040 1300-1340 1600-1640 0800-0840 1100-1140 1400-1440 1700-1740 0900-0940 1200-1240 1500-1540 1800-1840 0700-0740 1000-1040

Volume V : Air Quality Management

Street Type Resid. Coml 1 Resid. Coml 1 Resid. Coml - 2 Resid. Coml - 2 Resid. Coml - 2 Resid. Coml - 2 Resid. Coml - 3 Resid. Coml - 3 Resid. Coml - 3 Resid. Coml - 3

Name Garia Ballygunge Phari Road Garia Ballygunge Phari Road Baghajatin Railway Sta Kasba Road Baghajatin Railway Sta Kasba Road Baghajatin Railway Sta Kasba Road Baghajatin Railway Sta Kasba Road Salt Lake Residential Salt Lake Residential Salt Lake Residential Salt Lake Residential

Location R-1-3: Goal Park R-1-4: Ballygunge Phari R-2-1: Baghjatin Railway Sta R-2-2: Ajoynagar R-2-3: Ruby Hospital R-2-4: Kasba R-3-1 R-3-2 R-3-3 R-3-4

Survey Date 2004 Thurs, 11/11 Thurs 11/11

Survey Start / Stop Time 1300-1340 1600-1640

Fri, 11/12 Fri, 11/12 Fri, 11/12 Fri, 11/12 Mon, 11/15 Mon, 11/15 Mon, 11/15 Mon, 11/15

0800-0840 1100-1140 1400-1440 1700-1740 0900-0940 1200-1240 1500-1540 1800-1840

3.3

Video Traffic Survey Results Figure 4 illustrates the hourly changes in vehicle traffic volumes within the KMA based on the video survey vehicle counts. Figure 4 Kolkata Traffic by Time of Day

1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 Vehicle-Km Traveled 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Hour of Day

Significantly, the 2003 KMA registration data compares favorably with the video survey results. The percentage of passenger cars (including taxis) on the road counted in the video survey (57%) is somewhat greater than the registration data (50%), however. The percentage of vehicles identified video survey as 2-wheelers (about 16%) compares reasonably with 18% by registration. Three-wheelers make up about 9% of the vehicle fleet (compared to 15% by registration data) and are principally found plying the arterial and residential-commercial roadways. Large buses were 7% by video survey compared to 9% by registration.

Final Report 10

Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 6 Kolkata Video Survey Data: Fleet Distribution


ND = No Data Road Type Arterial Time 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Vehicles / Hour 300 84 150 48 165 234 498 528 876 603 1535 578 879 3135 831 891 3797 885 Cars & Taxis 67.0% 46.4% 28.0% 18.8% 29.1% 26.9% 28.9% 29.0% 16.4% 13.2% 50.7% 45.7% 23.5% 59.1% 47.7% 51.9% 85.6% 58.3% ND ND 66.1% 64.2% 56.4% 74.1% 67.0% 46.4% 28.0% 18.8% 29.1% 26.9% 28.9% 39.8% ND ND 43.6% 61.3% ND 50.4% 71.3% 75.2% 54.9% 77.8% 72.9% ND 55.9% 64.2% 56.4% 74.1% 67.0% 46.4% 28.0% 18.8% 29.1% 26.9% 28.9% 17.6% 23.0% 64.3% 27.3% 57.0% 39.0% ND 58.4% 54.6% 57.5% 3Wheelers 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 3.8% 7.2% 8.0% 29.8% 59.2% 0.0% 8.8% 39.2% 3.1% 2.2% 6.1% 0.0% 0.0% ND ND 3.6% 1.8% 0.9% 1.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 3.8% 7.2% 7.5% ND ND 6.7% 7.6% ND 3.3% 1.2% 5.8% 3.9% 0.3% 12.9% ND 8.3% 1.8% 0.9% 1.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 3.8% 7.2% 45.6% 40.1% 17.1% 44.1% 5.7% 38.2% ND 9.3% 22.2% 15.3% Percent of Vehicles per Hour 2Wheelers 6.0% 0.0% 4.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.2% 4.0% 16.1% 13.4% 6.5% 25.5% 18.1% 14.7% 23.8% 18.2% 14.2% 25.1% ND ND 15.4% 15.1% 10.4% 10.3% 6.0% 0.0% 4.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.2% 15.7% ND ND 13.5% 23.0% ND 17.6% 19.2% 10.2% 23.2% 14.3% 13.1% ND 25.3% 15.1% 10.4% 10.3% 6.0% 0.0% 4.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.2% 20.6% 21.6% 13.5% 12.2% 29.5% 14.8% ND 19.8% 12.3% 17.6% Large Buses 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.0% 3.6% 6.4% 13.3% 15.3% 23.3% 8.5% 25.9% 10.1% 10.9% 11.2% 13.4% 14.8% 0.1% 12.9% ND ND 7.1% 6.9% 5.7% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.0% 3.6% 6.4% 13.3% 17.7% ND ND 15.2% 5.6% ND 6.4% 4.4% 3.0% 16.2% 4.2% 0.5% ND 5.8% 6.9% 5.7% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.0% 3.6% 6.4% 13.3% 9.6% 10.1% 3.3% 9.4% 3.4% 5.3% ND 4.8% 6.7% 4.2% Small Buses 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.8% 5.8% 1.5% 16.7% 2.3% 3.8% 5.6% 3.2% 4.7% 0.1% 2.7% ND ND 2.9% 1.8% 2.4% 0.5% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.2% ND ND 3.5% 1.4% ND 1.7% 1.2% 5.4% 1.7% 0.9% 0.4% ND 3.3% 1.8% 2.4% 0.5% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.4% 4.5% 0.6% 5.6% 0.5% 2.1% ND 2.6% 1.8% 4.2% Small Trucks 13.0% 10.7% 16.0% 12.5% 25.5% 15.4% 22.3% 22.7% 2.4% 1.5% 0.1% 3.6% 2.0% 5.6% 4.7% 4.4% 0.0% 0.7% ND ND 3.6% 7.3% 13.7% 5.4% 13.0% 10.7% 16.0% 12.5% 25.5% 15.4% 22.3% 6.7% ND ND 9.6% 1.0% ND 16.0% 2.7% 0.4% 0.2% 2.0% 0.1% ND 1.5% 7.3% 13.7% 5.4% 13.0% 10.7% 16.0% 12.5% 25.5% 15.4% 22.3% 0.0% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 2.1% 0.5% ND 3.0% 2.1% 1.0% Large Trucks 13.0% 42.9% 50.0% 68.8% 40.0% 47.4% 24.1% 18.2% 6.2% 2.7% 0.0% 3.9% 2.4% 0.6% 5.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% ND ND 1.4% 2.8% 10.4% 7.6% 13.0% 42.9% 50.0% 68.8% 40.0% 47.4% 24.1% 11.4% ND ND 7.8% 0.2% ND 4.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% ND 0.0% 2.8% 10.4% 7.6% 13.0% 42.9% 50.0% 68.8% 40.0% 47.4% 24.1% 2.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 1.8% 0.2% ND 2.1% 0.4% 0.2%

Highway

840 654 633 555 300 84 150 48 165 234 498 762

846 3765 1731 3953 1367 881 2271 2682 1743 654 633 555 300 84 150 48 165 234 498 408 536 1530 858 1158 1286 1535 426 893

ResidentialCommercial

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Volume V : Air Quality Management


ND = No Data Road Type Time 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 Overall Arterial Average Overall Highway Average Overall Resid-Coml Average Vehicles / Hour 1230 510 0 840 654 633 555 18,698 23,321 14,529 Cars & Taxis 57.1% 60.6% ND 66.1% 64.2% 56.4% 74.1% 55.6% 62.7% 51.7% 3Wheelers 12.9% 15.3% ND 3.6% 1.8% 0.9% 1.6% 7.1% 5.1% 15.9% Percent of Vehicles per Hour 2Wheelers 18.3% 20.0% ND 15.4% 15.1% 10.4% 10.3% 14.0% 16.7% 15.7% Large Buses 4.1% 2.4% ND 7.1% 6.9% 5.7% 0.5% 9.8% 5.7% 5.3% Small Buses 2.7% 1.2% ND 2.9% 1.8% 2.4% 0.5% 3.8% 1.6% 2.2% Small Trucks 2.4% 0.0% ND 3.6% 7.3% 13.7% 5.4% 4.9% 4.6% 4.2% Large Trucks 2.4% 0.6% ND 1.4% 2.8% 10.4% 7.6% 4.8% 3.7% 5.0%

Total Count Kolkatta Fleet Summary % Traffic on Arterials % Traffic on Highways % Traffic on Residential Commercial Overall Kolkata %

56,547 %Count 33.1% 41.2% 25.7% 10.00% Cars 18.4% 25.8% 13.3% 57.5% 3 Wheel 2.4% 2.1% 4.1% 8.5% 2 Wheel 4.6% 6.9% 4.0% 15.6% Lrg Bus 3.2% 2.3% 1.4% 6.9% Sm Bus 1.3% 0.7% 0.6% 2.5% Sm Truck 1.6% 1.9% 1.1% 4.6% Lrg Truck 1.6% 1.5% 1.3% 4.4%

A special effort was taken to characterize large and small trucks (each about 9%, total) using both day and night video surveys. Night surveys were required due to traffic restrictions which limit truck traffic to 9 PM to 4AM at night and from 10AM to 4PM in the afternoon. Up to 80% of the late night traffic at 3 AM is large and small trucks. Figure 5 shows the distribution of vehicle-types summarized for all roadway classes. The total amount of driving within the Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) is the product of the number of vehicles of a specific type and the average driving distance per day for that vehicle type divided by the fraction of those vehicle types observed on the streets during the video survey. Table 7 shows estimated total kilometers driven (about 47.6 million km/day) within the KMA. Figure 5 Kolkata Vehicle Fleet: Percent by Vehicle-Type
2003 Vehicles Fleet - Percent by Vehicle-Type Tentative Video Survey Results
57% 7% 4% 2% 9% 2-Wheeler Large Truck 3-Wheeler Small Bus 16% 5% Large Bus

Cars & Taxis Small Truck

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 7 Daily Km Driven by Vehicle-Type


Vehicle Type (1) Passenger Cars 2-Wheelers 3-Wheelers Buses Small Trucks Large Trucks Total Vehicles No. of Vehicles(N) KMA (2003) (2) Daily Vehicle Use (Km/day) (A) (3) 24.2 11.5 130 100 100 80 Overall Total Fraction of Vehicle Type in the Fleet (Video Survey) 57.5 % 15.6 % 8.5 % 9.4 % 4.6 % 4.4 % Est. Total Driving (N*A) (km/day) KMA 14,949,529 1,922,591 11,931,828 10,118,673 4.921,135 3,768,216 47,611,971

617,749 167,182 91,783 101,187 49,211 47,103 1,076,571

Notes: (1) Passenger (L.M.V.) cars include taxis, meter taxis, luxury taxis, jeeps, ambulances; small buses include mini-and omni buses; large buses include buses and tourist buses. (2) Distribution of the total number of vehicles by % observed in video survey. (3) Data from Pune, 2003 and CMDA surveys, 2000.

3.4

Traffic Congestion Corridors WBPCB has been monitoring air quality within congested traffic corridors for some years. Based on this information and local knowledge of traffic congestions conditions, the roadways shown in the Figure 6 below may require special management to reduce roadside emissions. The numbers highlighted in blue color show the polluted areas and roads in the Howrah City and those highlighted in the orange color, show polluted areas and roads in the Kolkata City. The numbers denote the following areas: Kolkata: Dum Dum Road, Shyam Bazar, Beleghata, Taratala, Hide, Road,Garden Reach, Baj Baj, Barabazar and Behala Howrah: Belur, Lilua, Ghusuri and Kadamtala

Improvements in air quality within these corridors will likely require reductions in vehicle emissions and traffic volumes as well as improved traffic management. Suggestions for achieving these improvements are noted below. The vehicle emission reduction measurements might include: Rigorous enforcement of CUP certification and tailpipe visible emission standards within each corridor; Ban older diesel buses from these corridors; City-wide measures to improve the vehicle inspection system, eliminate adulterated fuels and promote CNG/LPG vehicle use; Roadside vehicle inspections at selected locations within the corridors; Public education programs alerting drivers to the special requirements and enforcement actions taking place within these corridors;

Measures to reduce traffic volumes might include: Converting heavily congested corridors into toll roads as an economic disincentive;

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Installation of metered access roadways into each corridor. This is a traffic stop light (with enforcement) which admits only one vehicle into the corridor every few seconds thereby restricting vehicle access during periods of heavy traffic. Measures to improve and speed up traffic flow might include: 3.5 Banning rickshaws, bicycles and other non-motorized vehicles that restrict traffic flow from the corridors; Turnouts for buses at pick-up and drop-off locations to eliminate traffic blockage; Limiting side street and road shoulder access to the main roadways to create through-ways; Improved control of pedestrians crossing the roadways; Improved roadways including road widening, better paving to eliminate pot holes which slow up traffic as well as improved drainage.

Vehicle Fleet Age and Fuels Information from the NIC database was used in the emission calculations to distribute the number of vehicles within the KMA by vehicle-type, fuel use and age. Table 8 shows the age distribution of the vehicle fleet. The average age of passenger cars is about 10 years or about twice as old as the vehicles in Pune. Over one-quarter of the large trucks are over 30 years old and over one-third of them are 20 or more years old. About 6% of the passenger cars are over 30 years old and 16% are more than 20 years old, suggesting that there is very little turnover in the vehicle fleet. This minimizes the air quality benefits achieved through lower emission standards for new vehicles and more stringent fuel specifications. Table 8 Kolkata Vehicle Fleet Age Distribution
Pre1975 > 30 Yrs 2-Wheelers 3-Wheelers Large Buses Large Trucks Passenger Cars Small Buses Small Trucks 0.8% 11.9% 4.4% 28.4% 1975-85 Pre-1985 1985-95 Post-1995 50%tile

Description

20-30 Yrs 4.9% 71.7% 25.7% 6.6%

> 20 Yrs 5.7% 83.6% 30.1% 35.0%

10-19 Yrs 13.5% 13.6% 38.7% 11.6%

<10 Yrs 80.7% 2.8% 31.2% 53.5%

Age 5 7 13 7

5.6%

11.0%

16.6%

33.4%

50.0%

10

1.2% 11.4%

3.6% 4.7%

4.8% 16.1%

5.2% 46.4%

90.1% 37.5%

6 11

Across the age distribution, about 16% of the passenger cars are diesel and 84% petrol-fueled. Forty-two percent 2-wheelers have 2-stroke engines. Most (71%) of the 3-wheelers are pre-1986 manufacture.

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Figure 6 Traffic Congestion Corridors

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The sulfur content of diesel and petrol fuel currently used in Kolkata is 500 ppm and 300 ppm sulfur, respectively. Unleaded petrol is used in Kolkata. The current benzene content of petrol is reported as 1.5%. By April, 2005, Bharat Stage II fuel standards will be required, reducing the sulfur content of petrol and diesel to 150ppm and 350ppm sulfur, respectively. Benzene content of petrol will also be reduced to 1%. 3.6 CPCB Emission Factors Emission estimates developed are based on results from the video surveys. The total number of registered vehicles within the KMA as indicated by the NIC registration data was distributed by video survey percentages to each vehicle-type. Vehicle age was obtained from NIC and estimates of the number of km-driven per day for the various vehicle categories was obtained from CDMA, local surveys and information from the Pune Regional Emission Inventory Study. The emission factors provided by CPCB are shown in Table 10viii . Significantly, CPCB does not have emission factors for pre-1986 vehicles which make up an important fraction of the Kolkata vehicle fleet nor are SOx emission factors available. In this study, the 1986-1990 emission factors were also used for the pre-1986 vehicles, resulting in an underestimate of emissions from this group of vehicles. 4 VEHICLE EMISSION ESTIMATES As stated above, vehicle emissions have been estimated using CPCB emission factors published for India (Table 10). These emission factors are much higher than those published for the US vehicle fleet with particulate matter emission factors for old diesel buses and trucks without emission controls. Respirable PM emissions are estimated by CPCB at 3.0 gm/km compared to 0.46-1.5 g/km estimated for the US diesel fleetix. Information on vehicle activity levels (km-driven/year), modal distribution (% trucks, % 2-wheelers, etc.) and the age distribution of the fleet were taken from Tables 6 and 8. Uncertainties include the accuracy of the emission factors, the vehicle registration database, the average distance vehicles are driven daily and the vehicle-type frequency distribution from the video survey. 4.1 Emission Estimates for 2003 Table 10 is a detailed tabulation of 2003 particulate matter (RPM), CO, HC and NOx annual emissions in metric tons emitted by Kolkata mobile sources (tailpipe emissions only) based on the CPCB emission factors and vehicle activity inputs. As noted above, the estimates of emissions from pre-1986 vehicles are likely underestimated. Figure 7 illustrates the fractional contributions of the vehicle-types to the vehicle fleet total RPM tailpipe emissions. Note that paved road dust associated with vehicle traffic is not included in these emission estimates. The largest contributions to particulate matter emissions from mobile sources are buses which collectively account for most (65%) of the fleet tailpipe particulate emissions. The major source of CO and HC is 3-wheelers at 44% and 69%, respectively. Buses are the largest single emitter of oxides of nitrogen accounting for nearly 73% of the fleet emissions. Comparison of these estimates to those reported for Pune, 2003 may be of interest. The Kolkata PM annual emission estimate of RPM is about ten times greater than that reported for Pune (1,501 Vs. 15,810 TPY) and the Kolkata estimated daily kmdriven (million km/day including trucks) is about twice as larger than Punes (24.5 v. 47.6 million km/day). Significantly, the large buses (which are the largest emission source of RPM) in the Kolkata fleet are much older than the Pune fleet (13 vs. 9 years). Other difference in the emission estimates are discussed below.

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The Pune emission estimates include light duty commercial vehicles (small trucks) which were estimated to contribute most (1,163 TPY) of the reported 1,501 TPY of RPM. These vehicles were included in the Pune inventory even though the Pune Vehicle Activity Reports summary of the Pune video survey work concludes that trucks were not accurately represented in the on-the-road vehicle survey data. The Pune investigators chose to use vehicle registration data to estimate truck RPM emissions. The Pune bus emission estimates are based on 200 km/day daily activity rate rather than the 100 km/day rate documented by the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority. This is a significant difference since bus diesel emissions are a major contributor to total fleet RPM emissions. The CMDA data was used for Kolkata.

Table 9 Mobile Source Emissions Summary (Metric Tons per Year), 2003 Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Passenger Car-Diesel Large Buses Small Buses Large Trucks Small Trucks Totals Metric Tons per Year RPM 41 23 1,500 231 385 7,627 2,722 1,927 1,354 CO 1324 988 HC 944 284 NOx 15 120 Totals 2,324 1,415 % RPM 0.3 0.1 9.5 1.5 2.4 48.2 17.2 12.2 8.6 % CO 1.0 0.7 43.9 21.6 2.1 10.6 3.8 5.4 11.0 % HC 1.8 0.5 69.4 10.0 0.5 8.9 3.2 4.5 1.1 % NOx 0.0 0.1 0.2 6.1 1.3 53.7 19.2 13.6 5.8

60,313 35,989 29,755 2,826 14,564 5,198 7,359 15,128 5,196 247

223 98,025 5,711 40,892 1,181 4,639

4,637 50,426 77,255 1,655 17,997 27,572 2,343 12,762 24,391 587 5,424 22,492

15,810 137,454 51,882 93,859

100.0 100.0

100.0 100.0

Figure 7 Vehicle-Type Contributions to Fleet 2003 RPM Emissions

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet RPM Emissions, 2003


49% 0%

18% 12% 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large 9%

2%

9% 1%

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

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Table 10 CPCB Emission Factors (gm/km)


Vehicle Type 2-Wheel,2-Stroke Year Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 CO 6.50 6.50 6.50 4.00 2.20 1.40 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.60 2.20 1.40 14.00 14.00 14.00 8.60 4.30 2.45 9.80 9.80 9.80 3.90 1.98 1.39 7.30 7.30 7.30 1.20 0.90 0.58 8.7 8.7 8.7 6.9 5.1 0.72 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.5 3.6 3.2 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.5 3.60 3.20 HC 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.30 2.13 1.32 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.70 8.30 8.30 8.30 7.00 2.05 0.75 1.70 1.70 1.70 0.80 0.25 0.15 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.13 0.05 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.28 0.14 0.063 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.21 0.87 0.87 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.21 0.87 0.87 Nox 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.11 0.12 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.10 0.20 0.12 2.77 2.77 2.77 0.69 0.50 0.45 3.15 3.15 3.15 2.49 1.28 0.59 9.5 9.5 9.5 8.4 6.3 5.5 19.00 19.00 19.00 16.80 12.00 11.00 PM10 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.15 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.42 0.07 0.05 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.07 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.8 0.28 0.12 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.60 0.56 0.24

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke

3-Wheel, 2-Stroke

Passenger Cars-Petrol

Passenger Car-Diesel

Light Commercial Vehicles ( Small Trucks)

Large Trucks

Buses

Note: Pre-1986 emission factors are those used in this study. They were not published by CPCB.

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4.2

Fleet Future Year Projections (Without Emission Control) Studies conducted by the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority project that the number of registered vehicles will increase to about 1.68 million by the year 2011 with the fastest growth rates in 2-wheelers between 2004 and 2006. Figure 8 shows the expected trend by RPM emissions by vehicle-type. RPM tailpipe emissions are expected to increasing from 15,810 (2003) to about 28,490 metric tons per year in 2014 or by about 12,681 tons (80% increase). Diesel bus emissions will continue to be the largest single contributing source of tailpipe RPM emissions. These emissions will continue to degrade Kolkata air quality. The 2001 PM2.5 source apportionment analysis estimated that 36% and 12% of the fine particle aerosol mass, respectively, is associated with diesel and petrol-fueled vehicle emissions. If 45% of the measured Kolkata annual RPM concentration (about 100 g/m3) is within the PM2.5 fraction (as is typical for urban areas in Asiax), the 2003 diesel and petrol vehicle emissions would be expected to contribute about 16 (45 g/m3 x 36%) and 5 (45 g/m3 x 12%) g/m3 annual average (respectively) to Kolkata PM 2.5 concentrations. The emission trend projected above would likely increase the expected diesel PM2.5 concentration by about 12 g/m3 (16 g/m3 x 80%) and petrolrelated PM 2.5 by about 4 g/m3 (5 g/m3 x 80%) annual averages by 2014. There would also be increases in associated paved road dust RPM emissions and other pollutants. Figure 8 Vehicle Fleet RPM Emission Projection 2003-2014

30,000 25,000
RPM 20,000 (Tons/Yr)

15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
2-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Large 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Buses - Small 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Trucks - Small Buses - Large

Figure 9 illustrates 2003 vehicle fleet emission for each pollutant by vehicle-type.

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Figure 9 Kolkata Vehicle-Type Contributions By Pollutant, 2003


Kolkata Vehicle Fleet NOX Emissions, 2003
54%

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet HC Emissions, 2003


69%

10%

0% 19% 14%
2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large

1% 6% 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large

6%

1%

2%

9%

3%

5%

1% 0%

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

Buses - Large

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet CO Emissions, 2003 43%

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet-All Pollutants, 2003


8% 8% 2% 9% 26%
0%

22%

2% 1% 1% 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large 11% 4% 5% 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small 11%

14% 32% 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large

1%

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

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4.2.1

The KMA Vehicle Fleet The NIC reports that for the year 2003, a total of 1,074,215 vehicles were registered within the KMA. Year-wise analysis of the registration data from NIC for the City Corporation Area (but assumed to be representative of the entire KMA) was used to determine the age and fuel distribution of the vehicles, by vehicle-type. Table 11 is a summary of this analysis. Of the over 59,000 vehicles registered within the KMA that are greater than 30 year old, about 22,800 (38%) are commercial vehicles defined here as small LCV trucks, large trucks, small omni and mini-buses, large buses and 3-wheelers. Taxis and luxury taxis, while commercial, are included with passenger cars in this analysis since they are a very small percentage of the older vehicle fleet. Also, a number of the large buses are government-owned and not commercial. These commercial vehicles travel a total of about 2.5 million kilometers per day within the KMA, or about 5% (on average across all commercial vehicle-types) of the 44.7 million km/day traveled by the entire vehicle fleet. Significantly, about 28% of the large truck kilometers traveled per day is associated with trucks that are over 30 years old. Table 11 KMA Vehicle Age Distribution

Description Small Trucks Small Buses Passenger Cars Large Trucks Large Buses 3-Wheelers 2-Wheelers Totals

Total Number 26,929 32,356 631,467 12,549 79,301 103,443 188,169 1,074,215

Age > 30 Yrs No 3,079 378 35,126 3,558 3,524 12,310 1,553 59,527 % 11.4% 1.2% 5.6% 28.4% 4.4% 11.9% 0.8%

Age 20-30 Yrs No 1,255 1,153 69,391 825 20,380 74,169 9,229 176,402 % 4.7% 3.6% 11.0% 6.6% 25.7% 71.7% 4.9%

Age 10-19 Yrs No 12,502 1,688 211,177 1,453 30,690 14,068 25,475 297,053 % 46.4% 5.2% 33.4% 11.6% 38.7% 13.6% 13.5%

Age < 10 Yrs No 10,085 29,138 315,773 6,713 24,720 2,896 151,912 541,237 % 37.5% 90.1% 50.0% 53.5% 31.2% 2.8% 80.7%

50 %tile Age 11 6 10 7 13 7 5

4.2.2

Air Pollution Emissions from 30-Year-Old Vehicles As noted above, air pollution from vehicles is estimated using the number of kilometerstraveled by each vehicle-type per day and a CPCB emission factor (gm/km), by pollutant. Unfortunately, there are no published, reliable emission factors from vehicles greater than 30 years old (pre-1975 vehicles). As a result, the 1986-1990 emission factors, which likely under-predict emissions from pre-1975 vehicles) have been used.

AREA SOURCE EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT The Kolkata Metropolitan Area has an active and growing population. People generate air pollution emissions from many sources including paved and unpaved road dust, residential and street-side cooking, small scale commercial operations, trash burning, and many other sources. These area sources are dispersed throughout the KMA, often have no specific location and are often of a temporary nature. Cumulatively, these sources significantly contribute to air pollution emissions within the KMA. Efforts have therefore been made to quantify respirable particulate matter (RPM) emissions from these sources for inclusion in the emission inventory.

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5.1

Paved Road Dust As noted in Table 2, a significant portion of the particulate matter in Kolkata is road dust or, more correctly, geologic soil dust. Dust is suspended in the atmosphere as a result of many activities including construction, vehicle entrainment from paved and unpaved road surfaces, vehicle use on industrial properties, wind erosion of barren land, off-road vehicle use, farming activity and others. In this study, paved road dust was the focus of field surveys to quantify street dust silt loading in Kolkata as it is an important variable in estimating road dust RPM emissions. In general terms, resuspended particulate emissions from paved roads originate from, and result in the depletion of, the loose material present on the surface (i.e., the surface loading). In turn, that surface loading is continuously replenished by other sources. Dust deposition processes onto roadways includes the physical wear and decomposition of the road surface paving, vehicle-related deposition of undercarriage soil, dustfall, carryout (trackout) of soil from adjoining roadways, road shoulders and areas with broken pavement, carryout of soils from road-side construction work and soil spilled from trucks transporting construction materials. Removal processes include re-entrainment of the dust by vehicles, removal by rainfall washing of the road and street sweeping. Trackout of soil from thousands of small dust sources in Kolkata appears to be common. For comparison purposes, an overview of road dust emissions within the USA may be helpful. Source apportionment studies in the US show that geologic material contributes an average of 40 to 60% of the PM10 mass in urban areas where National Ambient Air Quality Standards are exceeded. In contrast, emission inventories in these same cities indicate that dust contributes approximately 70% to 90% of the PM10. These important differences are being investigated.1 The major sources of PM10 vary dramatically between east coast and west coast cities. In the eastern US, the major contributors are secondary sulfates formed from SO2 emissions from coal fired power plants, secondary nitrates formed from NOX emissions from mobile sources, direct diesel and industrial sources. In the western US, which is much less populated and has less heavy industry and far fewer coal-fired power plants, geologic dust, organic carbon (from forest wildfires, forestland and agricultural prescribed fire), motor vehicles, diesels and secondary sulfates and nitrates all contribute to the PM10 mass. xi xii On a national basis, the US EPA emission inventory estimated that PM10 fugitive dust emissions accounted for 29,778 of the 33,574 thousand metric tons per year or about 88% of the total national PM10 emissions. Within this category, unpaved road dust (41.3%), wind erosion (17.8%), construction (13.4%), agricultural operations (14.7) and paved roads (8.4%) were the major sources.1 These estimates are, however, under review. Because fugitive dust emissions dominate PM10 air quality in many areas of the USA, it is not surprising that paved road dust is such a significant source in Kolkata.

5.1.1

Paved Road Dust Surveys Because of the likely importance of paved road dust emissions in Kolkata, a field survey of road surfaced silt dust loadings at 31 locations on highways, arterial and residentialcommercial roadways was undertaken in February, 2005. Samples were taken during the dry, winter season. The locations were the same as those used for the video-taping surveys (Table 5). Sampling and analytical protocols were taken from USEPA AP-42, Section 13.2.1, Appendix C-1 and C-2. Silt is defined as the material that passes a 200mesh screen using the ASTM C-136 analysis method. Efforts were made to avoid dust loading within one meter of the roadside curb where very heavy dust accumulations are commonly found. Dry weather was required 2 days prior to (and during) sampling. Survey results are found below. Raw silt loading for each road-type were weighted by
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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

the percentage of total traffic vehicle-km traveled per day. A photo of the sampling team is shown in Figure 10. The road dust emission calculation requires an estimate of average vehicle tonnage weighted by the percent of vehicles in each weight class. The following table shows the vehicle weights that were used for Kolkata. Table 12 Kolkata Vehicle Weight
VKm Weight Type 2-Wheeler 3-Wheeler Car/Taxi Small Truck Heavy Truck Small Buses Large Buses Totals Average, Tons (A) Weight (kg) 175 450 1,425 7,500 20,000 7,500 20,000 (B) Vehicle Count 15.65% 8.67% 56.00% 4.86% 5.76% 2.34% 6.72% 2003 Vehicle Km/Day 7.0E+08 4.4E+09 5.3E+09 1.9E+09 1.8E+09 9.2E+08 2.6E+09 1.8E+10 % of Veh-Km 4.0% 25.0% 30.0% 10.8% 10.2% 5.2% 14.9% 100.0% Kg ( C) Vehicle Wt - kg Wt by % (A * B) 27 39 798 364 1,151 176 1,345 3,900 3.9 Metric Tons

Notes

With 1 passenger With 2 passengers With 2 passengers GVW GVW GVW GVW

Table 13 Road Dust Silt Loading Summary


Road Type Highways Arterials Commercial-Residential Overall Wt. Average % of Total Kolkata KM-Day 41.1% 30.2% 28.6% No. Samples 10 11 7 Weighted Gm/Sq. M 0.332 0.198 0.210 0.531

Figure 10 Road Dust Sampling

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5.1.2

Paved Road Dust RPM Emissions Paved road dust RPM emissions were calculated using USEPA AP-42 methodology based on 30-year average precipitation of 82 days per year. The weighted-average of vehicles on-the-road in Kolkata was estimated as 3.9 tons. Vehicle-km driven by each vehicle type were used as the weighting factor. Silt loading data from Kolkata surveys was taken as 0.531 gm/sq. m as noted above. The particle size multiplier for PM-10 was taken from AP-42 as 4.6. Based on these inputs, the annual average RPM emissions of paved road dust is 45,881 metric tons per year. This is about 60% of the total RPM inventory. This agrees with the aerosol apportionment results (Table 3) of about 60% of the RPM mass of the annual average. Significantly, the road dust emission estimates are comparable to the ambient aerosol apportionment.

5.1.3

Paved Road Dust Estimate Uncertainties Estimating paved road dust is not an exact science. Many uncertainties still exist in our knowledge of how dust emissions are deposited on nearby surfaces and transported in the air. Among the principal uncertainties in this study are the following: The emissions estimate is based on 30-year average rainfall records, not rainfall that occurred on the 20 days of aerosol sampling at one monitoring site in 2001 so direct comparison of the RPM emission estimates to ambient measurements shown in Table 3 must be considered with caution; It is widely recognized that dust emission inventories tend to overestimate the ambient air dust component found in ambient samples due to near-source deposition of dust emissions on trees and buildings. In addition, the injection height of the dust plume limits transport and dispersion. The degree of airborne dust removal varies greatly and depends on the nature of ground surface cover (dense vegetation is effective in removing dust from the air)xiii US EPAs most recent recommendations (April, 2005) are that the emission estimates not be corrected by applying nearsource capture adjustments when local-scale impacts are important. Given the proximity of RPM monitoring sites to local streets within Kolkata, local-scale dust impacts occur continually. Consequently, the paved road dust emission estimates in this report are intended to reflect impacts on WBPCB air monitoring stations. For urban or transport modeling purposes, appropriate transport correction factors will need to be applied.

Since emissions vary as a function of the number of rainy days per month, road dust emissions vary considerably from year to year and from month to month. Figure 11 illustrates these monthly variations. Note that the emission variations follow the seasonal Kolkata RPM trends, suggesting that road dust is a major influence on RPM air quality. Figure 11 Monthly Variations in Road Dust

(Ten-Year Average Precipitation Data) 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug. Sept Oct Nov Dec

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Figure 12 Kolkata RPM Air Quality & Road Dust Emissions

Kolkata Monthly RPM & Road Dust


RPMEmissions (ug/m3) 300 200 100 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug. Sept Oct Nov Dec PRD (T/Mo.) 4200 4000 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000

RPM

PRD

Because very high roadside TSP and RPM concentrations have been monitored in Kolkata, there is concern about air pollution exposure to people living near busy roadways. The most likely reason for these high concentrations is paved road dust and diesel emissions which occur within a few meters of the exposed population. Actions taken to minimize road silt loading and therefore dust emissions would dramatically improve roadside RPM air quality. 5.2 Open Burning Kannan, et. al. has reported that solid waste generated within the KMA totals about 3,700 tons/day of which about 40% is leaves and 3.8% is grass.xiv Only 5% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) is composted and 94% is dumped in open areas. About 25% of this dumped material is burned, on average, in India.xv Based on emission factors developed for India by Kannan, et.al., total RPM emissions from both leaf and grass burning is about 4,388 tons per year. Open burning emissions from biomass burning account for an estimated 2% of the RPM inventory (10% of the ambient RPM shown in Table 3). The emission estimates are almost certainly underestimated, even if emissions from cooking (1.7%) are included. Many cities have banned open burning in favor of better solid waste management programs. By policy, WBPCB should prohibit open burning at any time, especially those materials that emit dense, black smoke such as tires or oil. 5.3 Asphalt Hot Mix Plants Bituminous asphalt is mixed with rock aggregate to repair and build roads throughout the KMA. Surveys of hot mix plants within the KMA indicate that each plant produces a monthly averaging about 2,000 tons of bituminous asphalt per month and burns about 5 liters of light distillate or high sulfur oil per ton of product produced.xvi There are about 125 hot mix plants within the KMA. Total LDO fuel burned is about 13,500 tons per year, emitting about 810 tons per year of RPM. This is probably a low estimate since HSD and wood fuels are also used. 5.4 Diesel Trains The Eastern and South Eastern Railways operate a total of 406 diesel locomotives within the KMA with goods and passenger trains traveling over 55 million km per yearxvii. These diesel locomotives burn about 116.3 metric tons of diesel fuel per year, emitting about 163 tons per year of RPM, principally in the form of elemental carbon (soot).

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5.5

Domestic Cooking in Slum Areas Surveys in Pune, 2003 indicate that about 477 kg of wood, 18 kg of LPG and 10.8 kg of kerosene are burned annually per capita in slum areas for domestic cooking. Using an emission factor of 0.71 g/kg of wood burned and Kolkatas slum population of 1,490,811 persons from the 2001 census, RPM emissions are about 1,208 tons per year. LPG and kerosene RPM emissions total an additional 2.6 tons per year. Total RPM emissions are therefore estimated at 1,211 tons per year, most of it related to wood burning.

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EMISSIONS In addition to several major point sources including coal-fired power plants, there are 337 small scale industrial and commercial businesses within the KMA that burn wood, oil and coal in boilers and many others with kilns and ovens. Many of these boilers have recently been converted from coal to cleaner fuels. There are also process losses from foundries, smelters and other industrial operations. To assess emissions from these many dispersed sources, field surveys of 26 small scale industries were conducted. These included bakeries, lead smelters, acid lead battery plants; iron foundries, rubber products manufacturing, dyeing and bleaching operations, restaurants, ceramics and paper products manufacturing. The specific sources were selected by WBPCB staff as representative of their category. Production rate, fuel use, control equipment information, photographs and other information were collected by the survey engineers. Emissions were calculated using USEPA AP-42 emission factors and scaled up to estimate total emissions from each industry category contained in WBPCBs recently completed database of small scale industries. Final results were then added to the emission inventory database totaled 7,039 TPY of RPM but do not necessarily include fugitive dust and all process losses.

6.1

Coal-fired Power Plants There are four coal-fired power generating plants within the KMA with are the largest industrial point sources within the urban area. These are the CESC Ltd. Southern, Budge Budge and New Cessipore Thermal Power Stations and the Titagarh Station. Table 14 lists operating specifics and emissions from these coal-fired stations. The generating stations are equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Operating frequency and efficiency, however, are unknown as of this time. Further details are included in Annex 1. Table 14 Power Generating Plant Emissions (Tons per year)
Station CESC Ltd. Southern CESC Ltd. Budge Budge CESC Ltd. New Cessipore Titagarh Station Total SPM 819 1,244 RPM 188 286 PM2.5 49 75 NOx 8,213 14,550 SO2 2,632 4,914

1,524 473 4,060

351 109 934

91 28 244

2,462 7,008 32,232

780 1,638 9,964

Notes: PM10/SPM emission factor ratio = 0.23; PM2.5/SPM emission factor ratio=0.06. From USEPA AP-42, coal-fired power plants (uncontrolled).

6.2

Ceramics Industrial Sources The ceramic industry produces electrical insulators and other ceramic products. They are predominantly located within the 24-Parangas North District of the KMA. Six of the
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6.3

6.4

approximately 38 ceramics facilities within the KMA were surveyed. Production rates varied from 3,600 to 100 tons per year of product. Light distillate oil (LDO) fuel use for process heat and kilns varied from 666 to 61 tons per year, generating from 1.0 to 0.1 TPY RPM emissions. On average, these facilities emit about 0.44 TPY RPM from fuel combustion. None of the facilities had emission control devices. Brick Kilns Emissions The Kolkata Municipal Area comprises of area in varying proportion from 6 districts. The number of brick kilns in various districts of KMA is about 397.xviii The average brick production rate ranges from 5,000 to 8,000 bricks per day, year around except during the monsoon season (approximately mid-June to mid-September). The kilns are fired with coal at an average daily fuel consumption ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 ton. At an average brick production of about 7,000 bricks per day, the average brick production works out as 2.8 million brick/day. At an average weight of 2.2 kg/brick, the total weight of brick produced by all brick yards within the KMA is about 6,100 tons per year. The emission factor for particulate matter emitted from coal-fired brick kilns is 0.7 kg PM10/ton of brick produced. If the kilns operate for 275 days per year, the total uncontrolled RPM emissions related to coal burning in brick kilns is about 1,176 metric tons per year. Fugitive dust emissions within the yards are not included in this estimate. Cast Iron Foundry Emissions Within the various KMA districts, foundries are found mostly within the Howrah district. The district has 272 cast iron cupola furnace foundries, 55 units of which have melting capacity greater than 3 metric tons/hour. The balance (217 units) has production capacity of less than 3 metric tons/hour. These are generally old, inefficient facilities that use obsolete technologies and operate at very low productivity. The following control measures are being currently practiced in foundries located within Howrah district of KMA. Multi-stage top wet scrubbers with primary settling and vaporization of scrubbed liquid. Dry multi-cyclones followed by sprinkler type wet scrubber having facility for neutralization of scrubbed liquid. Dry multi-cyclone followed by submerged wet scrubber with facility for neutralization of scrubbed liquid. High energy venturi scrubber followed by dewatering cyclone with provision for treatment of scrubbed liquid. Dual wet cyclone separator with provisions for treatment of scrubbed liquid. Packed bed water scrubber followed by dewatering cyclone. Flue gas cooling chamber followed by bag house filter. The West Bengal Pollution Control Board as per the powers allocated to State Pollution Control Boards under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986, has recently reduced the permissible PM emission limit to 150 mg/Nm3 for all foundries. The sulfur dioxide emission limit is set at 300 mg/Nm3. In 1997, the West Bengal State Pollution Control Board conducted a study to identify measures for control of foundry air pollution emissions.xix The report concludes that the current, actual emission rates far exceed the existing permissible limits (150 g/Nm3) adopted by WBPCB. Average particulate matter emission rates for different categories of foundry furnaces and control equipment are:

Facilities with single blast furnace without scrubbing Facilities with single blast furnace single stage scrubbing Facilities with divided blast furnace without scrubbing Facilities with divided blast furnace with three stage scrubbing
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1,753 mg/Nm3 1,310 mg/Nm3 705 mg/Nm3 260 mg/Nm3

Volume V : Air Quality Management

Processes with divided blast and three stages scrubbing also exceed permissible limits. The regional office of the WBPCB has inspected 18 randomly selected foundry units, only 10 units of which were in compliance permissible emission standards. The 1997 report and more recent inspections conclude that a large majority of the foundry units are not in compliance with the emission regulations. There are also 142 steel rolling mills within the KMA: 138 in Howrah are converting coal boilers to oil. Only one foundry was surveyed during this study. It produces 200,750 TPY of finished product, burning 184 million cubic meters of gas. Emission controls are in place on the furnaces. Controlled process loss and fuel combustion emissions are estimated at 59 TPY RPM at this one facility. This facility was taken as representative of the 55 foundries with melting capacity of more than 3 tons per hour and 90% emission controls. Total emissions within the KMA from foundries are 3,423 TPY RPM. Emissions from the 217 very small foundries without emission control are not included in the inventory. 6.5 Secondary Lead Smelters In 1997, the WBPCB undertook a study on secondary lead smelters air pollution, finding that all of the approximately 50 such units were operating without emission control devices. A report on the study provides guidance on emission control system design and maintenance.xx In this study, one lead acid battery facility which does secondary lead smelting was surveyed. This facility produces 72 million battery plates per year, burning 2,600 TPY of oil. Fuel-related RPM emissions were estimated at 6 TPY. The WBPCB small scale industry database indicates that there are 130 such sources within the KMA for a total of 784 TPY of RPM. 6.6 Bakeries The WBPCB database indicates that 325 bakeries operate within the KMA. Four bakeries were surveyed ranging in production from 1,950 to 20 TPY of product. Bakeries use wood (12-18 TPY) or LDO fuel (25 to 63 TPY) in their ovens. Overall, RPM emissions from these facilities average 0.61 TPY RPM. Total emissions for all 325 bakeries are therefore about 200 TPY RPM. 6.7 Bleaching & Dyeing Four bleaching and dyeing operations with boilers were surveyed. Each had an annual production rate of about 350 TPY and burned about 200 TPY of LDO oil. Fuel-related RPM emissions ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 TPY per facility. Total RPM emissions for the KMA totaled about 19 TPY. 6.8 Rubber Products Industries The rubber products facilities make tires, wheels, rice polishers, sheeting, and other products. There are about 224 such facilities with boilers within the KMA, each emitting about 0.1 TPY for a total of about 16 TPY of RPM. 6.9 Restaurants There are about 857 small restaurants within the KMA. Seven of these were surveyed, ranging from 185 to 12 seats in size and burning coal or LPG fuel in their ovens. Those burning coal (3 tons/yr) have RPM emission rates of about 1 TPY. LPG emissions are insignificant. As a group, restaurants emit about 117 TPY of RPM. 7 7.1 APPORTIONMENT OF KOLKATA PARTICULATE EMISSIONS Apportionment of RPM Emissions Identification of the sources of RPM and other pollutants is essential to the development of effective air pollution control strategies. As noted above, this project has focused on RPM air quality as first priority given the severity of the respirable particulate air pollution problem within the KMA. Sources of RPM can be apportioned by emission inventory as done here or by receptor-oriented methods that are based on the characteristics of the
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aerosol as measured at the monitoring sites. Both methods should be used and should be in general agreement to best support control efforts. We therefore encourage WBPCB to support development of a RPM aerosol speciation program as an additional point of comparison with the emission inventory. Table 15 presents the RPM annual emission estimates for various industrial, commercial, mobile and area source groups within the KMA. Table 16 is a comparison of the CMB-derived apportionment estimate to the emission inventory apportionment, showing good agreement between the two approaches. Biomass burning is, however, significantly underestimated. Figure 13 shows a simplified apportionment grouping similar source-types together. Table 15 Kolkata Emission Inventory RPM Apportionment
Group Area Category Restaurants Hot Mix Plants Diesel Trains Cooking in Slums Open Burning Paved Road Dust Passenger Cars 2-Wheelers 3-Wheelers Buses-Small Buses-Large Small Trucks Large Trucks Power Generation-Coal Brick Kilns Bakeries Ceramics Products Rubber Products Dyeing & Bleaching Foundries Lead Smelters/Battery Mfg. Paper Products RPM TPY 117.0 810.0 162.9 1,211.5 4,388.3 45,881 599.7 63.8 1,522.4 2,576.4 7,388.2 1,435.4 2,529.4 933.9 1,176.9 199.6 16.5 16.1 18.7 3,243.9 784.0 64.7 75,140.5 % RPM 0.2% 1.1% 0.2% 1.6% 5.8% 61.1% 0.8% 0.1% 2.0% 3.4% 9.8% 1.9% 3.4% 1.2% 1.6% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.3% 1.0% 0.1% 100.0%

Dust Mobile

Point

Total

Table 16 CMB Vs RPM By Inventory Apportionment


Source Category Diesel (Trucks, Buses & Trains) Gasoline Vehicles (Passenger cars, taxis, 2 & 3wheelers, small trucks) CMB RPM Apportionment ( From Table 3) Emission Inventory RPM Apportionment (Summary from Table 16) 13.4 %

16.4%

4.8%

4.8%

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Dust (Paved road dust) Coal Burning (Power Plants) Other Industrial Sources Biomass Burning (Trash burning) Other Sources Secondary Aerosols Total

59.8% 4.2% Not Estimated 10.1% None 4.7% 100.0%

61.1% 1.2% 8.5% 5.8% 2.1% Cannot be inventoried 100.0%

Figure 13 Kolkata Annual RPM Apportionment by Inventory


Note: CMB-based Apportionment = 60% dust

60%

17% 5% Cars, 2 & 3 Wheeler Dust Sources Other Area Sources 9% Buses & Trucks

9%

Industry & Power Plants

7.2

Apportionment of PM 2.5 Emissions Figure 14 presents an estimate of PM2.5 apportionment based on the RPM inventory and the PM2.5/PM10 ratios noted in Section 2.1. Note that there are significant and important differences between Figures 13 and 14 given the variations in the size distribution of emissions from each source-type. Compared to the RPM fraction, dust emissions are far less dominant (60% RPM vs. 15% PM2.5) in the fine particle fraction while diesel truck and bus emissions (17% RPM vs. 37% PM2.5) are far more significant. Petrol vehicles were estimated at 5% of the RPM inventory but are 12% of the PM2.5 inventory. These differences are important considerations in designing control programs. If priority is given to control of PM2.5 because of its closer link to public health risks, regulatory programs should focus first on mobile sources rather than on paved road dust control and mitigation.

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Figure 14 Kolkata PM2.5 Apportionment by Inventory

Note: CMB-based Apportionment = 15% dust 15% 37% 17%

12%
Cars, 2 & 3 Wheeler Dust Sources Other Area Sources

19%
Buses, Trucks Industry & Power Plants

HEALTH EFFECTS PROJECTIONS The health effects associated with increasing levels of air pollution have been well documented in the literature. Changes in particulate matter concentrations caused by the increasing emissions projected for Kolkata result in proportional increases in premature deaths among the most sensitive sectors of the public, usually those suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiac diseases. The method used to estimate changes in mortality is based on a dose-response coefficient appropriate for Asia developed in Indonesia following extensive air pollution health effects studies. In this study, a coefficient of 0.096 premature deaths per 1 g/m3 of RPM increase (annual average) per 100,000 populations exposed is used. If emission sources over the next ten years increase Kolkata RPM concentrations by 7 g/m3,the number of associated premature deaths is about by year 2014 (Table 17). Table 17 Increases in Mortality Associated with Emission Growth from 2003 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Population 11,945,597 11,974,267 12,003,005 12,031,812 12,060,688 12,089,634 12,118,649 12,147,734 12,176,888 12,206,113 12,235,408 Annual Increase in Mortality 450 484 506 535 566 599 634 671 710 752 796 Cumulative Increase 450 934 1,440 1,975 2,541 3,140 3,774 4,445 5,155 5,907 6,703

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Should the emission control strategies outlined in Section 8 be adopted and implemented, the expected improvement in RPM air quality will reduce the frequency of premature deaths within the KMA as shown in Figure 15. The total 2014 avoided premature deaths associated with proposed emissions reductions is about 35,700 while the potential increase in premature deaths if RPM emissions are not controlled is 6,700 by 2014. Figure 15 RPM - Related Premature Death Trends within the KMA

RPM-Related Premature Deaths

Changes in RPM-Related Premature Deaths

10,000

0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

-10,000

-20,000

-30,000

-40,000 Year Uncontrolled Controlled

EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGIES An air quality action plan designed to achieve an annual average RPM concentration in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for India (Table 1) will require a major reduction in RPM emissions within the KMA. Suggested control measures include: A major reduction in paved road dust emissions to include manual and mechanical sweeping of roadways within the KMA implemented over a 5 year period starting in 2006 coupled with shoulder and roadway improvements implemented over a 5 year period; Conversion of commercial vehicles manufactured prior to 1990 to LPG implemented during 2006 and 2007; Replacement of diesel truck and buses by policy or not able to pass a visible emissions-dynamometer test procedure set at HSU 65 implemented over 5 years from 2007 to 2011 with new LPG vehicles; Industry compliance with adopted particulate emission standards with electrostatic precipitators installed on power generating stations by the end of 2005 and; A ban on open burning within the KMA by 2007.

The expected trend in annual RPM emission within the KMA under this set of controls is illustrated in Figure 16 and is equivalent to a 60% reduction in 2003 base case (uncontrolled) emissions. Assuming a similar, proportional improvement in RPM annual average air quality, concentrations should decrease from the current 100 ug/m3 to
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approximately 56 ug/m3 or somewhat less than the RPM ambient air quality standard of 60 ug/m3 annual average. The specific calculations are documented in the KAPPER emissions model. Figure 16 Trends in Controlled RPM Emissions
Kolkata Controlled RPM Emissions
T/YR RPM

90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Year Road Dust Diesel Vehicles Petrol Vehicles Industry Other

Figure 17 illustrates the trends in controlled and uncontrolled RPM emissions within the KMA. Note that unless action is taken to control particulate emissions, concentrations will continue to increase over time, requiring even more stringent future regulation to achieve healthful air quality. Figure 17 Controlled vs. Uncontrolled RPM Emission Trends
Controlled Vs Uncontrolled RPM
Tons per Year 150,000 125,000 100,000 75,000 50,000 25,000 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

All Sources

Year

9.1

Vehicle Emission Reduction Strategies Air pollution associated with motor vehicle emissions is commonly addressed through a mixture of several mechanisms. These include: Vehicle emission control technology designed into the vehicle at the time of manufacture including engine design, fuel economy, catalytic converters and evaporative emission controls engineered to achieve vehicle emission standards adopted by regulatory agencies; Fuel-switching of the vehicle fleet from petrol and diesel to LPG, CNG or other alternative fuels;

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9.1.1

Fuel and lubricant quality standards specified by the vehicle manufacturer to insure proper vehicle performance and emissions limitations; A vehicle inspection program that effectively enforces adopted vehicle emission standards designed to meet clean air standards. A vehicle maintenance infrastructure capable of keeping vehicles in good repair in terms of safety, performance and emissions; Efficient traffic flow that promotes public safety while minimizing vehicle idle emissions and reducing travel times and vehicle-miles driven; Efficient traffic management requires a mass transit system that provides an attractive alternative to the motorized public. Economic measures that provide incentives to reducing vehicle pollution while effectively discouraging practices that fail to promote clean air goals. Current Vehicle Emission Reduction Programs The West Bengal Pollution Control Board, working in cooperation with the Central Pollution Control Board, has adopted several of the above measures to reduce new and on-t he-road vehicle emissions. These include: Adoption of improved fuel quality standards to eliminate leaded petrol effective February, 2002; adoption of India 2000 emission norms for all vehicles in West Bengal effective April, 2002; reduction of the benzene content of petrol to 3% effective May, 2000; adoption of Bharat Stage II norms for new petrol vehicle emissions within the KMA effective January 2001; reduction in petrol and diesel sulfur content to 0.05% effective January, 2001; adoption of Bharat Stage II emission standards for new, heavy vehicles within the KMA as of October, 2001; requirements that all new 3-wheelers registered within the KMA be LPG fuelled as of June, 2002; bans on new bus routes within the Kolkata City Corporation area as of July, 2004. Finally, a ban on the use of commercial pre-1975 vehicles within the KMA was adopted in July 2004 but has subsequently been challenged in the courts. Future adoption of Bharat Stage (BS) III emission standards for new passenger car vehicles within the KMA and new Stage II norms for new 2 and 3-wheelers will be adopted for the entire State are planned for April, 2005. Further reductions in the sulfur content of petrol (0.015%) and diesel fuel (0.035%) are also planned for adoption in April, 2005; benzene content of petrol is also to be reduced in April, 2005 to 1%. A ban on vehicles manufactured before 1990 unless they are converted to LPG by the end of 2005.xxi Some of these measures are reflected in the 2006-2010 CPCB emission factors shown in Table 10. Particulate emission rates (g/km) from large, diesel buses are expected to decrease by about one-half. Currently, there are two LPG refilling outlets each of Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) operating within KMA. Thus, a total of six outlets for LPG refueling are operational in KMA. In addition, one outlet of IOCL is ready for operation and another two more of IOCL are likely to be operational by March 2005. Thus, a total of 9 LPG refueling outlets will be operational from March 2005. The capacity of each outlet is about 60 metric tons/month. The total capacity of all of the LPG refueling station is therefore 540 metric tons/month. The current use of LPG is on the order of 50 metric tons/month. About 200 to 225 4 wheelers and 1,000 3-wheelers are now using LPG. This is a very small percentage of the fleet. Various oil companies do not have any further proposal of increasing the number of LPG outlets in the city, until there is a substantial increase in the use of LPG within the KMA.
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To encourage more LPG use, the WBPCB strategy focuses on conversion of petrol and diesel in-use vehicles to LPG-fuel on all 3-wheelers within the KMA as well as replacement (or retrofit) of taxi and luxury taxi engines with LPG-fueled engines. Taxis would retain the option of replacing existing petrol engines with BS-II compliant engines in lieu of LPG fuels. At an estimated investment cost of Rs 18,000 to convert an existing 3-wheeler to LPG (as compared to a cost of Rs 1 lakh for a new LPG-fueled vehicle), owners have reported that the Rs 80 to 100 in daily fuel savings recovers the investment cost quickly.xxii As of October, 2004, the State government has approved eight LPG retrofitters and about 50 retrofit centers within the KMA. Improvements in traffic flow reduce improve service levels and reduce emissions are also underway. Several road network construction projects (flyovers, new bridges and new roadways) are under construction by the Hooghly River Bridge Commission, GoWB Public Works Department and the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority. 9.1.2 Current Vehicle Inspection Programs In addition to improvements in fuel quality, increasingly restrictive emission norms for new vehicles and fuel-conversion programs, WBPCB is working to improve the effectiveness of the PUC vehicle inspection program through upgrades in the equipment used at PUC centers. This new equipment includes improved smoke meters, gas analyzers, and computer systems. Improved data integration with other agencies is also underway. At present, about 18% of the on-the-road vehicles are being inspected. The goal is to increase the inspection rate to 80%. 9.1.3 New Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions While the adoption of increasingly restrictive emission standards for new vehicles is essential to slowing future emission growth by promoting the introduction of new, clean vehicles, the age of the Kolkata vehicle fleet (Table 8) suggests a very slow fleet turnover rate. Given the immediate and critical nature of Kolkatas air pollution problem, more immediate action is required. Improvements in fuel quality, engine/fuel retrofit programs, an effective PUC vehicle inspection program and other measures have a immediate air quality benefit that does not rely on fleet turnover. Since there is consensus that improving particulate matter air quality should be WBPCBs first priority, new strategies to reduce vehicle emissions must focus on dieselfueled heavy vehicles that are responsible for the majority (over 60% Table 9) of the RPM vehicle-fleet emissions. The average age of these vehicles is 13 years and 7 year, respectively for buses and trucks; many are poorly maintained and have dense, visible emissions that are an obvious source of air pollution. Options to reducing emission from these vehicles include the measures discussed below. 9.1.3.1 Enhanced CUP Program Effectiveness An effective Clean Up Pollution (CUP) program is an essential to reducing emissions from in-use vehicles in Kolkata. Such a program must be seen by the public as totally objective, focused on the dirtiest vehicles; must be enforced, supervised and audited and must avoid false passes that damage public acceptance. It must use a sound, dynamometer-based testing protocol (see below) to stop cheating and tampering that allow dirty vehicles to pass inspections. The program should be centralized and government-operated. Without such a program, control of emissions from in-use vehicles will be insufficient to reduce visible emissions from the many smoky buses, trucks and cars commonly found plying the roads of Kolkata. First priority should be to all government-owned vehicles (especially large buses) into compliance with visible emission and gaseous pollutant standards. Inspection and compliance of all commercial diesel bus and truck vehicle fleets should follow. Vehicles that cannot be brought into compliance with emission standards by engine repair should undergo new engine replacement, replaced of the vehicle with new LPG/CNG vehicles or scrapped. An effective CUP focused on large diesel buses is essential to improving RPM air quality.
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9.1.3.2 Improved CUP Diesel Emission Test Procedures Adoption and aggressive enforcement of visible smoke rules such as those found in Delhi, Agra and Jaipur is essential. These are based on a brief, single or two-speed dynamometer smoke test vehicle test procedure that avoids the unreliable test results associated with the free acceleration tests currently used by CUP program at privately owned petrol stations. Studies conducted in the Netherlands and Greece have demonstrated that a short dynamometer test measuring average smoke emissions over a dynamic test cycle have been 38 and 42% more cost effective than free acceleration tests in reducing RPM diesel emissions while avoiding false emission test failures.xxiii Dynamometer-based lug-down tests have been found to be are far more effective than free acceleration tests in controlling and permanently reducing visible smoke emissions but are more costly to install.xxiv 9.1.3.3 Fuel-Switching Strategies As noted above, WBPCB is encouraging the use of alternative fuels including CNG and LPG. The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas recently begun negotiations to bring a natural gas pipeline to Kolkata. Such a pipeline would increase the current 7 million standard cubic meters per day of gas being imported into India significantly. At present, only about one-half of the national natural gas demand is being met. Development of a pipeline system to bring natural gas (or LPG), development of the gas distribution and refueling infrastructure is essential to any fuel-switching strategy. Once a secure fuel supply, distribution and refueling system is available, fuel-switching will become a feasible and attractive strategy. CNG Fuel-Switching Emissions tests conducted on natural gas buses for the Australian Greenhouse Office's Alternative Fuels Conversion Program (AFCP) indicate that GNG-fueled buses deliver significant reductions in terms of both air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. Particulate emissions were reported to be 95% lower (0.6 mg per km versus 41 mg per km) than Euro III diesel buses. Emissions of NOx and VOC were 45% and 75% lower, overall based on fleet tests. Advantages and disadvantages of CNG as a vehicle fuel are noted below: Advantages of using CNG as an automobile fuel are:

20-25 percent less CO2 Up to 90 percent less CO 75 to 90 percent less Non- methane hydrocarbons 80 percent less ozone generating potential No acrid smell from exhaust gases No heavy metal additives necessary to increase knock rating no losses through vaporization from the tank and/ or while refueling No carcinogenic substance No transport by road because natural gas is normally supplied via pipelines High share of methane, a hydrocarbon with a high share of hydrogen and relatively low Carbon content and mostly environmentally friendly fossil fuel Natural gas can be used in normal four stroke spark engines without any technical problems Diesel engine, however require to be converted to CNG combustion

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Disadvantages of CNG are:


Methane emission More NOx in comparison with gasoline (with regulating 3-way catalytic converter) 10-20 percent less power output with existing engines Reduced engine power by about 18-28 percent Premature defects of engine components (gas pressure regulators, valves, gaskets, hoses, monometers, etc. Bad refinement and drying of gas supplied to the compressor stations Frequent break-down of high pressure pumps Reduced vehicle capacity due to the weight of the gas cylinders Short operating range of only 200 km Availability of spare parts and maintenance and repair on the gas supply side Inadequate fuel station network Weight and space requirement for gas cylinder in a vehicles Shorter operating range of vehicles

The best driving force for development of a market for CNG vehicles would be to ensure sufficient direct savings in operating costs for vehicle operators. Thus an essential requirement is a sizeable difference between prices of gasoline/diesel and CNG. CNG station operators and gas distributors must be able to make sufficient profit out of the CNG venture. Vehicles that will provide the highest cost savings by changing from diesel fueling to CNG, will exhibit the following characteristics:

High annual mileage resulting in high total fuel consumption; High specific fuel consumption resulting in high total fuel consumption; Low vehicle age so as to obtain maximum return from the conversion during the remaining life of the vehicle; Low total cost of conversion to CNG; Adequate standards of maintenance; Operating patterns within accessible distance of a CNG filling station or along a welldefined route, which will be serviced by CNG stations; vehicle fleets operating in Urban areas may be best suitable; Operating patterns, which allow frequent refueling, to minimize the number of CNG cylinders, which are a high, cost item.

Some likely candidate target vehicles could be of following class:


Fleet vehicles operated as taxis, baby taxis, which mostly run in the city City buses Trucks used for distance of less than 200 km (or well within the accessible distance from CNG fueling station)

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LPG Fuel-Switching LPG is a byproduct of natural gas processing or a product that comes from crude oil refining and is composed primarily of propane and butane. The availability of LPG in Kolkata makes it a preferred fuel for conversion of the vehicle fleet, especially in light of emission rate reductions relative to petrol or diesel fuels. About 7.5 million tones per year of LNG are imported from Qatarxxv. To reduce emissions from 3-wheelers, actions have been taken by WBPCB to encourage the development and use of LPG retrofit kits practical for use in Kolkata.xxvi As noted above, 3-wheeler fleet owners believe that fuel cost savings can offset the initial retrofit kit capital investment cost quickly. The Karnataka State Pollution Control Board in Bangalore has adopted a financial subsidy for 3-wheeler LPG fuel-switching of Rs. 2,000 per vehicle to offset a portion of the increased cost of a new 4-stroke LGP vehicle (Rs. 1,08,000 vs.82,050 for a 4-stroke petrol-fueled vehicle). The LPG vehicles also operate on petrol, if needed. As of January, 2004, about 35,000 of 72,109 registered 3-wheelers were running on LPG fuel using 9 refueling stations. Six more are planned or a total of 15 stations. If all 3-wheelers were to be converted to LPG as required by WBPCB, a total of 30 stations would be needed. An additional Other elements of the Boards action plan include testing for adulterated fuels, a proposed ban on vehicles older than 15 years, improved fuel quality and road improvements to reduce congestion.xxvii Experience in Bangalore indicates that about 25 LPG refueling stations would be needed in Kolkata to fuel all of the 93,000 3-wheelers within the KMA. Additional stations would be needed if more cars and/or taxis were to be converted to LPG. 9.1.3.4 Ban on 30 Year-Old Vehicles To reduce pollutant emissions from the vehicle fleet, it has been proposed that vehicles manufactured prior to 1990 be banned from plying the roads. Transport officials estimate that the ban would affect 9,587 taxis, 7,464 buses, 6,784 auto rickshaws, 1,164 minibuses and nearly 30,000 good vehiclesxxviii. This analysis of the air quality benefits of such a ban is based on the National Information Centre (NIC) 2003 vehicle registration data as applied to the total number of vehicles reported for 2003 within the Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA). These vehicles were then apportioned by vehicle-type (passenger cars, small LCV trucks, etc) based on results from recent video tapings of traffic at 39 locations throughout Kolkata. Over 9,000 vehicles were counted during the survey. Emissions were then calculated using CPCB emission factors for each vehicletype, by year. This analysis focuses on Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM) emissions since this is the pollutant of principal concern in Kolkata. Overall, a ban on commercial vehicles more than 30 years old would likely result in a small (1-2%) reduction in RPM emissions with respect to the entire vehicle fleet. Most of these reductions are associated with diesel emissions from old buses and trucks. When evaluated on an urban scale, considering all mobile, area, industrial, and commercial sources of RPM, there would likely be very little or no noticeable improvement in monitored RPM air quality. Regulators should not expect to see substantial improvements in Kolkata RPM air quality as a result of such a ban.

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Table 18 RPM Emissions for 30-Year Old Commercial Vehicles


Commercial Vehicles > 30 Yrs NA NA 10,922 3,625 13,354 5,626 33,527 RPM Emissions Commercial Vehicles > 30 yrs NA NA 26 397 585 164 1,172 RPM Emissions All Vehicles (TPY) 616 64 1,500 10,349 1,927 1,354 15,810 RPM Emissions With Ban (TPY) 616 64 1,474 9,952 1,342 1,190 14,638

Vehicle Type

Passenger Cars & Taxis 2-Wheelers 3-Wheelers Buses Large Trucks Small Trucks Totals

9.1.3.5 Summary of Ban Air Quality Benefits An analysis of the RPM air quality benefits of banning 30 year-old commercial vehicles in Kolkata would result in a 7% reduction (1,172 tons per year) in the total vehicle fleet emissions. If the annual emissions from all sources are 75,140 tons/year, a 2% reduction in RPM emissions would occur. About 33,500 commercial vehicles would be affected by the ban. Given the small reduction in RPM emissions on an air shed basis, it is unlikely that monitored RPM concentrations would decrease noticeably. This analysis, however, likely underestimates ban benefits since it is based on 1986-1990 emission factors not pre-1975 factors. There are many sound reasons for banning 30-year old vehicles from Kolkata roads. These include improvement in street-side air quality directly impacted by nearby diesel exhaust as well as promotion of public awareness and faster turnover in the vehicle fleet that encourages the purchase of more new, cleaner vehicles. These benefits have not been included in this evaluation. 9.2 Area Source Emission Reduction Strategies RPM emission reduction strategies for area sources are an important component of any strategy to improve air quality in Kolkata. This is especially true of dust emissions which are a major component of the RPM emission inventory. 9.3 Paved Road Dust Control Strategies Control of dust emissions is a common element of PM10 control programs in the western US and measures are now becoming more common in Asia.xxix Bangkok, Thailand now has an aggressive road dust control program aimed at reducing the estimated 60,000 tons per year of paved road dust emission within the city.xxx Note that this compares to about 45,000 tons per year in Kolkata. These strategies focus on measures to reduce and manage silt dust on roadways either by preventing material from being deposited onto the road surface (preventive controls) or by measures to remove from the travel lanes any material that has been deposited (mitigate controls). Many control programs include measures to both mitigate and prevent road dust silt loading. These measures include the covering of loads on haul trucks, paving of access areas to unpaved lots or construction sites, keeping construction materials off of road shoulders and road paving programs with installation of curbing to discourage vehicles from moving into unpaved areas. Examples of mitigation controls include vacuum sweeping, water flushing, and broom sweeping.

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Although the actual control efficiencies for any of these techniques can be highly variable, preventive controls are usually more cost effective than mitigation measures. The cost-effectiveness of mitigation controls falls off dramatically as the size of an area to be treated increases. The cost-effectiveness of these measures may also be unfavorable if only a short period of time is required for the road to return to equilibrium silt loading condition. This may occur if the size of the city makes routine use of dust mitigation control impossible. The paved road dust silt dust loading studies conducted in Bangkok studied the effectiveness and cost of washing and sweeping roadways using both manual and mechanical methods. A similar study, tailored to the local situation and issues, should be conducted in Kolkata. The effectiveness of various methods in reducing silt loadings varied from 6% (manual sweeping) to 68% (mechanical sweepers on small roads). Control efficiencies for mitigation measures vary from 4% (street sweeping using nonRPM efficient vacuum units operating monthly on arterials) to 26% (street sweeping with RPM efficient vacuum units operating on arterial roads every 14-days). The costeffectiveness of street sweeping using an RPM efficient device with a 9.2% efficiency is about USD $960 per annum per ton of RPM emissions considering capital, operating, overhead, interest rate and capital recovery costs. Mechanical sweepers cover about 40 km/day depending on the condition of the roads. Rough roads, such as those in Kolkata, cause more mechanical breakdowns. The efficiency of dust capture is also much poorer on uneven roads. The best way to determine effectiveness of any of these measures, however, is to measure silt loadings before and after the application of controls on the streets of Kolkata. It is particularly important to note that street sweeping of gutters and curb areas may actually increase the silt loading on the traveled portion of the road. Redistribution of loose material onto the travel lanes will actually produce a short-term increase in the emissions. 9.3.1 A Paved Road Dust Program for Kolkata Experience in Bangkok and the US suggest the following measures should be taken within the KMA: Preventive Measures Strict enforcement of good construction practice and proper transportation of materials. This must include a ban on dumping of construction materials on the shoulders of public roads where traffic can carry dust back onto the roadways or (at minimum) physical barriers to prevent vehicles from driving over construction materials; Better co-ordination in construction work on any particular road among private companies and public agencies; Paving and greening of road shoulders, sidewalks and median strips to minimize dust carryout; An expanded program to upgrade the surface of the public roadways to eliminate broken pavement Curbing of roadways to keep vehicles on paved surfaces to discourage carryout of dust from the road shoulders Increase funding for roadway paving, curbing and maintenance

Annexure A to this report gives the cost impact per km to improve the existing roads to meet these requirement. Annexure C gives a drawing of an indicative design to be adopted for this purpose.

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Mitigation Measures Conduct control and cost effectiveness studies of road washing and sweeping programs to determine the most feasible method for Kolkata.

In Bangkok, Improvement of road shoulders and controlling road dust have been implemented by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) Department of Public Cleansing. Control of road dust at the sources includes road digging improvement of road surfaces and shoulders. At the same time there is a need to clean roads by sweeping, vacuuming, and washing. Road cleaning implemented in 50 districts is the most cost-effective measure in controlling dust especially on the narrow road. Preventive measures have been found more effective than vacuum road sweepers.xxxi It is recommended that WBPCB, working with others, design, fund and implement an ongoing road dust mitigation program for Kolkata. For purposes of this study, a paved road dust mitigation and prevention program phased in over a period of 5 years is recommended that incorporates both preventive measures and mitigation methods to include manual sweeping, road-flushing and sweeping programs. Annexure B of this report gives the estimated Annual maintenance cost per km for keeping the road dust free. It should be possible to reduce RPM paved road dust emissions by 50% or more using these methods when fully implemented. These control measures are especially important during the dry winter months when RPM levels are very high, rainfall is minimal and overall Kolkata air quality is at its worst. Well-enforced and implemented, the prevention and mitigation measures outlined above should be able to reduce paved road silt loading significantly, resulting in a proportional improvement in monitored RPM air quality. 9.4 Mitigation of Industrial Emissions Reductions in emissions from industrial facilities can be achieved through the use of cleaner fuels, installation of more effective (or preliminary) control systems; tighter enforcement of existing emission standards or mandatory reductions in fuel use or production output. These are discussed below: An updated and expanded, computerized industrial facility permitting system is needed to regulate and enforce industrial emission standards already adopted by WBPCB. Past surveys of compliance with regulations (1997 foundry study) and the experience of the industrial survey engineers during this study indicate that major emission reductions would occur if emission controls already in place were functional and/or if facilities were in compliance with new emission standards. One option is to require that each industry under permit by WBPCB submit a complete plant site emission inventory. Such inventories should be critically reviewed by the Board during on-site visits to verify the submitted data with penalties for falsification of permit records. Facilities not meeting the emission regulations should be placed on a compliance schedule and fined if deadlines are not met. Fuel switching strategies banning dirty fuels such as coal and wood in favor of LPG or low sulfur distillate oil can greatly reduce RPM emissions. Large emitting facilities that burn significant amounts coal with little or intermittent emission control should be the marked for careful inspection, regulation and enforcement by WBPCB. Process emissions from cast iron foundries, paper products manufacturing and other large sources may also require more stringent controls.

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10

SUMMARY This work provides new and important information on the nature of the RPM air quality problem in Kolkata, identifying paved road dust as the major contributor to RPM emissions. Results from this work generally agree with other, independent RPM apportionment studies conducted in Kolkata based on receptor modeling. The paved road dust emission trends track known seasonal variations in RPM air quality. They are also consistent with experience gained through PM10 apportionment studies conducted in other countries. Like any emission inventory, there are many uncertainties in these estimates. Open burning is likely underestimated as are industrial process emissions; emission factors for vehicles manufactured prior to 1986 were not quantified and many of the RPM emission factors used here require improvement. Continued work to improve this inventory is needed. Nevertheless, this work includes several new and important innovations: An extensive paved road dust silt loading survey that provides a basis for accurate estimation of dust emissions within Kolkata; Video surveys completed at 39 locations within the city at all hours of the day. These video tapes were used to determine the distribution of vehicles within the KMA based on a count of nearly 10,000 vehicles. Projections to the year 2014 for uncontrolled RPM emissions A suggested RPM control strategy analysis and projections for controlled emissions Development of an emissions calculation model (KAPPER) for Kolkata.

Control programs to reduce dust from paved roads, construction, and other sources must be further quantified with local demonstration projects. These demonstration projects are needed to validate the paved road dust mitigation options for Kolkata. Once the effectiveness and costs of various control options are known for Kolkata, action can be taken to implement a road dust control and mitigation program. Mobile source emission reductions to achieve improved RPM air quality must focus on diesel buses and trucks as they are the largest contributors within the vehicle fleet. This will require an expanded effort to improve the Clean Up Pollution (CUP) program by incorporating better testing methods using dynamometers as well as enhance enforcement and compliance programs. Industrial RPM emissions from fuel use and process losses are also needed. A strong permitting system coupled with compliance actions must be taken to reduce emissions from hundreds of small-scale industries as required by WBPCB regulations. Programs to foster the use of clean fuels and phase-out of coal use in Kolkata should be promoted. The suggested control strategies, when fully implemented, are expected to significantly improve RPM air quality in Kolkata, reaching the annual air quality standard of 60 ug/m3 by the year 2009. By 2014, the RPM annual average concentration based on linear rollback would be about 56 ug/m3, a significant improvement from the current concentration of nearly 100 ug/m3. These improvements in RPM air quality will likely result in the avoidance of an estimated 35,000 RPM-related premature deaths by 2014 within the KMA.

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Annexure A Cost Impact per Km of Existing Roads for carrying out Different Treatments Envisaged for Paved Road Dust Program for Kolkota
Sl. No. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Description Providing road kerbs per Km of road on either side as per MOST provision (Section 408) (Refer drawing A Marked A) Providing Kerb on the other sides of the footpath (Refer drawing 1 Marked B) Footpath as per Technical Specification 409 of MOST (Refer drawing 1 Marked C) including GSB, bed concr and tiles Catch pit will gulleys (1m x 1 m x 1m) Precast RCC concrete drains of 0.500 base width (Refer drawing 1 marked E) Surface preparation per km (Refer drawing 1) (i) Profile correcting Course with DBM as per MOST Specification Section - 50mm thick (ii) Bituminous Concrete wearing course 40mm thick) as per Technical Specification of MOST m3 m3 4,150.00 4,225.00 1 x 1000 x 7.5 x 0.050 1 x 1000 x 7.5 x 0.040 1,556,250.00 1,267,500.00 TOTAL : 9,139,750.00 Unit m m m Nos m Rate 530.00 350.00 700.00 4,500.00 1,300.00 Quantity 2 x 1000 2 x 1000 2(1.50 - 0.150 - 0.165) x 1000 2 x 33 2 x 1000 Amount 1,060,000.00 700,000.00 1,659,000.00 297,000.00 2,600,000.00 Remarks

Note :

The rates considered in this estimate are based on those of the prevailing contract after taking care of price adjustment factor.

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Annexure B

Annual Maintenance Cost Per Km for keeping the Road Dust Free (The rates are based on available rates now in use in State Govt. and other bodies) Sl. No. A Description Cleaning the dirts by mechanical broom (Hydraulic) once a week I.e. 52 times a year. [for single use/km - it requires 6 hrs @ Rs. 300/hr I.e. Rs. 1800/day] By manual means including sweeping and collecting dust and dumping them in nearby bins. Carriage of dust from bin and disposal at appropriate place(s) [daily 1/2 trip] Unit days Rate 1,800. 00 5.00 400.00 Quantity 52.00 Amount 93,600.00 Remarks

B C

m2/days days

7.5 x 1000 1/2 x 365

136,875.00 73,000.00 TOTAL 303,475.00

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Annexure C Indicative Design for improving existing roads in Kolkata for Paved Road Dust Program

(iii)

(ii)

(i)

40mm thick Bituminous Concrete 40 mm thick Bituminous Concrete (i) 7.50 m CarriagewayWAY 7.50 m CARRIAGE

ANNEXURE - C (ii) (iii)

Profile Correcting course 50mm (average) Profile Correcting course 50 mm (average) (V)

SEE DETAILS B-B

SEE DETAILS C-C (V)

DRAWING (1)

200

200

15
5
Average

150

25 250 165 225


M-20

650

100mm thick M-15 100 mm thick M-15 (RCC 8mm @ 150 C/C BOTHWAYS)

(RCC 8 mm @ 150 C/C Bothways)


440

325

215

OUTER DRAIN Outer Drain

M-20

500 440
100mm thick M-10thick 100 mm

165

Section of Barrier Type Kerb of Cement Concrete CONCRETE

SECTION OF BARRIER TYPE KERB OF CEMENT

M-10

BARRIER BarrierTYPE KERB OF CEMENT CONCRETEConcrete Type Kerb of Cement

CROSS SECTION OF PRECAST RCC DRAIN

325

NOTE: 1. Drawing is not to scale

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ANNEX 1 Thermal Power Plant Specifics Table A-1: Emissions from Southern Generating Thermal Power Station
Parameter Height of Stack (m) Duct dimensions (m x m) Fuel Fuel Consumption (tphr) SO2 (mg/m3) NO2 (mg/m3) CO2 (mg/m ) CO (mg/m ) Stack Gas Velocity (m/s) Stack Gas Temp (OK) Stack Gas Flow (Nm3/hr) PM Emission (kg/hr) NOx Emission (kg/hr) SO2 Emission (kg/hr)
3 3

Unit 1 Duet A 120 2.642 x 2.413 Coal 30.3 927.84 298.64 11.2 < 0.2 20.75 414 321286 32.1 298.1 95.9

Unit 1 Duet B 120 2.642 x 2.413 Coal 39.3 1022.15 345.14 11.8 < 0.2 17.25 413 276106 33.7 28.2 95.3

Unit 2 Duet A 120 2.642 x 2.413 Coal 35.0 1090.67 321.54 12.2 < 0.2 9.20 433 139689 11.7 152.4 44.9

Unit 2 Duet B 120 2.642 x 2.413 Coal 37.6 844.31 264.88 12.2 < 0.2 17.53 452 246201 18.0 204.8 64.3

Total 93.5 937.5 300.4

Table A-2: Budge Budge Generating Station


Parameter Fuel Stack Diameter (m) Top Bottom Stack Height (m) Flow Rate (Nm /hr) Particulate Matter (mg/Nm ) SO2 (mg/Nm3) NOx (mg/Nm3) Particulate Matter (kg/hr) SO2 (kg/hr) NOx (kg/hr)
3 3

Boiler 1 Coal 4.75 4.75 275 709805 78 1102.5 323.9 55.4 782.6 229.9

Boiler 2 Coal 4.75 4.75 275 848092 102 1388.7 390.0 86.6 1178.9 331.1

Total 142.0 1661.5 561

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Table A-3: New Cassipore Thermal Power Station


Parameter Temperature (oK) Velocity (m/s) Stack Gas Discharge (Nm3/hr) Particulate Matter (mg/Nm3) SO2 (mg/Nm ) NOx (mg/Nm3) Particulate Matter (kg/hr) SO2 (g/hr) NOx (g/hr)
3

Stack1 378.7 9.92 503542.8 152.77 226.8 80.56 31.1 46.2 16.4

Stack 2 403 10.4 496056.03 252.74 257.14 88.3 125.4 127.6 43.8

Stack 3 348 11.70 407656.38 41.93 261.81 70.55 17.1 106.7 28.8

Total 173.6 280.5 89.0

Table A-4: Titagarh Generating Station Titagarh, 24, Parganas (North)


Parameter Stack Height (m) Stack Diameter (m) Top Bottom Fuel Fuel Consumption (t/hr) Temperature (0K) Velocity (m/s) Stack Gas Flow (Nm3/hr) PM (mg/Nm3) SO2 (mg/Nm3) NOx (mg/Nm3) PM (kg/hr) SO2 (kg/hr) NOx (kg/hr) 11 4 Coal 38.8 380.7 13.87 203660 57.81 887.34 230.75 11.8 180.1 47.0 11 4 Coal 40.8 392 12.26 174853 67.24 1341.81 261.77 11.8 234.6 45.8 11 4 Coal 42.8 396.8 13.3 187527 99.6 1309.09 275.39 18.7 245.5 51.6 11 4 Coal 39.2 383.7 13.92 202796 58.6 688.69 210.15 11.9 139.7 42.6 54.2 799.9 187.0 Boiler 1 Stack 1 100 Boiler 4 Stack 2 100 Boiler 3 Stack 2 100 Boiler 2 Stack 1 100 Total -

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ANNEX 2 Kolkata Air Pollution Potential Emission Reductions The KAPPER Model Documentation & Emission Projections September, 2005 1. INTRODUCTION Development of an action plan to improve air quality in Kolkata requires an analysis of alternative control strategies. Since control strategies must be implemented over a period of several years, emission projections are required. The strategy analysis is based, in part, on emission reductions achieved by each RPM control measure over time as the strategies are phased in. A spreadsheet model was developed for the project to calculate the emission projections and emission reductions from mobile source, industry, paved road dust and open burning strategies. 2. METHODOLOGY The Kolkata Air Pollution Potential Emissions Reductions (KAPPER) model is a straightforward application of traditional emission inventory calculations automated in an Excel spreadsheet format and structured to transportation emission sources in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. KAPPER calculates emission reductions in a stepwise manner: Calculation of uncontrolled, base-case 2003 RPM, HC, CO, Sox and NOx emissions by vehicle-type (3-wheel, 2-stroke and 4-stroke taxis; 2 and 4-stroke motorcycles, light-duty gasoline automobiles, heavy duty diesel buses and trucks by age group). Emissions are reported in metric tons per year. An example calculation is included in the model. E base case = Total Vehicles in KMA * % vehicles on-the-road per vehicle-type* % of vehicles in each age class* km/day * 365 * EFuncontrolled Vehicle count is based on the total number of vehicles registered in the NIC database, apportioned to vehicle class in accordance with results from the vehicle video surveys. These counts are increased at a rate of 5.5 % per year from 2003 to 2014 to reflect future traffic growth. Controlled emissions are calculated by reducing base-case emissions using an the estimated percent emission reduction (emission reduction credit, EC) that would occur when the measure was fully implemented. For example, a strategy to ban 30-year old commercial vehicles from the roadways would result in a 100% reduction of emissions from those vehicles while implementation of a roadway improvement program to control paved road dust would result in a 69% reduction in uncontrolled RPM emissions when fully phased in. The EC credits are based on documented technical studies noted in the Final Report. Multiple strategies (sub-elements) to control paved road dust (PRD) are then summed to arrive at the total credit. EC Sum = EC1 + EC2 + . The magnitude of the sub-element credit (e.g. EC1) is first determined by the percent reduction in RPM emissions afforded by the technology/measure. These credits are arrayed by year in the model. For example, road and shoulder improvements to reduce RPM emissions is reported to reduce emissions by 69% but must be phased in over 4 years. The first year credit is therefore 13.8% (20% of 69%), the second year is 27.6% (40% of 69%), the third is 41.4% and the fourth is 69% (full credit). Further, the

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percentage of roadway within the KMA to be subject to improvements (20% assumed in the model) is also applied in the emission reduction calculation. 3. MODEL INPUTS 3.1 EMISSION FACTORS

Table 1 lists the Central Pollution Control Board emission factors were used in this study. Note that emission factors used here are tentative at best and subject to change as new information is available. Emission rates of vehicles manufactured prior to 1986 have not been published by CPCB and are therefore assumed to be the same as those manufactured during the 1986-1990 period, resulting in an under estimate of emissions from these older vehicles. 3.2 VEHICLE REGISTRATION DATA

Table 2 lists Kolkata 2003 vehicle registration data from NIC by mode by vehicle type and age. Table 3 shows the estimated, uncontrolled tailpipe emissions by year from 2003 to 2014. 3.3 AREA AND INDUSTRIAL SOURCE INPUTS

Sources for each of the area and industrial source inputs are documented in the model. For Calcutta, most came from local governmental sources including the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Agency, Kolkata Traffic Police and the West Bengal Pollution Control Board. Emission factors for the industrial sources were largely taken from the USEPA FIRES emission factor database and may not be entirely appropriate for India. 3.4 EMISSION REDUCTION CREDITS

The model will automatically recalculate emission reductions, by scenario, for each pollutant for each future year based on the emission reduction credits documented in the model and Final Report. 4. MODEL OUTPUTS

Outputs include controlled emissions by year, vehicle type and pollutant. Using this data and the base-case estimates, emission reductions and future year emissions (by pollutant) are calculated and displayed in a series of graphs which include: Trends in RPM emissions by year to year 2014 shown by source type; Comparison of base-case uncontrolled emission trends in comparison to controlled scenario forecasts; Percent reductions in pollutant emissions by year by scenario Changes in forecast RPM annual air quality based on a simple proportional rollback model; Changes in RPM-related premature death rates for the uncontrolled and controlled case based on dose-response coefficients documented in the model.

Table 3 lists the model calculated vehicle emissions by year, by vehicle-type and by pollutant. Table 4 is a tabulation of controlled and uncontrolled emissions for each of the source categories.

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Figure 1: KAPPER Output: Controlled Vs Uncontrolled RPM Emissions

Changes in RPM-Related Premature Deaths Premature Deaths 10,000 0 -10,000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 -20,000 -30,000 -40,000 Year
Uncontrolled Controlled

4.

APPLICATIONS Emission reduction outputs from the KAPPER model can be used to easily approximate future emissions and likely emission reductions needed to restore healthful air quality. Perhaps most significantly, the model provides a graphics that can be easily understood by the public and decision makers. This model should be used to provide only a rough first approximation of the air quality and public health benefits of a control strategy. Dispersion modeling analysis using established protocols is recommended.

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Table 1: Vehicle Tailpipe Emission Factors used in the KAPPER Model


Vehicle Type 2-Wheel,2-Stroke Year Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 Pre-1986* CO 6.50 6.50 6.50 4.00 2.20 1.40 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.60 2.20 1.40 14.00 14.00 14.00 8.60 4.30 2.45 9.80 9.80 9.80 3.90 1.98 1.39 7.30 7.30 7.30 1.20 0.90 0.58 8.7 HC 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.30 2.13 1.32 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.70 8.30 8.30 8.30 7.00 2.05 0.75 1.70 1.70 1.70 0.80 0.25 0.15 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.13 0.05 0.34 Nox 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.11 0.12 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.10 0.20 0.12 2.77 2.77 2.77 0.69 0.50 0.45 3.15 PM10 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.15 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.42 0.07 0.05 0.8

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke

3-Wheel, 2-Stroke

Passenger Cars-Petrol

Passenger Car-Diesel

Light Commercial Vehicles ( Small Trucks)

1986-1990 8.7 0.34 3.15 0.8 1991-1995 8.7 0.34 3.15 0.8 1996-2000 6.9 0.28 2.49 0.5 2001-2005 5.1 0.14 1.28 0.2 2006-2010 0.72 0.063 0.59 0.07 Large Trucks Pre-1986* 5.5 1.78 9.5 1.5 1986-1990 5.5 1.78 9.5 1.5 1991-1995 5.5 1.78 9.5 1.5 1996-2000 4.5 1.21 8.4 0.8 2001-2005 3.6 0.87 6.3 0.28 2006-2010 3.2 0.87 5.5 0.12 Buses Pre-1986* 5.5 1.78 19.00 3.00 1986-1990 5.5 1.78 19.00 3.00 1991-1995 5.5 1.78 19.00 3.00 1996-2000 4.5 1.21 16.80 1.60 2001-2005 3.60 0.87 12.00 0.56 2006-2010 3.20 0.87 11.00 0.24 Note: Pre-1986 emission factors are those used in this study. They were not published by CPCB.
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Table 2: Kolkata City Corporation Vehicle Registration Data Summary: March, 2003
By Video Description Total Number 2-Wheelers 3-Wheelers Large Buses Large Trucks Passenger Cars Small Buses Small Trucks Totals 168,099 93,161 72,234 61,825 601,528 25,189 52,181 1,074,215 No 1388 11086 3210 17528 33461 294 5965 72932 % 0.8% 11.9% 4.4% 28.4% 5.6% 1.2% 11.4% No 8245 66796 18564 4064 66101 897 2432 167099 % 4.9% 71.7% 25.7% 6.6% 11.0% 3.6% 4.7% No 22758 12670 27954 7160 201164 1314 24225 297246 % 13.5% 13.6% 38.7% 11.6% 33.4% 5.2% 46.4% No 135708 2608 22517 33072 300801 22683 19542 536932 % 80.7% 2.8% 31.2% 53.5% 50.0% 90.1% 37.5% Age 5 7 13 7 10 6 11 % 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Age > 30 Yrs Age 20-30 Yrs Age 10-19 Yrs Age < 10 Yrs 50 %tile Total

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KAPPER Model Inputs & Emission Calculations Table 3A: Motor Vehicle RPM Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003

ANNEX 3

5.5% Annual Increase Summary RPM (TPY) Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger CarsPetrol Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Totals RPM TPY 2003 41 23 1,522 225 375 1,435 2,529 2,576 7,388 16,115 RPM TPY 2004 43 24 1606 237 396 1514 2669 2718 7795 17,002 RPM TPY 2005 46 25 1694 250 417 1598 2815 2868 8223 17,937 RPM TPY 2006 48 27 1788 264 440 1686 2970 3025 8676 18,923 RPM TPY 2007 51 28 1886 278 464 1778 3134 3192 9153 19,964 RPM TPY 2008 54 30 1990 294 490 1876 3306 3367 9656 21,062

5.5% Annual Increase RPM TPY 2009 57 31 2099 310 517 1979 3488 3552 10187 22,220 RPM TPY 2010 60 33 2215 327 545 2088 3679 3748 10747 23,443 RPM TPY 2011 63 35 2336 345 575 2203 3882 3954 11339 24,732 RPM TPY 2012 66 37 2465 364 607 2324 4095 4171 11962 26,092 RPM TPY 2013 70 39 2600 384 640 2452 4321 4401 12620 27,527 RPM TPY 2,014 74 41 2744 405 676 2587 4558 4643 13314 29,041

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TABLE 3B: MOTOR VEHICLE CO EMISSIONS, UNCONTROLLED 2003


Summary CO (TPY) Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger CarsPetrol Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks Small Trucks Large Buses Small Buses Large Totals 5.5% Annual Increase CO TPY 2003 1,331 993 61,218 CO TPY 2004 1,404 1,048 64,585 CO TPY 2005 1,482 1,106 68,137 CO TPY 2006 1,563 1,167 71,885 CO TPY 2007 1,649 1,231 75,839 CO TPY 2008 1,740 1,298 80,010 5.5% Annual Increase CO TPY 2009 1,835 1,370 84,410 CO TPY 2010 1,936 1,445 89,053 CO TPY 2011 2,043 1,525 93,951 CO TPY 2012 2,155 1,609 99,118 CO TPY 2013 2,274 1,697 104,570 CO TPY 2,014 2,399 1,790 110,321

28,973

30,567

32,248

34,022

35,893

37,867

39,950

42,147

44,465

46,911

49,491

52,213

2,751 16,040 9,659 4,919 14,107 139,994

2,903 16,923 10,191 5,190 14,883 147,694

3,062 17,853 10,751 5,475 15,702 155,817

3,231 18,835 11,343 5,777 16,565 164,387

3,409 19,871 11,966 6,094 17,476 173,428

3,596 20,964 12,624 6,429 18,437 182,966

3,794 22,117 13,319 6,783 19,452 193,030

4,002 23,334 14,051 7,156 20,521 203,646

4,223 24,617 14,824 7,550 21,650 214,847

4,455 25,971 15,640 7,965 22,841 226,663

4,700 27,399 16,500 8,403 24,097 239,130

4,958 28,906 17,407 8,865 25,422 252,282

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3C: Motor Vehicle HC Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


5.5% Annual Increase Summary HC (TPY) HC TPY Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Totals 2003 949 285 36,529 5,059 241 622 3,076 1,566 4,492 52,820 HC TPY 2004 1,002 301 38,538 5,338 254 656 3,245 1,653 4,739 55,725 HC TPY 2005 1,057 317 40,658 5,631 268 692 3,423 1,743 5,000 58,790 HC TPY 2006 1,115 335 42,894 5,941 283 730 3,612 1,839 5,275 62,023 HC TPY 2007 1,176 353 45,253 6,268 298 771 3,810 1,941 5,565 65,435 HC TPY 2008 1,241 373 47,742 6,612 315 813 4,020 2,047 5,871 69,034 HC TPY 2009 1,309 393 50,368 6,976 332 858 4,241 2,160 6,194 72,830 HC TPY 2010 1,381 415 53,138 7,360 350 905 4,474 2,279 6,535 76,836 HC TPY 2011 1,457 437 56,061 7,764 370 955 4,720 2,404 6,894 81,062 HC TPY 2012 1,537 462 59,144 8,191 390 1,007 4,980 2,536 7,273 85,521 HC TPY 2013 1,622 487 62,397 8,642 411 1,063 5,254 2,676 7,673 90,224 HC TPY 2,014 1,711 514 65,829 9,117 434 1,121 5,543 2,823 8,095 95,186 5.5% Annual Increase

Final Report 55

Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 3D: Motor Vehicle NOX Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


Summary NOX (TPY) Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2Stroke Passenger CarsPetrol Passenger CarDiesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Totals 5.5% Annual Increase NOX NOX NOX TPY TPY TPY 2003 15 121 226 5,561 1,150 5,751 16,750 17,033 48,845 95,452 2004 16 128 238 5,867 1,213 6,068 17,672 17,970 51,531 100,702 2005 17 135 252 6,189 1,280 6,401 18,644 18,958 54,365 106,241 NOX TPY 2006 18 142 265 6,530 1,351 6,753 19,669 20,001 57,356 112,084 NOX TPY 2007 19 150 280 6,889 1,425 7,125 20,751 21,101 60,510 118,249 NOX TPY 2008 20 158 295 7,268 1,503 7,517 21,892 22,261 63,838 124,753 5.5% Annual Increase NOX NOX NOX TPY TPY TPY 2009 21 167 312 7,668 1,586 7,930 23,096 23,486 67,349 131,614 2010 22 176 329 8,089 1,673 8,366 24,366 24,777 71,054 138,853 2011 23 186 347 8,534 1,765 8,826 25,707 26,140 74,961 146,490 NOX TPY 2012 24 196 366 9,004 1,862 9,312 27,120 27,578 79,084 154,547 NOX TPY 2013 26 207 386 9,499 1,965 9,824 28,612 29,095 83,434 163,047 NOX TPY 2,014 27 218 407 10,021 2,073 10,364 30,186 30,695 88,023 172,014

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3E: Motor Vehicle All Pollutant Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


Summary: All Pollutants TPY Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger CarsPetrol Passenger CarDiesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Totals 2,003 2,337 1,422 99,496 2,004 2,465 1,501 104,968 2,005 2,601 1,583 110,741 2,006 2,744 1,670 116,832 2,007 2,895 1,762 123,258 2,008 3,054 1,859 130,037 2,009 3,222 1,961 137,189 2,010 3,399 2,069 144,734 2,011 3,586 2,183 152,694 2,012 3,783 2,303 161,093 2,013 3,991 2,430 169,953 2,014 4,211 2,563 179,300

39,818

42,008

44,319

46,756

49,328

52,041

54,903

57,923

61,109

64,470

68,015

71,756

4,517

4,766

5,028

5,304

5,596

5,904

6,229

6,571

6,933

7,314

7,716

8,141

23,849 32,015 26,095 74,832 304,382

25,161 33,776 27,530 78,948 321,123

26,545 35,634 29,044 83,290 338,784

28,005 37,593 30,642 87,871 357,418

29,545 39,661 32,327 92,704 377,075

31,170 41,842 34,105 97,803 397,815

32,884 44,144 35,981 103,182 419,694

34,693 46,572 37,960 108,857 442,778

36,601 49,133 40,048 114,844 467,130

38,614 51,835 42,250 121,160 492,823

40,738 54,686 44,574 127,824 519,928

42,978 57,694 47,026 134,854 548,524

Final Report 57

Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 3F: Motor Vehicle Paved Road Dust Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003
Projected Paved Road Dust Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Totals 5.5% Annual Increase 2003 3,287 4,450 4,326 23,463 537 2,423 2,871 1,170 3,355 45,881 2004 3,467 4,694 4,564 24,753 567 2,557 3,029 1,234 3,539 48,405 2005 3,658 4,953 4,815 26,115 598 2,697 3,196 1,302 3,734 51,067 2006 3,859 5,225 5,080 27,551 631 2,846 3,371 1,374 3,939 53,876 2007 4,071 5,512 5,360 29,066 666 3,002 3,557 1,449 4,156 56,839 2008 4,295 5,816 5,654 30,665 702 3,167 3,752 1,529 4,384 59,965 5.5% Annual Increase 2009 4,532 6,135 5,965 32,352 741 3,341 3,959 1,613 4,625 63,263 2010 4,781 6,473 6,293 34,131 782 3,525 4,177 1,702 4,880 66,743 2011 5,044 6,829 6,640 36,008 825 3,719 4,406 1,795 5,148 70,414 2012 5,321 7,204 7,005 37,989 870 3,924 4,649 1,894 5,431 74,286 2013 5,614 7,601 7,390 40,078 918 4,139 4,904 1,998 5,730 78,372 2,014 5,923 8,019 7,797 42,282 968 4,367 5,174 2,108 6,045 82,683

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3G: Industry RPM Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


Summary RPM (TPY) Source Type Power Plants - Coal Brick Kilns Bakeries Ceramics Dye & Bleaching Restaurants Battery Mfg Paper Products Rubber Products Foundry Totals 2003 934 1,177 200 17 19 117 784 65 16 3,244 6,571 2004 990 1248 212 18 20 124 831 69 17 3439 6,966 2005 1,058 1,334 226 19 21 133 888 73 18 3,676 7,446 2006 1,131 1,414 240 20 22 141 942 78 19 3,896 7,903 2007 1,199 1,498 254 21 24 149 998 82 21 4,130 8,377 6.0% Growth Rate per Year 2008 1,271 1,588 269 22 25 158 1,058 87 22 4,378 8,880 2009 1,347 1,684 286 24 27 167 1,122 93 23 4,641 9,412 2010 1,428 1,785 303 25 28 177 1,189 98 24 4,919 9,977 2011 1,514 1,892 321 27 30 188 1,260 104 26 5,214 10,576 2012 1,605 2,005 340 28 32 199 1,336 110 27 5,527 11,210 2013 1,701 2,126 361 30 34 211 1,416 117 29 5,859 11,883 2,014 1,803 2,253 382 32 36 224 1,501 124 31 6,210 12,596

Final Report 59

Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 3H: Industry NOX Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


Source Type Power Plants - Coal Brick Kilns Bakeries Ceramics Dye & Bleaching Restaurants Battery Mfg Paper Products Rubber Products Foundry Totals 2003 32,232 N/A 10 44 10 44 547 285 4 1,031 34,208 2004 34166 N/A 10 47 11 47 580 302 5 1093 36,260 2005 36,524 N/A 11 50 11 50 620 323 5 1,169 38,762 2006 38,715 N/A 11 53 12 53 657 343 5 1,239 41,088 2007 41,038 N/A 12 56 13 56 696 363 6 1,313 43,553 2008 43,500 N/A 13 60 13 59 738 385 6 1,392 46,166 2009 46,111 N/A 14 63 14 63 782 408 6 1,475 48,936 2010 48,877 N/A 14 67 15 67 829 433 7 1,564 51,872 2011 51,810 N/A 15 71 16 71 879 458 7 1,658 54,985 2012 54,918 N/A 16 75 17 75 932 486 7 1,757 58,284 2013 58,213 N/A 17 80 18 79 988 515 8 1,862 61,781 2,014 61,706 N/A 18 84 19 84 1,047 546 8 1,974 65,488

Table 3I: Industry SOX Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


Source Type Power Plants - Coal Brick Kilns Bakeries Ceramics Dye & Bleaching Restaurants Battery Mfg Paper Products Rubber Products Foundry Totals 2003 9,964 N/A 0 4 155 5 970 1,083 59 139 12,378 2004 10561 N/A 0 4 165 5 1028 1148 62 147 13,121 2005 11,290 N/A 0 5 176 5 1,099 1,227 66 158 14,026 2006 11,968 N/A 0 5 187 6 1,165 1,301 70 167 14,868 2007 12,686 N/A 0 5 198 6 1,235 1,379 75 177 15,760 2008 13,447 N/A 0 5 210 6 1,309 1,462 79 188 16,706 2009 14,254 N/A 0 6 222 7 1,387 1,549 84 199 17,708 2010 15,109 N/A 0 6 236 7 1,471 1,642 89 211 18,771 2011 16,015 N/A 0 6 250 8 1,559 1,741 94 224 19,897 2012 16,976 N/A 0 7 265 8 1,652 1,845 100 237 21,091 2013 17,995 N/A 0 7 281 9 1,752 1,956 106 251 22,356 2,014 19,075 N/A 0 8 297 9 1,857 2,073 112 266 23,697

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3J: Area Source RPM Emissions, Uncontrolled 2003


Summary RPM (TPY) Source Type 2003 Trains Slum Cooking Open Burning Hot Mix Plants Totals 163 1,211 4,388 810 6,573 2004 173 1284 4652 859 6,967 2005 183 1,361 4,931 910 7,385 2006 194 1,443 5,227 965 7,828 2007 206 1,529 5,540 1,023 8,298 6% Growth Rate 2008 2009 2010 218 1,621 5,873 1,084 8,796 231 1,719 6,225 1,149 9,323 245 1,822 6,598 1,218 9,883 2011 260 1,931 6,994 1,291 10,476 2012 275 2,047 7,414 1,368 11,104 2013 292 2,170 7,859 1,451 11,771 2,014 309 2,300 8,330 1,538 12,477

Table 3K: Summary of RPM Emissions from All Sources, Uncontrolled


RPM Emissions (TPY) Source Type Motor Vehicles Road Dust Industry Area Sources Totals 2003 16,115 45,881 6,571 6,573 75,141 2004 17,002 48,405 6,966 6,967 79,339 2005 17,937 51,067 7,446 7,385 83,835 2006 18,923 53,876 7,903 7,828 88,530 2007 19,964 56,839 8,377 8,298 93,478 2008 21,062 59,965 8,880 8,796 98,702 2009 22,220 63,263 9,412 9,323 104,219 2010 23,443 66,743 9,977 9,883 110,045 2011 24,732 70,414 10,576 10,476 116,197 2012 26,092 74,286 11,210 11,104 122,693 2013 27,527 78,372 11,883 11,771 129,553 2,014 29,041 82,683 12,596 12,477 136,796

Table 3L: Summary of NOX Emission from All Sources, Uncontrolled


Source Type Motor Vehicles Road Dust Industry Area Sources Totals 2003 95,452 0 34,208 0 129,660 2004 100,702 0 36,260 0 136,962 2005 106,241 0 38,762 0 145,003 2006 112,084 0 41,088 0 153,172 2007 118,249 0 43,553 0 161,802 2008 124,753 0 46,166 0 170,919 2009 131,614 0 48,936 0 180,550 2010 138,853 0 51,872 0 190,725 2011 146,490 0 54,985 0 201,474 2012 154,547 0 58,284 0 212,830 2013 163,047 0 61,781 0 224,827 2,014 172,014 0 65,488 0 237,502

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Volume V : Air Quality Management

Source of RPM 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Power Plants - Coal Brick Kilns Bakeries Ceramics Dye & Bleaching Restaurants Battery Mfg Paper Products Rubber Products Foundries Trains Slum Cooking Open Burning Hot Mix Plants Road Dust (All Vehicles) Total

2003 41 23 1,522 225 375 1,435 2,529 2,576 7,388 934 1,177 200 17 19 117 784 65 16 3,244 163 1,211 4,388 810 45,881 75,141

Table 3M: Controlled RPM Emission Projections 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 43 46 48 51 54 57 60 24 25 27 28 30 31 33 43 46 35 25 0 0 0 237 250 264 278 294 310 327 396 417 440 464 490 517 545 1,514 1,598 1,603 1,696 1,789 1,888 1,992 2,669 2,815 2,678 2,529 2,629 2,717 2,794 2,718 2,868 2,976 3,092 3,263 3,442 3,631 7,795 8,223 8,527 9,004 9,441 9,847 10,224 990 1,058 836 1,199 1,271 1,347 1,428 1,248 1,334 1,414 15 16 17 18 212 226 240 32 34 36 38 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 20 21 22 3 3 3 4 124 133 141 149 158 167 177 831 888 118 125 132 140 149 69 73 78 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 3 3 3 3 3,439 3,676 2,599 2,755 2,921 3,096 3,282 173 183 194 206 218 231 245 1,284 1,361 1,443 1,529 1,621 1,719 1,822 4,652 4,931 5,227 0 0 0 0 859 910 965 1,023 1,084 1,149 1,218 48,405 51,067 44,026 39,012 33,312 18,592 19,614 77,776 82,186 73,922 63,252 58,798 45,348 47,644

2011 63 35 0 345 575 2,101 2,859 3,831 10,573 1,514 19 40 27 4 188 158 17 3 3,479 260 1,931 0 1,291 20,693 50,005

2012 66 37 0 364 607 2,217 2,933 4,042 10,897 1,605 20 43 28 4 199 167 18 4 3,687 275 2,047 0 1,368 21,831 52,458

2013 70 39 0 384 640 2,339 3,017 4,264 11,253 1,701 21 45 30 4 211 177 19 4 3,909 292 2,170 0 1,451 23,032 55,071

2,014 74 41 0 405 676 2,467 3,111 4,498 11,646 1,803 23 48 32 4 224 188 20 4 4,143 309 2,300 0 1,538 24,299 57,852

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3N: Kolkata Industrial Survey Summary & Emissions


Facility Name Ja Ma Kali Bakery Mandal Biscuit Co. Nandan Bakery & Biscuit Sonali Food Products Average Allied Ceramics Pvt. Ltd India Potteries Ltd Replica Ceramics Techno Ceramics India TME Potteries UCO Ceramics Average Arya Udyog Sangha Dychem Process Empire Dye & Bleaching India Steam Laundry Pvt. Average Electro Steel Casing ICT Ltd. Paper Division Small Scale Industry Class Bakery Bakery Bakery Bakery Annual Production TPY 20 1950 45 750 691.25 Ceramics Ceramics Ceramics Ceramics Ceramics Ceramics 3600 3600 100 325 138 300 1344 350 350 300 300 325 Foundry 200,750 T/Yr Process & Fuel Coal LDO LDO LDO LDO LDO LDO Fuel Wood LDO Wood LDO Fuel Used (TPY) 12.0 63.0 18.0 25.6 29.7 648.0 666.0 43.0 61.0 95.0 129.0 273.7 200.0 210.0 34.0 68.4 128.1 184M CuM 192720.0
Final Report 63

SCC No. 39000989 39000589 39000989 39000589

Emission Controls None None None None

SPM TPY 2.73 0.13 0.04 0.05 0.74

RPM TPY 2.28 0.10 0.03 0.04 0.61 1.05 1.08 0.01 0.10 0.16 0.21 0.43 0.33 0.14 0.06 0.11 0.16 58.98

SOX TPY 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.29 0.29 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.11 0.00 5.18 0.00 0.00 1.29 2.53

NOX TPY 0.03 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.03 3.28 3.28 0.02 0.01 0.27 0.11 1.16 0.15 0.11 0.03 0.05 0.08 18.75

CO TPY 0.01 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.04 5.40 5.40 0.02 0.21 0.45 0.09 1.93 0.11 0.12 0.02 0.04 0.07 4.11

30500850 30500850 30500850 30500850 30500850 30500850

None None None None None None

1.32 1.35 0.02 0.12 0.19 0.26 0.54 0.41 0.16 0.07 0.13 0.19

Dye & Bleach Dye & Bleach Dye & Bleach Dye & Bleach

LDO Furnace Oil LDO LDO

10200501 10200504 10200501 10200501

None None None None

30300814

0.9

314.30

Paper Products

24,000 T/Yr

10200202

None

78.43

64.73

1083.08

285.23

160.73

Volume V : Air Quality Management

Facility Name

Small Scale Industry Class Restaurant Restaurant Restaurant Restaurant Restaurant Restaurant Restaurant

Annual Production TPY 92 seats 185 seats 12 seats 144 seats 24 seats 24 seats 25 seats 72 seats

Fuel

Fuel Used (TPY) 4.0 6.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 2.0 1.5 3.8

SCC No.

Emission Controls

SPM TPY

RPM TPY

SOX TPY

NOX TPY

CO TPY

AB Dill Dunbar ABCO Enterprises Arabindo Ghosh Restaurant Golden City Restaurant Ma Annapurna Hindu Hotel Momo Hut Restaurant Sweet N' Sour Restaurant Average Ashok Rubber Industries Was Rubber Industries Average Exide Industries

LPG LPG Coal LPG Coal LPG LPG

39001089 39001089 39000289 39001089 39000289 39001089 39001089

None None None None None None None

0.01 0.00 1.62 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.23

0.01 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.09 0.06 0.07 6.03

0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.52 0.00 0.26 7.46

0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.30 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.02 4.21

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.00 0.49 0.12 0.03 0.00 0.02 4.41

Rubber Products Rubber Products

120000 1200 60600

LDO LDO

54.0 34.5 44.3

10200501 10200501

None None

0.11 0.07 0.09

Sec. Pb Smelting

7,200,000 Plates/Yr

Furnace Oil

2625.0

Multiple

None

7.02

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3O: Summary of Kolkata Small Scale Industry Emissions


Average Annual Source Group Bakeries Ceramics Dye & Bleaching Restaurants Battery Mfg Paper Products Rubber Products Foundry Production TPY 691 1344 325 72 seats 72,000,000 plates 24,000 60,000 200,750 Average TPY Emissions per Source SPM 0.74 0.54 0.19 0.23 7.02 78.43 0.09 314.3 RPM 0.61 0.43 0.16 0.14 6.03 64.73 0.07 58.98 Sox 0.00 0.11 1.29 0.01 7.46 1083.08 0.26 2.53 Nox 0.03 1.16 0.08 0.05 4.21 285.23 0.02 18.75 CO 0.04 1.93 0.07 0.12 4.41 160.73 0.02 4.11 Number Sources 325 38 120 857 130 1 224 55 Total Emissions per Source Class SPM 239.8 20.7 23.1 200.3 912.7 78.4 20.3 17,286.5 RPM 199.6 16.5 18.7 117.0 784.0 64.7 16.1 3,243.9 Sox 0.0 4.0 155.4 4.8 969.8 1,083.1 58.6 139.2 Nox 9.5 44.1 10.0 44.0 546.8 285.2 4.4 1,031.3 CO 12.7 73.2 8.7 104.4 573.6 160.7 3.5 226.1

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Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 3P: Kolkata Video Survey Vehicle Counts, February 2005


Kolkata Video Survey Data: Vehicle Counts ND=No Data Road Type Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Highway Highway Highway Highway Time 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 0100 0200 0300 840 654 633 555 348 210 174 357 603 1535 578 879 3135 831 891 3797 885 Vehicles/ Hour 300 84 150 48 165 234 498 528 Cars & Taxis 201 39 42 9 48 63 144 153 ND 80 779 264 207 1854 396 462 3249 516 ND ND 555 420 357 411 159 48 54 54 Number of Vehicles Counted per Hour 3Wheelers 0 0 0 0 3 9 36 42 ND 357 0 51 345 96 18 54 0 0 ND ND 30 12 6 9 9 0 0 9 2Wheelers 18 0 6 0 0 0 21 21 ND 81 101 147 159 461 198 162 539 222 ND ND 129 99 66 57 12 12 3 3 Large Buses 0 0 3 0 6 15 66 81 ND 51 398 59 96 351 111 132 3 114 ND ND 60 45 36 3 18 3 3 12 Small Buses 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 ND 9 257 14 33 177 27 42 3 24 ND ND 24 12 15 3 3 15 3 3 Small Trucks 39 9 24 6 42 36 111 120 ND 9 2 21 18 177 39 39 0 6 ND ND 30 48 87 30 42 36 33 48 Large Trucks 39 36 75 33 66 111 120 96 ND 17 0 23 21 20 42 0 3 3 ND ND 12 18 66 42 105 96 78 228 Cars & Taxis 67 13 14 3 16 21 48 51 ND 27 260 88 69 618 132 154 1083 172 ND ND 185 140 119 137 53 16 18 18 Number of Vehicles Counted per 20-Minute Survey 3Wheelers 0 0 0 0 1 3 12 14 ND 119 0 17 115 32 6 18 0 0 ND ND 10 4 2 3 3 0 0 3 2Wheelers 6 0 2 0 0 0 7 7 ND 27 34 49 53 154 66 54 180 74 ND ND 43 33 22 19 4 4 1 1 Large Buses 0 0 1 0 2 5 22 27 ND 17 133 20 32 117 37 44 1 38 ND ND 20 15 12 1 6 1 1 4 Small Buses 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 ND 3 86 5 11 59 9 14 1 8 ND ND 8 4 5 1 1 5 1 1 Small Trucks 13 3 8 2 14 12 37 40 ND 3 1 7 6 59 13 13 0 2 ND ND 10 16 29 10 14 12 11 16 Large Trucks 13 12 25 11 22 37 40 32 ND 6 0 8 7 7 14 0 1 1 ND ND 4 6 22 14 35 32 26 76

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Kolkata Video Survey Data: Vehicle Counts ND=No Data Road Type Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Time 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 498 408 536 1212 882 801 498 270 84 93 90 96 1731 3953 1367 881 2271 2682 846 3765 Vehicles/ Hour 351 453 702 780 Cars & Taxis 84 99 102 177 ND ND 369 2307 ND 873 2820 1028 483 1767 1955 ND 417 339 342 189 174 0 48 36 66 ND 144 72 123 Number of Vehicles Counted per Hour 3Wheelers 3 18 57 60 ND ND 57 285 ND 57 48 80 35 6 347 ND 117 96 84 3 0 48 0 0 0 ND 36 186 215 2Wheelers 9 12 18 111 ND ND 114 867 ND 305 759 140 204 324 353 ND 267 165 168 27 24 6 0 9 3 ND 21 84 116 Large Buses 18 27 123 141 ND ND 129 210 ND 111 173 41 143 96 14 ND 84 42 27 12 9 3 3 0 0 ND 66 39 54 Small Buses 3 3 27 36 ND ND 30 51 ND 30 48 74 15 21 12 ND 15 24 12 3 6 3 3 0 0 ND 0 18 24 Small Trucks 81 78 132 120 ND ND 81 36 ND 278 105 6 2 45 3 ND 150 108 39 63 21 3 15 27 9 ND 111 0 3 Large Trucks 153 216 243 135 ND ND 66 9 ND 78 0 0 0 12 0 ND 162 108 129 201 36 21 24 18 18 ND 120 9 2 Cars & Taxis 28 33 34 59 ND ND 123 769 ND 291 940 343 161 589 652 ND 139 113 114 63 58 0 16 12 22 ND 48 24 41 Number of Vehicles Counted per 20-Minute Survey 3Wheelers 1 6 19 20 ND ND 19 95 ND 19 16 27 12 2 116 ND 39 32 28 1 0 16 0 0 0 ND 12 62 72 2Wheelers 3 4 6 37 ND ND 38 289 ND 102 253 47 68 108 118 ND 89 55 56 9 8 2 0 3 1 ND 7 28 39 Large Buses 6 9 41 47 ND ND 43 70 ND 37 58 14 48 32 5 ND 28 14 9 4 3 1 1 0 0 ND 22 13 18 Small Buses 1 1 9 12 ND ND 10 17 ND 10 16 25 5 7 4 ND 5 8 4 1 2 1 1 0 0 ND 0 6 8 Small Trucks 27 26 44 40 ND ND 27 12 ND 93 35 2 1 15 1 ND 50 36 13 21 7 1 5 9 3 ND 37 0 1 Large Trucks 51 72 81 45 ND ND 22 3 ND 26 0 0 0 4 0 ND 54 36 43 67 12 7 8 6 6 ND 40 3 1

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Volume V : Air Quality Management

Kolkata Video Survey Data: Vehicle Counts ND=No Data Road Type Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Time 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 1824 1572 1407 594 17,822 24,263 16,896 58,980 1535 426 893 1230 510 Vehicles/ Hour 1530 858 1158 1286 Cars & Taxis 984 234 660 501 ND 896 233 513 702 309 ND 1137 960 912 411 10,248 13,665 9,114 33,027 Number of Vehicles Counted per Hour 3Wheelers 261 378 66 491 ND 143 95 137 159 78 ND 141 144 93 9 1,068 1,370 2,678 5,115 2Wheelers 207 105 342 191 ND 305 53 158 225 102 ND 330 264 240 90 2,486 3,872 2,873 9,230 Large Buses 51 81 39 68 ND 74 29 38 51 12 ND 114 87 78 18 1,629 1,425 912 3,966 Small Buses 9 48 6 27 ND 41 8 38 33 6 ND 15 15 0 0 657 428 299 1,383 Small Trucks 15 9 24 6 ND 47 9 9 30 0 ND 57 36 27 30 893 1,485 488 2,865 Large Trucks 3 3 21 3 ND 32 2 2 30 3 ND 30 66 57 36 842 2,019 534 3,395 Cars & Taxis 328 78 220 167 ND 299 78 171 234 103 ND 379 320 304 137 3,416 4,555 3,038 11,009 Number of Vehicles Counted per 20-Minute Survey 3Wheelers 87 126 22 164 ND 48 32 46 53 26 ND 47 48 31 3 356 457 893 2Wheelers 69 35 114 64 ND 102 18 53 75 34 ND 110 88 80 30 829 1,291 958 Large Buses 17 27 13 23 ND 25 10 13 17 4 ND 38 29 26 6 543 475 304 Small Buses 3 16 2 9 ND 14 3 13 11 2 ND 5 5 0 0 219 143 100 Small Trucks 5 3 8 2 ND 16 3 3 10 0 ND 19 12 9 10 298 495 163 Large Trucks 1 1 7 1 ND 11 1 1 10 1 ND 10 22 19 12 281 673 178

Overall Arterial Totals Overall Highway Average Overall Resid-Coml Average Overall Kolkata Fleet Count

Final Report 68

Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3Q: Kolkata Video Survey Vehicle as Percentage of Hourly Count, February 2005
ND=No Data Road Type Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Arterial Highway Highway Time 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 0100 840 654 633 555 348 210 603 1535 578 879 3135 831 891 3797 885 Vehicles/ Hour 300 84 150 48 165 234 498 528 Cars & Taxis 67.0% 46.4% 28.0% 18.8% 29.1% 26.9% 28.9% 29.0% ND 13.2% 50.7% 45.7% 23.5% 59.1% 47.7% 51.9% 85.6% 58.3% ND ND 66.1% 64.2% 56.4% 74.1% 45.7% 22.9% 3Wheelers 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 3.8% 7.2% 8.0% ND 59.2% 0.0% 8.8% 39.2% 3.1% 2.2% 6.1% 0.0% 0.0% ND ND 3.6% 1.8% 0.9% 1.6% 2.6% 0.0% Final Report 69 2Wheeler s 6.0% 0.0% 4.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.2% 4.0% ND 13.4% 6.5% 25.5% 18.1% 14.7% 23.8% 18.2% 14.2% 25.1% ND ND 15.4% 15.1% 10.4% 10.3% 3.4% 5.7% Percent of Vehicles per Hour Large Buses 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.0% 3.6% 6.4% 13.3% 15.3% ND 8.5% 25.9% 10.1% 10.9% 11.2% 13.4% 14.8% 0.1% 12.9% ND ND 7.1% 6.9% 5.7% 0.5% 5.2% 1.4% Small Buses 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.8% ND 1.5% 16.7% 2.3% 3.8% 5.6% 3.2% 4.7% 0.1% 2.7% ND ND 2.9% 1.8% 2.4% 0.5% 0.9% 7.1% Small Trucks 13.0% 10.7% 16.0% 12.5% 25.5% 15.4% 22.3% 22.7% ND 1.5% 0.1% 3.6% 2.0% 5.6% 4.7% 4.4% 0.0% 0.7% ND ND 3.6% 7.3% 13.7% 5.4% 12.1% 17.1% Large Trucks 13.0% 42.9% 50.0% 68.8% 40.0% 47.4% 24.1% 18.2% ND 2.7% 0.0% 3.9% 2.4% 0.6% 5.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% ND ND 1.4% 2.8% 10.4% 7.6% 30.2% 45.7%

Volume V : Air Quality Management ND=No Data Road Type Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Highway Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Time 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 0000 0100 0200 0300 0400 1212 882 801 498 270 84 93 90 96 1731 3953 1367 881 2271 2682 846 3765 Vehicles/ Hour 174 357 351 453 702 780 Cars & Taxis 31.0% 15.1% 23.9% 21.9% 14.5% 22.7% ND ND 43.6% 61.3% ND 50.4% 71.3% 75.2% 54.9% 77.8% 72.9% ND 34.4% 38.4% 42.7% 38.0% 64.4% 0.0% 51.6% 40.0% 68.8% 3Wheelers 0.0% 2.5% 0.9% 4.0% 8.1% 7.7% ND ND 6.7% 7.6% ND 3.3% 1.2% 5.8% 3.9% 0.3% 12.9% ND 9.7% 10.9% 10.5% 0.6% 0.0% 57.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Final Report 70 13.5% 23.0% ND 17.6% 19.2% 10.2% 23.2% 14.3% 13.1% ND 22.0% 18.7% 21.0% 5.4% 8.9% 7.1% 0.0% 10.0% 3.1% 2Wheeler s 1.7% 0.8% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 14.2% ND ND Percent of Vehicles per Hour Large Buses 1.7% 3.4% 5.1% 6.0% 17.5% 18.1% ND ND 15.2% 5.6% ND 6.4% 4.4% 3.0% 16.2% 4.2% 0.5% ND 6.9% 4.8% 3.4% 2.4% 3.3% 3.6% 3.2% 0.0% 0.0% Small Buses 1.7% 0.8% 0.9% 0.7% 3.8% 4.6% ND ND 3.5% 1.4% ND 1.7% 1.2% 5.4% 1.7% 0.9% 0.4% ND 1.2% 2.7% 1.5% 0.6% 2.2% 3.6% 3.2% 0.0% 0.0% Small Trucks 19.0% 13.4% 23.1% 17.2% 18.8% 15.4% ND ND 9.6% 1.0% ND 16.0% 2.7% 0.4% 0.2% 2.0% 0.1% ND 12.4% 12.2% 4.9% 12.7% 7.8% 3.6% 16.1% 30.0% 9.4% Large Trucks 44.8% 63.9% 43.6% 47.7% 34.6% 17.3% ND ND 7.8% 0.2% ND 4.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% ND 13.4% 12.2% 16.1% 40.4% 13.3% 25.0% 25.8% 20.0% 18.8%

Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND ND=No Data Road Type Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Resident. Time 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 1824 1572 1407 594 17,822 24,263 16,896 58,980 % Count 30.2% 41.1% Cars 17.4% 23.2% 3-Wheel 1.8% 2.3% 2-Wheel 4.2% 6.6% Lrg Bus 2.8% 2.4% Sm Bus 1.1% 0.7% Sm Truck 1.5% 2.5% Lrg Truck 1.4% 3.4% 1535 426 893 1230 510 498 408 536 1530 858 1158 1286 Vehicles/ Hour Cars & Taxis ND 28.9% 17.6% 23.0% 64.3% 27.3% 57.0% 39.0% ND 58.4% 54.6% 57.5% 57.1% 60.6% ND 62.3% 61.1% 64.8% 69.2% 57.5% 56.3% 53.9% 3Wheelers ND 7.2% 45.6% 40.1% 17.1% 44.1% 5.7% 38.2% ND 9.3% 22.2% 15.3% 12.9% 15.3% ND 7.7% 9.2% 6.6% 1.5% 6.0% 5.6% 15.8% 2Wheeler s ND 4.2% 20.6% 21.6% 13.5% 12.2% 29.5% 14.8% ND 19.8% 12.3% 17.6% 18.3% 20.0% ND 18.1% 16.8% 17.1% 15.2% 13.9% 16.0% 17.0% Percent of Vehicles per Hour Large Buses ND 13.3% 9.6% 10.1% 3.3% 9.4% 3.4% 5.3% ND 4.8% 6.7% 4.2% 4.1% 2.4% ND 6.3% 5.5% 5.5% 3.0% 9.1% 5.9% 5.4% Small Buses ND 0.0% 4.4% 4.5% 0.6% 5.6% 0.5% 2.1% ND 2.6% 1.8% 4.2% 2.7% 1.2% ND 0.8% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 3.7% 1.8% 1.8% Small Trucks ND 22.3% 0.0% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 2.1% 0.5% ND 3.0% 2.1% 1.0% 2.4% 0.0% ND 3.1% 2.3% 1.9% 5.1% 5.0% 6.1% 2.9% Large Trucks ND 24.1% 2.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 1.8% 0.2% ND 2.1% 0.4% 0.2% 2.4% 0.6% ND 1.6% 4.2% 4.1% 6.1% 4.7% 8.3% 3.2%

Overall Arterial Average Overall Highway Average Overall Resid-Coml Average Total Count Kolkata Fleet Summary % Traffic on Arterials % Traffic on Highways

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Volume V : Air Quality Management ND=No Data Road Type Time Vehicles/ Hour 28.6% 100.0% Cars & Taxis 15.5% 56.0% 3Wheelers 4.5% 8.7% 2Wheeler s 4.9% 15.6% Percent of Vehicles per Hour Large Buses 1.5% 6.7% Small Buses 0.5% 2.3% Small Trucks 0.8% 4.9% Large Trucks 0.9% 5.8%

% Traffic on Resid-Coml Overall Kolkata Wt. %

THE OVERALL KOLKATA WT % VALUES ABOVE WERE USED IN THE EMISSION CALCUALTIONS TO APPORTION VEHICLE TYPES Overall Kolkata Fleet Distribution Weighted by % Traffic on Each Type of Roadway. 2-Wheeler 3-Wheeler Cars & Taxis Large Bus Large Truck Small Bus Small Truck 15.6% 8.7% 56.0% 6.7% 5.8% 2.3% 4.9%

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3R: Kolkata Vehicle Fleet Model Inputs


By % Fleet Vehicle Type No.Vehicles Km/day % of Fleet 24.2 11.5 130 100 100 100 80 56.0% 15.6% 8.7% 2.3% 6.7% 4.9% 5.8% 100.0% Km/Day 14,556,968 1,933,136 12,110,873 2,518,887 7,223,358 5,218,084 4,945,979 48,507,285 5.31E+09 7.06E+08 4.42E+09 9.19E+08 2.64E+09 1.90E+09 1.81E+09 1.59E+10 Video Survey Km/Yr

Passenger Cars 2-Wheelers 3-Wheelers Small Buses Large Buses Small Trucks Large Trucks TOTAL

601,528 168,099 93,161 25,189 72,234 52,181 61,825 1,074,215

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Table 3S: Kolkata Vehicle Fleet Emissions by Vehicle Type & Age Class Tailpipe Only, 2003
Vehicle-Type & Model Year Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 70,770 Model Year < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 95,816 166,586 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke 93,161 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 PM g/km 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.15 0.08 CPCB Emission Factors CO g/km 6.50 6.50 6.50 4.00 2.20 1.40 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.60 2.20 1.40 14.00 14.00 14.00 8.60 4.30 HC g/km 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.30 2.13 1.32 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.70 8.30 8.30 8.30 7.00 2.05 NOx g/km 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.11 66,796 11,878 11,878 2,608 0 130.0 130.0 130.0 130.0 130.0 3.169E+09 5.636E+08 5.636E+08 1.238E+08 0.000E+00 1,109 197 197 19 0 44,373 7,891 7,891 1,064 0 26,307 4,678 4,678 866 0 158 28 28 11 0 6.9% 1.2% 1.2% 0.1% 0.0% 31.7% 5.6% 5.6% 0.8% 0.0% 49.8% 8.9% 8.9% 1.6% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2,802 2,802 2,802 47,908 39,503 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 1.176E+07 1.176E+07 1.176E+07 2.011E+08 1.658E+08 1 1 1 12 8 35 35 35 523 365 9 9 9 141 116 4 4 4 60 50 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% No. Vehicles 9,582 9,582 9,582 21,012 21,012 Fleet Data Km/Day 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 Annual Km 4.022E+07 4.022E+07 4.022E+07 8.820E+07 8.820E+07 PM 9.25 9.25 9.25 8.82 4.41 Emissions (TPY) % CO 261 261 261 353 194 HC 157 157 157 291 188 NOX PM 1 1 1 5 6 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% CO 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% HC 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% NOX 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% % Contributions to Total Emissions % % %

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND
Vehicle-Type & Model Year Vehicle Type Model Year 20062010 Passenger CarsPetrol 505,187 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 Passenger Car-Diesel 96,340 601,528 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 Small Trucks (LCV) 52,181 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 PM g/km 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.42 0.07 0.05 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.50 0.20 0.07

CPCB Emission Factors CO g/km 2.45 9.80 9.80 9.80 3.90 1.98 1.39 7.30 7.30 7.30 1.20 0.90 0.58 8.70 8.70 8.70 6.90 5.10 0.72 HC g/km 0.75 1.70 1.70 1.70 0.80 0.25 0.15 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.13 0.05 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.28 0.14 0.06 NOx g/km 0.12 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.10 0.20 0.12 2.77 2.77 2.77 0.69 0.50 0.45 3.15 3.15 3.15 2.49 1.28 0.59 41,432 5,375 0 2,687 2,687 6,733 10,924 16,173 27,583 34,927 99,473 78,855 83,175 122,349 121,336 No. Vehicles

Fleet Data Km/Day Annual Km PM

Emissions (TPY) % CO HC NOX PM

% Contributions to Total Emissions % CO % HC % NOX

24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2

8.786E+08 6.965E+08 7.347E+08 1.081E+09 1.072E+09

53 42 44 54 32

8,611 6,826 7,200 4,215 2,122

1,494 1,184 1,249 865 268

1,582 1,254 1,322 1,189 214

0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2%

6.2% 4.9% 5.1% 3.0% 1.5%

2.8% 2.2% 2.4% 1.6% 0.5%

1.7% 1.3% 1.4% 1.2% 0.2%

24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2

5.947E+07 9.649E+07 1.429E+08 2.436E+08 3.085E+08

50 81 120 102 22

434 704 1,043 292 278

22 36 53 90 40

165 267 396 168 154

0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.1%

0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.2% 0.2%

0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1%

0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2%

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

1.512E+09 1.962E+08 0.000E+00 9.809E+07 9.809E+07

1,210 157 0 49 20

13,157 1,707 0 677 500

514 67 0 27 14

4,764 618 0 244 126

7.5% 1.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.1%

9.4% 1.2% 0.0% 0.5% 0.4%

1.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0%

5.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.3% 0.1%

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Vehicle-Type & Model Year Vehicle Type Large Trucks 61,825 Model Year < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 Buses Small 25,189 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 BusesLarge 72,234 < 1986 19861990 19911995 19962000 20012005 20062010 Totals PM g/km 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.80 0.28 0.12 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.60 0.56 0.24 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.60 0.56 0.24

CPCB Emission Factors CO g/km 5.50 5.50 5.50 4.50 3.60 3.20 5.50 5.50 5.50 4.50 3.60 3.20 5.50 5.50 5.50 4.50 3.60 3.20 HC g/km 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.21 0.87 0.87 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.21 0.87 0.87 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.21 0.87 0.87 NOx g/km 9.50 9.50 9.50 8.40 6.30 5.50 19.00 19.00 19.00 16.80 12.00 11.00 19.00 19.00 19.00 16.80 12.00 11.00 1,072,702 57,353 7,440 0 3,720 3,720 20,000 2,594 0 1,297 1,297 No. Vehicles 49,089 6,368 0 3,184 3,184

Fleet Data Km/Day 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 Annual Km 1.433E+09 1.859E+08 0.000E+00 9.297E+07 9.297E+07 PM 2,150 279 0 74 26

Emissions (TPY) % CO 7,884 1,023 0 418 335 HC 2,551 331 0 112 81 NOX PM 13,617 1,766 0 781 586

% Contributions to Total Emissions % CO 5.6% 0.7% 0.0% 0.3% 0.2% % HC 4.8% 0.6% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% % NOX 14.3% 1.9% 0.0% 0.8% 0.6%

13.3% 1.7% 0.0% 0.5% 0.2%

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

7.300E+08 9.470E+07 0.000E+00 4.735E+07 4.735E+07

2,190 284 0 76 27

4,015 521 0 213 170

1,299 169 0 57 41

13,870 1,799 0 795 568

13.6% 1.8% 0.0% 0.5% 0.2%

2.9% 0.4% 0.0% 0.2% 0.1%

2.5% 0.3% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1%

14.5% 1.9% 0.0% 0.8% 0.6%

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

2.093E+09 2.716E+08 0.000E+00 1.358E+08 1.358E+08

6,280 815 0 217 76

11,514 1,494 0 611 489

3,726 483 0 164 118

39,775 5,160 0 2,281 1,629

39.0% 5.1% 0.0% 1.3% 0.5%

8.2% 1.1% 0.0% 0.4% 0.3%

7.1% 0.9% 0.0% 0.3% 0.2%

41.7% 5.4% 0.0% 2.4% 1.7%

17,698,808,591

16,115

139,994

52,820

95,452

100%

100%

100%

100%

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Table 3T: Summary of Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions, 2003 (Metric Tons per Year)
Vehicle Type 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Small Trucks - Large Buses - Small Buses - Large Totals RPM 40.98 23 1,522 225 375 1,435 2,529 2,576 7,388 16,115 CO 1,331 993 61,218 28,973 2,751 16,040 9,659 4,919 14,107 139,994 HC 949 285 36,529 5,059 241 622 3,076 1,566 4,492 52,820 NOx 15 121 226 5,561 1,150 5,751 16,750 17,033 48,845 95,452 Totals 2,337 1,422 99,496 39,818 4,517 23,849 32,015 26,095 74,832 % RPM 0.3% 0.1% 9.4% 1.4% 2.3% 8.9% 15.7% 16.0% 45.8% 100.0% % CO 1.0% 0.7% 43.7% 20.7% 2.0% 11.5% 6.9% 3.5% 10.1% 100.0% % HC 1.8% 0.5% 69.2% 9.6% 0.5% 1.2% 5.8% 3.0% 8.5% 100.0% % NOx 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 5.8% 1.2% 6.0% 17.5% 17.8% 51.2% 100.0%

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Volume V : Air Quality Management

Table 3U: Kolkata Paved Road Dust Silt Loading Data


Date of Collection Arterials 12.02.2005 12.02.2005 20.03.2005 20.03.2005 20.03.2005 27.02.2005 27.02.2005 27.02.2005 27.02.2005 27.02.2005 27.02.2005 Highways 13.02.2005 13.02.2006 13.02.2007 13.02.2009 13.02.2011 8:30 AM 10.10 AM 10.50 AM 1.15 PM 2.55 PM 90 100 125 150 300 H-1-2 H-1-3 H-1-4 H-2-3 H-3-1 B.T.Road : ShyambazarDunlop B.T.Road : ShyambazarDunlop B.T.Road : ShyambazarDunlop Kestopur-Chingrihata Hwy Vidyasagar Setu- No.4 Bridge Hwy Final Report 78 9.22 7.03 7.7 6.9 7.4 3 4 4.5 3 4 27.66 28.11 34.4 20.7 24.75 21.66 9.06 8.40 10.53 7.03 1.46 1.31 1.49 0.60 0.48 11:30 AM 12:40 PM 9:05 AM 9:55 AM 11:00 AM 1.20 PM 10.55 AM 11.55 AM 2.10 PM 7.00 AM 7.50 AM 100 80 200 200 60 100 90 15 100 30 50 A-3-3 A-3-4 A-3-2 A-2-1 A-3-1 A-2-3 A-1-3 A-1-1 A-2-2 A-1-2 A-1-4 Elgin Road & A.T.Mukherjee Road Elgin Road & A.T.Mukherjee Road Elgin Road & A.T.Mukherjee Road Behala Chowrasta Khidderpur Road Elgin Road & A.T.Mukherjee Road Behala ChowrastaKhidderpur Road Rabindra Setu - Park Street Road Rabindra Setu - Park Street Road Behala ChowrastaKhidderpur Road Rabindra Setu - Park Street Road Rabindra Setu - Park Street Road 10.1 7.4 8.30 6.80 6.00 9.4 13.1 9.5 10.5 7.1 13.6 4.0 4.0 3.00 3.50 4.00 3.5 3 5 3.5 5 5 40.2 29.6 24.90 23.80 24.00 32.9 39.3 47.5 36.8 35.5 68 10.09 16.28 8.49 13.40 4.14 6.52 7.86 1.62 11.68 2.41 2.43 1.12 1.28 0.78 0.74 0.05 0.75 0.45 0.10 1.19 0.46 0.30 Time of Collection Distance nearest Intersection (m) Location Code Surface Width and Length (m) Name of the location Width Length Calculated Area (sq. meters) Lab Analysis Total Dust Loading (g/ sq. m) Silt Dust Loading (g/ sq. m)

Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND Surface Width and Length (m) Name of the location Width Vidyasagar Setu- No.4 Bridge Hwy Vidyasagar Setu- No.4 Bridge Hwy B.T.Road:ShyamBazar Dunlop Kestopur - Chingrighata Highway Kestopur - Chingrighata Highway 7.7 7.1 6.65 7.95 8.00 Length 4.5 4.0 3.50 3.60 5.00

Date of Collection

Time of Collection

Distance nearest Intersection (m)

Location Code

Calculated Area (sq. meters) 34.7 28.4 23.27 28.62 40.00

Lab Analysis Total Dust Loading (g/ sq. m) 4.10 12.75 11.39 6.11 2.40 Silt Dust Loading (g/ sq. m) 0.40 1.18 0.56 0.50 0.10 1.45 0.37 0.75 0.77 0.45 0.60 0.75

27.02.2005 27.02.2005 27.03.2005 27.03.2005 27.03.2005

8.40 AM 9.15 AM 7:20 AM 8:30 AM 9:15 AM

35 30 75 100 30 100 100

H-3-3 H-3-4 H-1-1 H-2-1 H-2-2 R-1-3 R-1-4

Residential-Commercial 12.02.2005 8:15 AM 12.02.2005 9:00 AM

Garia-Ballygunge Phari Road 7.9 3.0 23.6 14.28 Garia-Ballygunge Phari Road 10.2 4.0 40.9 10.18 Baghajatin railway Stn.7.8 4.0 31.4 9.95 12.02.2005 10:20 AM 100 R-2-3 Kasba Road Garia - Ballygunge Phari 20.03.2005 8:30 AM 50 R-1-2 5.80 3.00 17.40 6.16 Road Garia - Ballygunge Phari 5.50 3.50 19.85 24.35 20.03.2005 11:40 AM 20 R-1-1 Road BaghajatinRailwayStation20.03.2005 12:35 PM 50 R-2-2 6.90 5.00 34.50 7.54 Kasba Rd. BaghajatinRailwayStation7.40 5.50 40.70 25.62 20.03.2005 2:00 PM 200 R-2-4 Kasba Rd. Residential-Only Streets (Note: Residential-Only silt loading data was not included in the overall Kolkata silt loading calculation due to extreme loadings and relatively small traffic volumes on these roads.) 27.03.2005 10:45 AM 10 R-3-1 Salt Lake Residential 5.80 3.00 17.40 37.28 27.03.2005 11:05 AM 20 R-3-2 Salt Lake Residential 9.30 3.60 33.48 32.00 27.03.2005 12:10 PM 20 R-3-4 Salt Lake Residential 4.65 3.40 15.81 29.99

2.32 2.69 1.49

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Table 3V: Road Dust Silt Loading Weighted Average Calculation


Traffic Weighted Street Type Arterial Highway Resident. Overall (A) Sl 0.656 0.808 0.734 0.733 (B) % Traffic 30.2% 41.1% 28.6% Weighted Sl '(C)' 0.198 0.332 0.210 0.531 Table 3W: Kolkata Vehicle Weight Analysis (A) Weight (kg) 175 450 1,425 7,500 20,000 7,500 20,000 (B) Vehicle Count 15.65% 8.67% 56.00% 4.86% 5.76% 2.34% 6.72% 2003 Vehicle Km/Day 7.0E+08 4.4E+09 5.3E+09 1.9E+09 1.8E+09 9.2E+08 2.6E+09 1.8E+10 Kg ( C) Vehicle Wt - kg Wt by % (A * B) 27 39 798 364 1,151 176 1,345 3,900 3.9 Notes B= Pct of traffic count on roads from video survey C= Sum(A*B)

VKm Weight Type 2-Wheeler 3-Wheeler Car/Taxi Small Truck Heavy Truck Small Buses Large Buses Totals Average, tons

% of Veh-Km 4.0% 25.0% 30.0% 10.8% 10.2% 5.2% 14.9% 100.0%

Notes With 1 passenger With 2 passengers With 2 passengers GVW GVW GVW GVW

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Figure 3A: Vehicle Fleet Emission Graphics

Vehicle Fleet Age Distribution


Small Trucks Small Buses Cars & Taxis Large Trucks Large Buses 3-Wheelers 2-Wheelers 0 2 4 11 6 10 7 13 7 5 6 8 10 12 14

CPCB Respirable PM Emission Factors 1986-1990 Vehicles


Passenger Cars2-Wheel, 4-Stroke 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Small Trucks Passenger Car-Diesel Large Trucks Buses 0.00 0.06 0.07 0.23 0.35 0.80 0.84 1.50 3.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50

Average Age (Years)

Gm/Km

Kolkata PM Mobile Emissions, 2003 Buses - Large Buses - Small Trucks - Large Trucks - Small Passenger Car-Diesel Passenger Cars3-Wheel, 2-Stroke 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 7,388 2,576 2,529 1,435 375 225 1,522 23 40.98

Pre-1975 (30 Year Old) Vehicles-By Vehicle-Type Vehicle Registration Data 23% 7% 13%

36% 2-Wheelers Large Trucks 3-Wheelers Small Buses

13% 1% 7% Cars & Taxis Small Trucks Large Buses

0.00 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 PM (Tons per Year)

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Figure 3B: Vehicle Fleet Emission Piecharts

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet RPM Emissions, 2003


47% 0% 9% 16% 16% 9% 2% 1%

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet CO Emissions, 2003


43% 21%

1% 1% 10% 4% 7%

2% 11%

2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet HC Emissions, 2003


68%

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet NOX Emissions, 2003 51%

10% 1% 2% 9% 3% 6% 1% 0%

18% 18% 6%

0% 6% 1%

2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

2-Wheel, 2-Stroke 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Trucks - Large Buses - Large

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Small Buses - Small

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Figure 3C: Vehicle Fleet Emission Projections

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet RPM Emission Projections

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet CO Projections


300,000 200,000 100,000 0 2003 2005 2007
2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Buses - Small

RPM (Tons/Yr)

30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2003


2-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Large

CO (Tons / Yr)

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013
3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Trucks - Small Buses - Large

2009

2011

2013

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Buses - Small

2-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Large

3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Trucks - Small Buses - Large

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet HC Projections


80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2003
2-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Large

Kolkata Vehicle Fleet NOX Projections NOx (Tons / Yr) 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2,014
2-Wheel, 2-Stroke Passenger Cars-Petrol Trucks - Large 2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Buses - Small 3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Trucks - Small Buses - Large

100,000 HC (Tons / Yr)

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013
3-Wheel, 2-Stroke Trucks - Small Buses - Large

2-Wheel, 4 Stroke Passenger Car-Diesel Buses - Small

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Figure 3D: Emission Projections for All Sources, Paved Road Dust & RPM Apportionment

Kolkata RPM Emission Projections - All Sources


140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2003

Kolkata NOX Emission Projections - All Sources


250,000

RPM (Tons/Yr)

NOX (Tons/Yr)
2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

Motor Vehicles

Road Dust

Industry

Area Sources

Industry

Motor Vehicles

Kolkata Monthly Variations in PRD Emissions (Ten-Year Average Precipitation Data ) Tons PRD per Month 4200 4000 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000
M ay Ju ne Fe b n ar Ju ly Ap r Se pt Au g. Ja M O ct N D ec ov

Kolkata RPM Annual Apportionment


Note: CMB-based Apportionment = 60% dust 60%

17% 5%
Cars, 2 & 3 Wheeler Industry & Power Plants Buses & Trucks Other Area Sources

9% 9%
Dust Sources

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

Figure 3E: Control Strategy Analysis Graphics

Expected RPM Air Quality Trend Emission Control Strategy


RPM Ug/m3 Annual Average 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0
07 08 09 10 03 05 11 12 04 06 20 20 20 20 13 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 14
RPM-Related Premature Deaths 10,000 0

Changes in RPM-Related Premature Deaths

-10,000 -20,000 -30,000 -40,000

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year
Uncontrolled Controlled

Year

Kolkata RPM Annual Apportionment After Control - 2014


5% 15%

Controlled Vs Uncontrolled RPM All Sources Tons per Year 150,000 125,000 100,000 75,000 50,000 25,000 0
20 10 2, 01 4 20 06 20 04 20 05 20 08 20 03 20 07 20 11 20 12 20 09 20 13

46%

24%
Road Dust Petrol Vehicles Diesel Vehicles

10%
Industry Other

Year

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Figure 3F: Control Strategy & PM2.5 Apportionment

Controlled Vs Uncontrolled RPM Paved Road Dust, Only

Kolkata Controlled RPM Emissions T/ YR RPM


90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2,014 Year

Tons per Year


100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2,014 Year

Road Dust

Diesel Vehicles

Petrol Vehicles

Industry

Other

Kolkata PM2.5 Annual Apportionment Note: CMB-based Apportionment = 15% dust


15% 37%

Kolkata RPM Annual Apportionment After Control - 2014


5% 46%

17%

15%

12% Cars, 2 & 3 Wheeler Industry & Power Plants Buses, Trucks Other Area Sources

19% Dust Sources Road Dust

24%
Petrol Vehicles Diesel Vehicles

10%
Industry Other

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Component E : Strengthening Environmental Management at West Bengal Pollution Control Board, ADB TA 3423 - IND

ANNEX 4 Example Calculation


An Emission Calculation Example: 2-Wheel, 2-Stroke Vehicles in Kolkata Calculation Inputs Reference A B C D E F G H I Value 1,074,215 15.65% 11.5 Calculated Calculated 5.7% Calculated 0.23 Calculated Description / Source Total number of vehicles registered within the KMA as of March, 2003 Percentage of 2-wheelers on-the-road from video surveys: fleet distribution overall Kolkata Number of km traveled by each 2-wheeler per day Number of 2-wheelers within KMA Number of km traveled by all 2-wheelers per year Percentage of all pre-1986 2-wheelers that have 2-stroke engines. From Pune Study Number of km traveled per year by pre-1986 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles G/km PM emission factor from CPCB for pre-1986 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles Number of metric tons of PM emitted by pre-1986 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata I=(G*H)/1,000,000 9.3 G=E*F 40,220,120 D=A*B E=C*D*365 168,104 705,616,143 Calculation Value

Note: Emissions from each emission factor-year grouping are used in the same manner as above to calculate total PM emissions from 2-wh, 2st vehicles Emission Factor Changes by year J K L M 0.23 0.23 0.10 0.05 G/km PM emission factor from CPCB for 1986-1990 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles G/km PM emission factor from CPCB for 1991-1995 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles G/km PM emission factor from CPCB for 1996-2000 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles G/km PM emission factor from CPCB for 2001-2005 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles

Percent of 2-wheel 2-stroke Vehicle Changes by Year N O P Q 5.7% 5.7% 12.5% 12.5% Percent of 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles for 1986-1990 from vehicle registration data Percent of 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles for 1991-1995 from vehicle registration data Percent of 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles for 1996-2000 from vehicle registration data Percent of 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles for 2000-2005 from vehicle registration data
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Number of 2-wheel 2-stroke Vehicles Changes by Year R S T U Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Number of km traveled per year by 1986-1990 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Number of km traveled per year by 1991-1995 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Number of km traveled per year by 1996-2000 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Number of km traveled per year by 2001-2005 2-wheel 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata R=E*N S=E*O T=E*P U=E*Q 40,220,120 40,220,120 88,202,018 88,202,018

Emission Changes by Year V W X Y Z Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated Number of metric tons of PM emitted by 1986-1990 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Number of metric tons of PM emitted by 1991-1995 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Number of metric tons of PM emitted by 1996-2000 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Number of metric tons of PM emitted by 2000-2005 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata Total metric tons of PM emitted by all 2-wheel, 2-stroke vehicles in Kolkata V=(R*J)/1,000,000 W=(S*K)/1,000,000 X=(T*L)/1,000,000 Y=(U*M)/1.000,000 Z=I+V+W+X+Y 9.3 9.3 8.8 4.4 41.0

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REFERENCES
Master Plan for Traffic and Transportation in Calcutta Metropolitan Area, 2001-2025. Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority. July 2001. p.16 ii Transport Department, Government of West Bengal. March 31, 2003 iii Master Plan for Traffic and Transportation in Calcutta Metropolitan Area, 2001-2025. Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority. July 2001. p.145. iv A Quinquennial Report, April 1998March 2003. West Bengal Pollution Control Board. P.12. v T.G.Pace, Examination of the multiplier used to estimate PM2.5 fugitive dust emissions from PM10. Table 2 paved road dust. April 2005. vi Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Study on Kolkata. Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal and West Bengal Pollution Control Board. 2002. vii Pune, India Regional Emissions Inventory Study. Final Report. USEPA Office of International Affairs and California Air Resources Board. May 2004 viii Mukhopadhyay, Emission Factors for India. Transport Fuel Quality for Year 2005. Report to Central Pollution Control Board, MoEF, Dec. 2000. ix International Vehicle Emissions Model Base Emission Rates. University of California Center for Research and Technology, Global Sustainable Systems Research Center. 2004. x Cohen, D., Garton, D. Steller, E. et.al., Characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 Fine Particle Pollution in Several Asian Regions, Proceedings of the 16th International Clean Air Conference. Christchurch, NZ, August, 2002. xi J.G. Watson and J.C. Chow, Reconciling Urban Fugitive Dust Emissions Inventory and Ambient Source Contribution Estimates: Summary of Current Knowledge and Needed Research. Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada. Document No. 6110.4D2. 2000. xii USEPA Trends Report, 2002. xiii TG Pace, A Conceptual Model to Adjust Fugitive Dust Emissions to Account for Near Source Particle Removal in Grid Model Applications, USEPA. August 22, 2003. xiv Kannan, G. Kamalak; Meenakshi Gupta, Jagdish Chandra Kapoor, Estimation of gaseous products and particulate matter emissions from garden biomass combustion in a simulation fire test chamber, Atmospheric Environment, 38:6701-6710. 2004. xv Reddy, M. Boucher, O., Venkatraman, C., Seasonal carbonaceous emissions from open biomass burning in India. Indian Aerosol Science and Technology Association. 14 (1), 239-243. 2002. xvi Data from Bride & Roof Co., Ltd, Tantia Construction Ltd and Kolkata Municipal Corporation. August, 2005. xvii Correspondence from South Eastern Railway of June 18, 2005 and letter from Eastern Railway August 13, 2005. xviii West Bengal Brickfields Owners Association. February 2005. xix Air Pollution Control Technology for Iron Foundries, West Bengal Pollution Control Board, APC/01/1997. xx Air Pollution Control Technology for Secondary Lead Smelting Units. West Bengal Pollution Control Board. APC/02/1997. xx Ostrow, Bart, Estimating the Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Method with Application to Jakarta, The World Bank Policy Research Department, Public Economics Division. May, 1994. xxi BBC News, May 17, 2005, Calcutta bans dirty old vehicles. xxii Times of India, Cheaper LPG driving force to go green, February 3, 2005. xxiii Rogers, John, Issues & Challenges for I&C in India, Challenges of Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance, Towards Clean Air in Asian Cities. Centre for Science and Environment. New Delhi. March, 2004. xxiv W.C. Mok, Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong SAR, China. 2004 xxv The Economic Times, Oil ministry gets Cabinet nod to talk on pipelines, Feb. 10, 2005. xxvi Times of India. JU fume-free kit for LPG Vehicles, January 29, 2005 xxvii Rashmi Mahesh, Member Secretary, Kamataka Pollution Control Board. The LPG Strategy in Bangalore: Air Quality Improvement Action Plan for Bangalore City. Toward Clean Air in Asian Cities. April, 2004. xxviii BBC News. May 17, 2005. Calcutta bans dirty old vehicles. xxix WRAP Fugitive Dust Handbook. Western Governors Association. November, 2004 xxx Limpaseni, Wongpun, Control of Road Dust In Proceedings: Regional Workshop Fighting Urban Air Pollution: From Plan to Action. February 2001. Bangkok, Thailand xxxi Nathanon Thavisin, Bangkok Air Pollution: Situation Management Permanent Secretary For Thebangkok Metropolitan Administration (Bma). February, 2003.
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