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Development of an inventory shared LCA network for environmental audits and accreditation of Indonesian Cement sector

Haruhiro Fujita(Toyo University),


M.A.M. Oktaufik (BPPT Indonesia)

Koji Okuhara (Osaka University),


Faizul Ishom (Indonesian State Ministry)

Toshihiro Ashino (Toyo University)

Aramaki Toshinari (Toyo University)

Abstract: It is commonly understood that the use of common inventory data is able to bring the transparency of the assessment, and the uniform load quotation methods are also able to develop the objective reliability in the environmental audits. A web-based, inventory shared LCA is going to be applied to the environmental load reduction framework of Indonesian cement production, consumption and wasting system, to mobilize the environmental audits as well as accreditation by Indonesian authority. It is considered that the cement LCAs contribution on the CO2 reduction could be enhanced by the public awareness, as well as by the governmental and international accreditation. Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, LCA, Transparency, environmental audits, cement sector

1. Introduction
The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental damages assignable on products and services, enabling to choose the least burdensome one. The concept also can be used to optimize the environmental performance of a single product (ecodesign) or to optimize the environmental performance of a company. Common categories of assessed damages are global warming (greenhouse gases), acidification, smog, ozone layer depletion, eutrophication, eco-toxicological and humantoxicological pollutants, desertification, land use as well as depletion of minerals and fossil fuels [1]. In this paper, an assumption was made that if the realization of the environmental impact evaluation system of cement sector in Indonesia can contribute the environmental load curtailment. Further more, a discussion on provision and wider adaptations of Web-based cement LCA system with high reliability, easy to use and low-cost was made. An architectural proposal of user friendly LCA for sustainable society, which is based on standardization by module reuse and embedded structure by access control is also demonstrated.

2. LCA Framework and Direct Applications 2.1 What is LCA?


A life cycle assessment ('LCA', also known as life cycle analysis, eco-balance, cradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused or necessitated by its existence. According to the ISO 14040 and 14044 standards4&5, a life cycle assessment is carried out in four distinct phases [2, 3]. The direct applications are as follows: Product development and Improvement Strategic planning Public policy making Marketing

Corresponding information: fujita-hi@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp, okuhara@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

A life cycle assessment provides an adequate instrument for environmental decision support. The LCA framework is shown in Figure 1. In the first phase, the LCA-practitioner formulates and specifies the goal and scope of study in relation to the intended application. The second phase 'Inventory' involves modeling of the product system, data collection, as well as description and verification of data. The third phase 'Life Cycle Impact Assessment' is aimed at evaluating the contribution to impact categories such as global warming, acidification etc. The most important one is the phase stage 'interpretation'. An analysis of major contributions, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis leads to the conclusion whether the ambitions from the goal and Figure 1: LCA based on ISO scope can be met. 14040 series.

2.2 The Life Cycle Concept


A LCA of a product includes all the production processes and services associated with the product through its life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials through production of the materials which are used in the manufacture of the product, over the use of the product, to its recycling and/or ultimate disposal of some of its constituents. These aim to reduce environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products, with a specific focus on the impacts in general, those related to waste, and those related to resource consumption, respectively. Figure 2 shows the life cycle concept with the material recycle, the feedstock recycle, the thermal recycle and the parts recycle. There are two LCA approach mainly. One is input output (IO) model and another is Material flow analysis (MFA) model. IOLCA uses economic input/output models developed by Wassily Leontief. The model divides an entire economy into distinct sectors. The tables can represent total sales from one sector to others, purchases from one sector, or the amount of purchases from one sector to produce a fund of output for the sector. MFA is presented that it can enhance the value of LCA information, it possible to differentiate between the effects associated with a product over the supply chain. Figure 3 shows the process model for MFA.

Figure 2: Scheme of a product system's life cycle with data collection of product flow (red lines: Artery physical distribution) and recycling flows (blue lines: Vein physical distribution).

Figure 3: The data of consumption and emission are compiled and quantified in a LCA inventory data sheet.

Corresponding information: fujita-hi@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp, okuhara@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

2.3 Environmental Audits and Some LCA Software Tools


There are three types of environmental labels. Type I is a label that is only achieved after the approval of a third party, Type II is a self-made claim, and Type III labels give information to the consumer about all products rather than selectively pick products that pass a standard. We can list well known type III labels as follows: EPD (Sweden) EDP (Korea) GEDnet, etc. In order to evaluate environmental load, Figure 4 shows the advantages and the disadvantages of both the IO LCA model and the process model. In our project, we focus on the process model to estimate total Figure 4: The differences among two LCA environmental impact. approaches. Some Life Cycle Assessment Software Tools, whose version upgrade is 3 or more, are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Major Commercial LCA Software. (Other LCA tools are listed at http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/toolList.vm [4])

3. LCA for cement sector in Indonesia 3.1 Goal of Our Project


For those large cement companies who have already consulted on environmental impact evaluation, it is common to execute the proprietary LCA environmental impact evaluation systems. In such a case, the use of common inventory data and the adoption of same approach for evaluating the environmental load can not be performed among the companies. Therefore, in order to ensure the objective reliability, the transparency by the use of provided common inventory data and the standardization of Figure 5: The driving force to achieve our purpose.
Corresponding information: fujita-hi@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp, okuhara@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

estimation procedure are strongly required. Figure 5 shows the driving force to achieve our purpose under the business environment of Indonesian cement sector which tends to globalization and supply chain. For those Indonesian companies who have not yet consulted on environmental impact evaluation, the majority of companies, employee and shipment value are accounted by small and medium sized enterprises. Most of small and medium sized enterprises cannot promote efforts to LCA since it is difficult to devote their funds and energy. As the goal of our project, it is considered that the realization of the environmental impact evaluation system with lower burden on introduction and operational management will contribute significantly to the environmental load curtailment. For the purpose it is important to provide and spread Web-based LCA system (see Figure 6) with high reliability, easy to use and low-cost. Figure 7 shows the conceptual figure of collaboration between LCA and financial flow through EDI.

Figure 6: Web-based LCA system.

Figure 7: Collaboration between LCA and financial flow through EDI (blue lines: Information flow, yellow lines: material flow, red lines: financial flow).

4. Architectural proposal of cement LCAs based audit and accreditation systems


The proposed Web-based cement LCA system will have some functions to return helpful data for awareness to improve the running, besides it must pay attention to information protection. As the feedback information to the participate company, statistical data is considered for comparing with other companies in the same category. Benefit is driving force of environmental load reduction. Figure 8shows the requested specification for the realization of the goal.

Figure 8: How to create mechanism in which corporations can participate willingly.

Corresponding information: fujita-hi@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp, okuhara@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

Figures 9, 10 and 11 show architectural proposal of the cement LCAs based audit and accreditation systems for sustainable society, it is based on standardization by module reuse and embedded structure by access control.

Figure 9: Data sheet modularized for reuse based Figure 10: Access control enable embedded on ISO 1404x. structure by sharing information.

Figure 11: LCA derived Indonesian cement audit and accreditation systems

5. Conclusion
It is concluded that the realization of the environmental impact evaluation system with lower burden on introduction and operational management will contribute significantly to the environmental load curtailment. For the purpose it is important to provide and spread Web-based LCA system with high reliability, easy to use and low-cost. Then an architecture proposal of LCA derived from Indonesian cement audit and accreditation framework is made, which is based on s tandardization by module reuse and embedded structure by access control.

References
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_cycle_assessment [2] ISO 14040 (2006): Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -Principles and framework, International Standard Organization (ISO), Geneve [3] ISO 14044 (2006): Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -Requirements and guidelines, International Standard Organization (ISO), Geneve

Corresponding information: fujita-hi@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp, okuhara@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

[4] http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/toolList.vm [5] Fujita, Okuhara, Wu and Ishii (2008) Development of a Low Cost Web-based LCA System for Environmental Load Reduction, CTI industrial joint seminar, Peking, 21-22 February 2008

Corresponding information: fujita-hi@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp, okuhara@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp