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Table of Electrical Symbols

Symbol Component name Wire Symbols Electrical Wire Meaning Resistor Symbols Conductor of electrical current Connected crossing Wires are not connected Resistor (IEEE) Resistor reduces the current flow. Resistor (IEC)

Connected Wires

Not connected Wires

Potentiometer (IEEE)

Switch Symbols and Relay Symbols Disconnects SPST Toggle Switch current when open SPDT Toggle Switch Selects between two connections Momentary switch - normally open Momentary switch - normally closed DIP switch is used for onboard configuration Relay open / close connection by an electromagnet Close connection by jumper insertion on pins. Solder to close connection

Potentiometer (IEC) Variable Resistor / Rheostat (IEEE) Variable Resistor / Rheostat (IEC) Capacitor Symbols Capacitor

Adjustable resistor - has 3 terminals.

Adjustable resistor - has 2 terminals.

Pushbutton Switch (N.O)

Pushbutton Switch (N.C)

DIP Switch

Capacitor

Capacitor is used to store electric charge. It acts as short circuit with AC and open circuit with DC. Electrolytic capacitor Electrolytic capacitor Adjustable capacitance

SPST Relay

Polarized Capacitor

SPDT Relay

Polarized Capacitor

Jumper

Variable Capacitor

Solder Bridge

Inductor / Coil Symbols Inductor Coil / solenoid that generates magnetic field Includes iron

Ground Symbols Used for zero potential reference and electrical shock protection. Connected to the chassis of the circuit

Iron Core Inductor

Earth Ground

Variable Inductor

Chassis Ground

Power Supply Symbols Voltage Source Generates constant voltage

Digital / Common Ground

Current Source

Generates constant current. AC voltage source Electrical voltage is generated by mechanical rotation of the generator Generates constant voltage Generates constant voltage Generates voltage as a function of voltage or current of other circuit element. Generates current as a function of voltage or current of other circuit element.

Lamp / light bulb

AC Voltage Source

Diode / LED Symbols Diode Diode allows current flow in one direction only (left to right). Allows current flow in one direction, but also can flow in the reverse direction when above breakdown voltage Schottky diode is a diode with low voltage drop Variable capacitance diode

Generator

Battery Cell

Zener Diode

Battery

Schottky Diode

Controlled Voltage Source

Varactor / Varicap Diode

Controlled Current Source

Tunnel Diode LED emits light when current flows through Photodiode allows current flow when exposed to light

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

Photodiode

Meter Symbols Measures voltage. Has very high resistance. Connected in parallel. Measures electric current. Has near zero resistance. Connected serially. Measures resistance Measures electric power

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Ohmmeter

Wattmeter

Transistor Symbols Allows current flow when high NPN Bipolar Transistor potential at base (middle) Allows current flow when low PNP Bipolar Transistor potential at base (middle) Made from 2 bipolar transistors. Has Darlington Transistor total gain of the product of each gain. JFET-N Transistor N-channel field effect transistor P-channel field effect transistor N-channel MOSFET transistor

Lamp / Light Bulb Symbols Lamp / light bulb JFET-P Transistor Generates light when current flows through

Lamp / light bulb

NMOS Transistor

PMOS Transistor

P-channel MOSFET transistor

Crystal Oscillator

Used to generate precise frequency clock signal

Misc. Symbols Motor Electric motor Change AC voltage from high to low or low to high. Rings when activated Produce buzzing sound The fuse disconnects when current above threshold. Used to protect circuit from high currents.

Antenna Symbols Antenna / aerial Transmits & receives radio waves

Transformer

Antenna / aerial

Dipole Antenna

Electric bell

Two wires simple antenna

Buzzer

Fuse

Logic Gates Symbols NOT Gate (Inverter) Outputs 1 when input is 0 Outputs 1 when both inputs are 1. Outputs 0 when both inputs are 1. (NOT + AND) Outputs 1 when any input is 1. Outputs 0 when any input is 1. (NOT + OR) Outputs 1 when inputs are different. (Exclusive OR) Stores one bit of data Connects the output to selected input line. Connects selected output to the input line.

Fuse

Bus Contains several wires. Usually for data / address.

AND Gate

NAND Gate

Bus Bus

OR Gate

Optocoupler / Opto-isolator

Loudspeaker

Microphone

Optocoupler isolates onnection to other board Converts electrical signal to sound waves Converts sound waves to electrical signal Amplify input signal Operates with hysteresis to reduce noise. Converts analog signal to digital numbers Converts digital numbers to analog signal

NOR Gate

XOR Gate

D Flip-Flop

Operational Amplifier

Multiplexer / Mux 2 to 1

Schmitt Trigger Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) Digital-to-Analog converter (DAC)

Multiplexer / Mux 4 to 1

Demultiplexer / Demux 1 to 4