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Effect of Thermal Cycles on Compressive Strength of Different Grades of Concrete

K . Chandramouli1, P. Srinivasa Rao2, T. Seshadri Sekhar 3, N. Pannirselvam4 and P. Sravana2


NRI Institute of Technology, Visadala, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, 2Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, College of Engineering, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 3Principal Chirala Engineering College, Chirala, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh 4 Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Tamilnadu
ss.tirumala@gmail.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Abstract -- Concrete in structures when exposed to high Objectives of the Study: The objectives of the current research temperature gets stressed. This paper reports on the work is to study the compressive strength of concrete for experimental study on the compressive strength of ordinary different grades of M20, M30, M40 and M50 with zero grade of concrete such as M20, M30, M40 and M50 subjected to thermal cycles of 28, 56, 90, and 180 for 50 C. thermal cycles at a temperature of 50 C. The experimental program on concrete specimens of size 100 x 100 x 100 mm cubes II. MATERIALS AND METHODS were cast for testing compressive strength. The test specimens Cement: Ordinary Portland cement available in local market were demoulded after 24 hours of air cooling and kept for water of standard brand was used in the investigation. Cement used curing for 28 days. The decrease in compressive strength of has been tested for various proportions as per IS 4031-1988 ordinary concrete mixes in comparison with zero thermal cycles for 50 C are observed to be varied from 14 to 23 % for 28, 56, and found to be confirming to various specifications are IS 90, and 180 thermal cycles. 12269-1987. The specific gravity was 2.96 and fineness was
1

3200 cm2/gm. The cement confirms to 53 Grade.


Keywords: Concrete, Grade of concrete, Thermal cycle.

I. INTRODUCTION CONCRETE is an organic material than the high temperature and its duration decreases the concrete strength and its durability. Fire resistance of concrete is affected by factors like temperatures, duration and condition of the fire. The type of materials used in the construction has porosity and moisture content of concrete, its thermal properties and the size of structural member and the type of construction determines the fire resistivity of the material and increase in the size of structural member increase the fire resistance. To determine the resistance of the concrete samples exposed to high temperatures and in order to determine the compressive strength of concrete at elevated temperatures. The unstressed, property test method is to provide property data of concrete at room temperature after exposed to elevated temperatures [1, 2]. At high temperatures, Portland cement concretes undergo important changes in their properties, due to the degradation of its internal structure. The concrete structures could be exposed to high temperatures due to different reasons. Mainly during exposure to fire; another one could be when the structure or its elements are a part of industrial installations [3, 4]. The adverse effects of long-term exposure of plain cement mortars and concrete to hot weather conditions [5].

Coarse aggregate: Crushed angular granite metal of 20 mm size from a local source was used as coarse aggregate. The specific gravity of 2.61 and fineness modulus 7.13 was used. Fine aggregate: River sand was used as fine aggregate. The specific gravity of 2.58 and fineness modulus 3.25 .

Preparation of Specimens: The present investigation is a study on the compressive strength of ordinary concrete specimens subjected to thermal cycles at a temperature of 50 C. This was planned to be carried out through an experimental program on concrete specimens of size 100 x 100 x 100 mm cubes for compressive strength. The test specimens were demoulded after 24 hours of air cooling and kept for water curing for 28 days. The design mix proportions are given in Table 1. Thermal Cycle Procedure: One thermal cycle constitute a heating period of 8 hours and subsequent cooling (in air room temperature) period of 16 hours. The standard specimens after curing period were placed in electric ovens at 50 C for 0, 28, 56, 90 and 180 thermal cycles. The specimens were removed from ovens and then allowed to cool in air for 2 hours after specified time.

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Then the specimens were tested for compressive strength and the details are tabulated in Table 2. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete at Zero Thermal Cycles: Table 2 gives a comparative study on compressive strength of various grades of ordinary concrete mixes of M20, M30, M40 and M50 investigated at zero thermal cycles at 50 C. The values are observed to be varied from 36.6 to 54.2 N/mm2. Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete Mixes at 28 Thermal Cycles: Table 2 gives a comparative study on compressive strength of various grades of ordinary concrete mixes of M20, M30, M40 and M50 investigated at 28 thermal cycles at 50 C. These values are observed to be varied from 31.1 to 46.1 N/mm2. Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete Mixes at 56 Thermal Cycles: Table 2 gives a comparative study on compressive strength of various grades of ordinary concrete mixes of M20, M30, M40 and M50 investigated at 56 thermal cycles at 50 C. The values are observed to be varied from 30.0 to 44.4 N/mm2.
TABLE 1 DESIGN MIX PROPORTIONS OF ORDINARY CONCRETE MIXES Grade of concrete

Compressive Strength Properties of Ordinary Concrete Mixes at 90 Thermal Cycles: Table 2 gives a comparative study on compressive strength of various grades of ordinary concrete mixes of M20, M30, M40 and M50 investigated at 90 thermal cycles at 50 C. These values are observed to be varied from 28.9 to 42.8 N/mm2. Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete Mixes at 180 Thermal Cycles: Table 2 gives a comparative study on compressive strength on various grades of ordinary concrete mixes of M20, M30, M40 and M50 investigated at 180 thermal cycles at 50 C. The values are observed to be varied from 28.5 to 42.3 N/mm2. The variation of compressive strength of ordinary concrete at 0, 28, 56, 90 and 180 thermal cycles are presented in Fig.1. Variation of the Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete Mixes Compared With Zero Thermal Cycles: Table 3 gives percentage decrease in compressive strength of various grades of ordinary concrete mixes in comparison with zero thermal cycles for 50 C is observed to be varied from 14 to 23 % for 28, 56, 90, and 180 thermal cycles.

Cement

Fine aggregate

Coarse aggregate

w/c

M 20 M 30 M 40 M 50

1 1 1 1

2.30 1.96 1.51 1.31

3.52 3.25 2.93 2.54

0.55 0.50 0.40 0.36

TABLE 2 THERMAL EFFECTS ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ORDINARY CONCRETE AT 50 C AT VARIOUS THERMAL CYCLES Grade of concrete Compressive strength at 50 C No of thermal cycles M 20 M 30 M 40 M 50 Compressive strength (MPa) 0 28 56 90 36.6 31.1 30.0 28.9 41.5 35.3 34.0 32.8 47.9 40.7 39.3 37.8 54.2 46.1 44.4 42.8

TABLE 3 AT 50 C

PERCENTAGE OF VARIATION IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ORDINARY CONCRETE COMPARED WITH ZERO THERMAL CYCLES Compressive strength at 50C (Decrease) 15.02 18.03

Grade of concrete

No. of thermal cycles 0

M 20

28 56

57

90 180 0 28 M 30 56 90 180 0 28 M 40 56 90 180 0 28 M 50 56 90 180

21.03 22.13 14.94 18.07 20.96 21.93 15.03 17.95 21.08 21.92 14.94 18.08 20.80 21.96

Fig.1 Variation of Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete at Different Thermal Cycles at 50 C 60

Compressive Strewngtrh ( MPa)

50 40 30 20 10 0 28 56 90 180 No of Thermal Cycles M 20 M 30 M 40 M 50

IV. CONCLUSION Concrete specimens containing ordinary Portland cement undergo deterioration in term of compressive strength and exposed to air temperatures higher than 25 C for a longer period. The effect of temperatures is related to either the weaker formation of cement paste hydrates are the differential thermal expansion of matrix components. The decrease in compressive strength of ordinary concrete mixes in comparison with zero thermal cycles for 50 C is

observed to be varied from 14 to 23 % for 28, 56, 90, and 180 thermal cycles. V. REFERENCES 1. Phan LT, Carino NJ., 2003, Code Provisions for High Strength Concrete Strength Temperature Relationship at Elevated Temperatures, Material Structure, 36(256): 91 98. 2. Husem M., 2006, The Effects of High Temperature on Compressive and Flexural Strengths of Ordinary and High-Performance Concrete, Fire Safety Journal, 41: 15563.

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3. Bazant, Z. and Kaplan, M., 1996, Concrete at High Temperatures, Longman Group Limited, UK. 4. Smith, P., 1994, Resistance to Fire and High Temperature Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, STP 169C, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 282295. 5. Mirza, W. H. & A1-Noury, S. I., 1985, Mortar in an Adverse Climate, Concrete International Design and Construction, ACI, 7 (8), 56-64.
Dr. Seshadri Sekhar.T graduated from KSRM college of Engineering affiliated to S.V. University, Tirupati in Civil Engineering, and Completed M.Tech with specialization in Structural Engineering from JNTU College of Engineering Hyderabad. Completed M.S.(Software Systems ) from BITS Pilani. His research areas of interest are Special Concretes. Has published over 60 research papers. He was associated with nearly 25 M. Tech projects. He is Member of ISTE, IEEE and Fellow of IETE. Dr P. Srinivasa Rao specialized in structural engineering. His Research interests are Concrete Technology, Structural Design, High Performance Concrete, Prefabricating Structures, Special Concretes and use of Micro Silica, Fly Ash in Building Materials. He has been associated with a number of Design projects, for number of organizations and involved as a key person in Quality control and Mix Designs.

Dr . P. Sravana is an Associate Professor at J.N.T.University , Kukatpally , Hyderabad. Specialized in transportation engineering . Research interests are Special concretes , Pavement Design. She has been associated with a number of design projects for number of organizations and involved as a key person in Quality control, Mix Designs and Bitumen Evaluation Tests. .Has 12 years of academic, research and industrial experience and published over 30 research papers.

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