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Solution Manual 3rd Ed. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy Chapter 1 Determine the principal stresses for the stress state 1 −3 4 0 σij = −3 5 2 . 4 2 7 Solution: I1 = 10+5+7=32, I2 = -(50+35+70) +9 +4 +16 = -126, I3 = 350 -48 -40 -80 3 -63 = 119; σ – 22σ2 -126σ -119 = 0. A trial and error solution gives σ -= 13.04. Factoring out 13.04, σ 2 -8.96σ + 9.16 = 0. Solving; σ1 = 13.04, σ2 = 7.785, σ3 = 1.175. 1-2 A 5-cm. diameter solid shaft is simultaneously subjected to an axial load of 80 kN a

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Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy Chapter 1 Determine the principal stresses for the stress state 1 3 4 0 ij = 3 5 2 . 4 2 7 Solution: I1 = 10+5+7=32, I2 = -(50+35+70) +9 +4 +16 = -126, I3 = 350 -48 -40 -80 3 -63 = 119; 222 -126 -119 = 0. A trial and error solution gives -= 13.04. Factoring out 13.04, 2 -8.96 + 9.16 = 0. Solving; 1 = 13.04, 2 = 7.785, 3 = 1.175. 1-2 A 5-cm. diameter solid shaft is simultaneously subjected to an axial load of 80 kN and a torque of 400 Nm. a. Determine the principal stresses at the surface assuming elastic behavior. b. Find the largest shear stress. Solution: a. The shear stress, , at a radius, r, is = sr/R where sis the shear stress at the surface R is the radius of the rod. The torque, T, is given by T = 2tr2dr = (2s /R)r3dr = sR3/2. Solving for = s, s = 2T/(R3) = 2(400N)/(0.0253) = 16 MPa The axial stress is .08MN/(0.0252) = 4.07 MPa 1,2 = 4.07/2 [(4.07/2)2 + (16/2)2)]1/2 = 1.029, -0.622 MPa b. the largest shear stress is (1.229 + 0.622)/2 = 0.925 MPa A long thin-wall tube, capped on both ends is subjected to internal pressure. During elastic loading, does the tube length increase, decrease or remain constant? Solution: Let y = hoop direction, x = axial direction, and z = radial direction. ex = e2 = (1/E)[ - ( 3 + 1)] = (1/E)[2 - (22)] = (2/E)(1-2) Since u < 1/2 for metals, ex = e2 is positive and the tube lengthens. 4 A solid 2-cm. diameter rod is subjected to a tensile force of 40 kN. An identical rod is subjected to a fluid pressure of 35 MPa and then to a tensile force of 40 kN. Which rod experiences the largest shear stress? Solution: The shear stresses in both are identical because a hydrostatic pressure has no shear component. 1-5 Consider a long thin-wall, 5 cm in diameter tube, with a wall thickness of 0.25 mm that is capped on both ends. Find the three principal stresses when it is loaded under a tensile force of 40 N and an internal pressure of 200 kPa. Solution: x = PD/4t + F/(Dt) = 12.2 MPa y = PD/2t = 2.0 MPa y = 0

1-6 Three strain gauges are mounted on the surface of a part. Gauge A is parallel to the x-axis and gauge C is parallel to the y-axis. The third gage, B, is at 30 to gauge A. When the part is loaded the gauges read Gauge A 3000x10-6 Gauge B 3500 x10-6 Gauge C 1000 x10-6 a. Find the value of xy. b. Find the principal strains in the plane of the surface. c. Sketch the Mohrs circle diagram. Solution: Let the B gauge be on the x axis, the A gauge on the x-axis and the C gauge on 2 2 x e y the y-axis. e = l x+ l x + l xl x , where l xx = cosex = 30 = 3/2 and l xy = cos x x e x x y y x x y y 60 = . Substituting the measured strains, 3500 = 3000(2/3)2 1000(1/2)2 + xy(3/2)(1/2) xy = (4/3/2){3500-[3000 (1000(3/2)2+1000(1/2)2]} = 2,309 (x10-6) b. e1,e2 = (ex +ey)/2 [(ex-ey)2 + xy2]1/2/2 = (3000+1000)/2 [(3000-1000)2 + 23092]1/2/2 .e1 = 3530(x10-6), e2 = 470(x10-6), e3 = 0. c)

/2 x

2=60

1 x

Find the principal stresses in the part of problem 1-6 if the elastic modulus of the part is 205 GPa and Poissonss ratio is 0.29. Solution: e3 = 0 = (1/E)[0 - (1+2)], 1 = 2 e1 = (1/E)(1 - 1); 1 = Ee1/(1-) = 205x109(3530x10-6)/(1-.292) = 79 MPa n Show that the true strain after elongation may be expressed as =l ( 1 ). 1r Solution: r = (Ao-A1)/Ao =1 A1/Ao = 1 Lo/L1. = ln[1/(1-r)] n reduction of area. =l ( A thin sheet of steel, 1-mm thick, is bent as described in Example 1-11. Assuming that E = is 205 GPa and = 0.29, = 2.0 m and that the neutral axis doesnt shift. a. Find the state of stress on most of the outer surface. b. Find the state of stress at the edge of the outer surface. 2 1 ) where r is the 1r

E t Solution: a. Substituting E = 205x109, t = 0.001, = 2.0 and = 0.29 into = x 2 ( 2) 1 t E and = , x = 56 MPa, , y = 16.2 MPa y 2 ( 2) 1 E t b. Now y = 0, so y = = 51 MPa 2 1-10 For an aluminum sheet, under plane stress loading x = 0.003 and y = 0.001. Assuming that E = is 68 GPa and = 0.30, find z. 2 Solution: ey = (1/E)(y-y), ex = (1/E)(x ey x). Solving for x, 2 2 x = [E/(1- )]ey + ey). Similarly, y = [E/(1- )](ey + ex). Substituting into 2 2 ez = (1/E)(-y-y) = (- /E)(E/(1- )[ey + ey+ ey + ex ) = [-(1+ )//(1- )](ey + ey) = 0.29(-1.29/0.916)(0.004) = -0.00163 1-11 A piece of steel is elastically loaded under principal stresses, 1 = 300 MPa, 2 = 250 MPa and 3 = -200 MPa. Assuming that E = is 205 GPa and = 0.29 find the stored elastic energy per volume. Solution: w = (1/2)(1e1 + 2e2 + 3e3). Substituting e1 = (1/E)[1 - ( 2 + 3)], e2 = (1/E)[2 - ( 3 + 1)] and e3 = (1/E)[3 - ( 1 + 2)], w = 1/(2E)[12 + 22 + 32 - 2( 23+31+12)] = (1/(2x205x109)[3002 +2502 + 2002 (2x0.29)(-200x250 300x250 + 250+300)]x1012 = 400J/m3 1.12 A slab of metal is subjected to plane-strain deformation (e2=0) such that 1 = 40 ksi and 3 = 0. Assume that the loading is elastic and that E = is 205 GPa and = 0.29 (Note the mixed units.) Find a. the three normal strains. b. the strain energy per volume. Solution: w = (1/2)(1e1 + 2e2 + 3e3) = (1/2)(1e1 + 0 + 0) = 1e1/2 1 = 40ksi(6.89MPa/ksi) = 276 MPa 0 = e2 = (1/E)[2 - 1], 2 = 1 = 0.29x276 = 80 MPa e1 = (1/E)(1 - 2) =(1/205x103)[276-.29(80)] = 0.00121 w = (276x106)(0.00121)/2 = 167 kJ/m3 Chapter 2 a) If the principal stresses on a material with a yield stress in shear of 200 MPa are 2 = 175 MPa and 1 = 350 MPa., what is the stress, 3, at yielding according to the Tresca criterion? b) If the stresses in (a) were compressive, what tensile stress 3 must be applied to cause yielding according to the Tresca criterion?

Solution: a) 1 - 3 = 2k, 3 = 2k 1 = 400 - 350 = 50 MPa. b) 3 = 2k 1 = 400 (350) = 50 MPa Consider a 6-cm diameter tube with 1-mm thick wall with closed ends made from a metal with a tensile yield strength of 25 MPa. After applying a compressive load of 2000 N to the ends. What internal pressure is required to cause yielding according to a) the Tresca criterion. b) the von Mises criterion? Solution: a) The ratio of the tube diameter to wall thickness is very large, so it can be treated as a thin wall tube. The stress caused by the pressure can be found by x- and y- direction force balances. From pressure, x = Pd/(2t) = 60P and y = Pd/(4t) = 30P. The stress caused by the axial load is y = F/(dt) = -2000N/[(0.060)(0.001)]= -10.6 MPa, so the total stress, y = 30P -10.6 MPa a) x = 60P = max is the largest stress, y = 30P -10.6 MPa and z = 0. There are two possibilities which must be checked. i. If z < y, z = min, yielding will occur when 60P-0 = Y, or P=Y/60 =25/60 = 0.416 MPa ii. If y < z, y = min, and yielding will occur when 60P-(30P-10.6) = Y, or 30P = Y + 10.6, P = (Y+10.6)/30 = 35.6/30 = 1.1187 MPa Yielding will occur when the smaller of the two values is reached, and therefore the smaller one is appropriate. P = 0.415 MPa b) Substituting into eq. 2-7 (in MPa), 2(25)2 = [60P-(30P -10.6)]2 +[(30P -10.6)-0]2 + [0-60P]2 1250 = 5400P2 + 224, p = 0.436 MPa 2-3 Consider a 0.5 m-diameter cylindrical pressure vessel with hemispherical ends made from a metal for which k = 500 MPa. If no section of the pressure vessel is to yield under an internal pressure of 35 MPa, what is the minimum wall thickness according to a) the Tresca criterion? b) the von Mises criterion? Solution: A force balance in the hemispherical ends gives x ( =y) = PD/(4t). A force balance in the cylindrical section gives x = PD/(2t). y = PD/(4t) so this section has the greatest stress. a. max - min = 2k, PD/2t 0 = 2k, t = PD/(4k) = 35(0.5)/(4x500) = 8.75 mm b. (x/2 - 0)2 + (0 - x)2+ (x -x/2)2 = 6k2, (3/2)x2 = 6k2, x = 2k = PD/(2t), t = PD/(4k) which is identical to part a. t = 8.75 mm = 2 x2+y2 3 ( )/ 2-4 A thin-wall tube is subjected to combined tensile and torsional loading. Find the relationship between the axial stress, , the shear stress, , and the tensile yield strength, Y, to cause yielding according to a) the Tresca criterion, b) the von Mises criterion. Solution: a) 2= / ( / ) +2 If ( / ) + 2 > 0, min = 0, so the , 2 2 2 / 2 2 2 1

( / ) +2= . If ( / ) + 2< / 2 2 Y 2 / 2 2 2 2 2 0, min = ( / ) + , so the Tresca criterion predicts yielding when 2 ( / ) + 2 2 22 b) {2[ ( / ) + 2]2 +[ 2 ( / ) + 2]2}1/2 = 2Y+ / 2 2 2 22

Tresca criterion predicts yielding when 4

Consider a plane-strain compression test with a compressive load, Fy, a strip width, w, an indenter width, b, and a strip thickness, t. Using the von Mises criterion, find: a) as a function of y. b) as a function of y. c) an expression for the work per volume in terms of y and y. d) an expression in the form of y = f(K,y,n) assuming Kn = . 2 2 ( 3 Solution: a. If z = 0, y = - ex = 2 x +y )/ = = 1.154y b. x = 0, z = -(1/2)y;

2 1 ) 2 + y/ 2+ y 2 = y/1.154 =(/ [ yy/ ) ( 2 0 ( ] 2 ( ) 0 )

c. w = ydy =4 /K=4 K / ) )= (4/3)n+1/2 ey / =4 3 3n / (4 n 3 3y d. y 2-6 The following yield criterion has been proposed: Yielding will occur when the sum of the two largest shear stresses reaches a critical value. Stated mathematically (1- 3) + (1- 2) = C if (1 - 2) > (2 - 3) or (2 - 3) + (1 - 2) = C if (1- 2) (23) where 1 > 2 > 3, C = 2Y and Y = tensile yield strength. a) Is this criterion satisfactory for an isotropic solid where Y is insensitive to pressure? Justify your answer. b) Plot the z = 0 yield locus. Sketch the Tresca yield locus on the same plot c) Where z = 0, find the values of x and y for i. plane strain, z = 0, with x > 0 ii. axisymmetric flow with y = z = x/2 and x > 0 Solution: a) Yes. The value of the left hand sides are not affected if each principal stress is increased the same amount. b) First find the constant C. Consider an x-direction tension test. At yielding, x = 1 = Y, y = z = 2 = 3 = 0. Therefore (1 - 2)> (2 - 3) so criterion I applies, and C = (1 3) + (1 - 2) = 2Y. Therefore C = 2Y. We can also think about an x-direction compression test. At yielding, x = 3 = -Y, y = z = 2 = 3 = 0 . Therefore (2 - 3)>(1 - 2)> so criterion II applies, and C = (1 - 3) + (2 3) = -(-2Y) or again C = 2Y. Now consider several loading paths: In region A, x = 1, y = 2, z= 3 = 0 and x >2y so (1 - 3) >(1 - 2) Therefore criterion I, (x - 0) + (x - y) = 2Y, or x = Y + y/2 In region B, x = 1, y = 2, z= 3 = 0 but x <2y so (1 - 3)<(1 - 2) Therefore criterion II, (x - 0) + (y - 0) = 2Y, or x = 2Y - y In region C, y = 1, x= 2, z= 3 = 0 but y <2x so (1 - 3)<(1 - 2) Therefore criterion II, (y - 0) + (x - 0) = 2Y, or y = 2Y - x

In region D, y = 1, x = 2, z= 3 = 0 and y >2x so (1 - 2) >(2 - 3) Therefore criterion I, (y - 0) + (y - x) = 2Y, or y = Y + x/2 In region E, x = 1, y = 3, z= 2 = 0 and (1 - 2) >(2 - 3) Therefore criterion I, (x - 0) + (x - y) = 2Y, or x = Y + y/2 In region f, x = 1, y = 3, z= 2 = 0 so (1 - 2) >(2 - 3) Therefore criterion I, (x - 0) + (x - y) = 2Y, or x = Y + y/2 Plotting these in the appropriate regions, and using symmetry to construct the left hand half:

c) i. For plane strain (y = 0) and x > 0, The normal to the locus is at the corner between A and B regions. Both x = Y + y/2 and x = 2Y - y must be satisfied. Solving simultaneously, x = (4/3)Y but y = (2/3)Y ii. Axisymmetric flow with y = z = -(1/2)x with x > 0, is satisfied everywhere in Region I, so x = Y + y/2, with (2/3)Y x (4/3) 2-7 Consider the stress states 15 3 0 10 3 0 3 10 0 and 3 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 0 0 a) Find m for each. b) Find the deviatoric stress in the normal directions for each c) What is the sum of the deviatoric stresses for each? Solution: a) (15 + 10 + 5)/3 = 10 and (10 + 5 + 0)/3 = 5 b) 15 10 = 5, 10-10 = 0 5 10 = -5 and 10-5 = 5, 5-5 = 0, 0-5 = -5 c) The sum of the deviatoric stresses both = 0.

2-8 A thin wall tube with closed ends is made from steel with a yield strength of 250 MPa. The tube is 2 m. long with a wall thickness of 2 mm. and a diameter of 8 cm. In service it will experience an axial load of 8 kN and a torque of 2.7 Nm. What is the maximum internal pressure it can withstand without yielding according to a) the Tresca criterion, b) the von Mises criterion? Solution: D/t = 40 so this can be regarded as a thin-wall tube. For this solution, stresses will be expressed in ksi. F/A = 2/(dt) = 2/(x3x0.05) = 4.244 ksi T = (dt)(d/2); = 2T/(d2t) = 2x2./(320.05) = 2.829 ksi x = Pd/(2t), y = Pd/(4t) + 4.244 = x/2 + A, where A = 4.244 ksi a) For Mises, substituting z = xy = yz = zx = 0 into the yield criterion, Eq. (2-12) 2Y2 = (y - z)2 + (z - x)2 + (x - y)2 + 6txy2 2Y2 = y2 + x2 + ( x y) 2 + 6 xy2 = 2[ y2 xy+ x2 ] + 6 xy2 Y2 = y2 xy + x2 + 3 xy2 Substituting y = x/2 + A, x/2 + A2 - x/2 + Ax ++ 3xy2 - Y2 = 0 x2(1/4 -1/2 + 1) + x(A - A) + (A2 + 3xy2- Y2) = 0 (3/4)x2 + (A2 + 3xy2- Y2) = 0 x2 + B = 0 where B = (4/3)(A2 + 3xy2- Y2) Substituting B = (4/3)(4.2442 + 3x2.8292- 202) = -2.098 x2 = 2.098, x = 45.8, x = Pd/(2), P = (2/d)sx = 45.8(2x0.050/3) = 1.528 ksi b) For Tresca, we must find the principal stresses. 1,2 = (x + y)/2 (1/2)[(x - y)2 + 4xy2]1/2 Substituting y = x/2 +A, 1,2 = (3/4)x + A/2 (1/2)[(x/2 - A)2 + 4xy2]1/2 = (3/4)x + A/2 (1/2)[x2/4 - As + A2 + 4xy2]1/2 1 = (3/4)x + A/2 + (1/2)[x2/4 - Ax + A2 + 4xy2]1/2 2 = (3/4)x + A/2 - (1/2)[x2/4 - Ax + A2 + 4xy2]1/2 There are two possibilities: 2 > 0, and 2 < 0. 1st assume that s2 > 0. Then 1 - 0 = Y, (3/4)x + A/2 + (1/2)[x2/4 - Ax + A2 + 4xy2]1/2 = Y (3/4)x + A/2 + (1/2)[x2/4 - Ax + A2 + 4xy2]1/2 = Y (3/4)x + 4.244/2 + (1/2)[x2/4 - 4.244x + 4.2442 + 4x2.8292]1/2 = 40

(3/2)x + 4.244 + [x2/4 - 4.244x + 49.855]1/2 = 80 [x2/4 - 4.244x + 49.855]1/2 = 75.756 -(3/2)x2 x2/4 - 4.244x + 49.855] = [75.756 -(3/2)x]2 = 5738.9 -227.26x +2.25x2 x2[0.25 - 2.25] + [-4.244 +227.26]sx + 49.855 - 5738.9 = 0 2x2 -223.3sx + 5689 = 0; x = {223.3 [223.32 -4x2x 5689]1/2}/(2x2) = 55.85 16.49, x = 72.34 or 39.36, The smaller value is correct Then P = (2t/d)x = 39.36(2x0.050/3) = 1.312 ksi Now we must check to see whether 2 > 0. Substituting A = 4.244, = 2.829 and x = 39.36 into 2 = (3/4)x + A/2 - (1/2)[x2/4 - Ax + A2 + 4xy2]1/2 2 = (3/4)x39.36 + 4.244/2 - (1/2)[39.362/4 - 4.244x39.36 + 4.2442 + 4x2.829 2]1/2 = 31.48. Therefore the solution for 2 > 0 is appropriate. /m 2-9 Calculate the ratio of a for a) pure shear. b) uniaxial tension, and c) plane x strain tension. Assume the von Mises criterion. Solution: a) 1 = , 2 = 0, 3 = -, = {[2 + (2) 2 + 2]/2}1/2, / = 3 b) / = 2 c) 1 = , 2 = /2, 3 = 0, = {[(/2)2 + 2 +(/2)2]/2}1/2, / = (3/2) A material yields under a biaxial stress state, 3 = -(1/2)1, 2 = 0. a) Assuming the von Mises criterion, find d1/ d2. What is the ratio of a / at yielding? m Y x Solution: d1/d2 = [1 - (2 + 3)/2]/[2 - (3 + 1)/2] = [1 - (0-1/2)/2]/[0 - (-1/2 -1)/2] = (5/4)/(3/4) = 5/3 2-11 A material is subjected to stresses in the ratio, 1 , 2 = 0.31 and 3 = -0.51. Find the ratio of 1/Y at yielding using the a) Tresca and b) von Mises criteria. Solution: a) For Tresca, 1 (-0.51) = Y, 1 /Y= 2/3 b) For von Mises, {[(.3+.5)2 + (-.5 1)2 + (1-.3)2]/2}1/21 = Y, 1 /Y= 0.77 2-12 A proposed yield criterion is that yielding will occur when the diameter of the largest Mohrs circle plus half the diameter of the second largest Mohrs circle reaches a critical value. Plot the yield locus in 1 vs. 2 in 3 = 0 space. Solution: Divide stress space into regions with different conditions for yielding. To evaluate C, consider an x-direction tension test. At yielding x = Y, y = 0, The diameters of the two largest Mohrs circle are Y. Y = Y/2 = C. C = 3/2Y

x

(x+y)+(1/2)x = (3/2)Y

x + (2/3) y =Y

(x+y)+(1/2)(-y) = (3/2)Y

(2 /3) + y =Y x

2.13 Make plot of 1 versus 2 for a constant level of = 0.10 according to a. von Mises. b. Tresca. =( / ( 1 [ 3 1 )/ ] = / ( / [ 3 ( 1 )2 ] Solution: Taking 4 ) ++2 2so 4 ) ++2 1 and = 2 1 1 1 2= for Tresca,, / and 2 / can be calculated for various for von Mises and 1 1 2 / values of .

1 1 /

10 1

-10 -1

1 10

2 /

CHAPTER 3 When a brass tensile specimen, initially 0.505 in. in diameter, is tested, the maximum load of 15,000 lbs was recorded at an elongation of 40%. What would the load be on an identical tensile specimen when the elongation is 20%? Solution: n = max load = ln(1+emax load) = ln(1.4) = 0.365. max load = smax load (1+emax load) = (12,000)/0.2)(1.4) = 84x103. But also max load = K(.365).365 = 0.6932K. Equating and solving for K, K = 84x103/0.6932 = 121,000. At 20% elongation, = ln(1.2) = 0.1823. = 121,000(0.1823).365 = 65,000. s = 65,000/1.2 = 54,180. F = 54,000(0.2) = 10. 8 lbs. 9

3-2 During a tension test the tensile strength was found to be 340 MPa. This was recorded at an elongation of 30%. Determine n and K if the approximation Kn = applies. Solution: n = max load = ln(1+emax load) = ln(1.3) = 0.262. max load = smax load (1+emax load) = 340(1.3) = 442 MPa. But also max load = K(.0.262)0.262 = 0.704K. K = 442/0.704 = 627 MPa. * ( +) 3.3 Show that the plastic work per volume is /n 1for a metal stretched in tension to 11 1 if k n = . ( +) Solution: w = 1d1 = k1nd1 = k1n+1/(n+1) = k11n/(n+1) = /n 1 11 3.4 For plane-strain compression (Figure 3.11) a. Express the incremental work per volume, dw, in terms of and d and compare it with dw = 1d1 + 2d2 + 3d3. b. If k n, express the compressive stress, as a function of 1, K and n. = Solution: a. With y = 0 and x = 0, dw = 3dz. y = z/2, x =0, = {[(y - z)2 +(z x)2 +(x y)2]/2}1/2 = {[(-z/2)2 +(-z)2 + (-z/2)2]/2}1/2 = (3/4)z 2 2 2 2 2 d [ /) + y + z)/ =2)x2 0d ] / = (4/3)1/2dz e ( 3 x d d ] 2 {/ [ d + } = ( 2 d 1 ( 3 +z 1 ( ) = (3/4)z(4/3)1/2dz = (zdz d / 2 / 2 / 2 / n = 3 = / 1 ( 3 ( 32n 41 ( 3 n 41 4 n = b. (/) 4) k = /) k /) (4/3)(n+1)/2e . z 3.5 The following data were obtained from a tension test: Load Min. Neck true true corrected dia. radius strain stress true stress (MPa) (kN) (mm) (mm) (MPa) 0 8.69 0 0 0 27.0 8.13 0.133 520 520 34.5 7.62 40.6 6.86 38.3 5.55 10.3 29.2 3.81 1.8 a. Compute the missing values b. Plot both and vs. on a logarithmic scale and determine K and n. c. Calculate the strain energy per volume when = 0.35. Solution: a) Load Min. dia. (kN) (mm) 0 8.69 27.0 8.13 34.5 7.62 40.6 6.86 10 Neck radius (mm) true strain 0 0.133 0.263 0.473 true stress a/R corrected true stress (MPa) 0 520 654 1099

38.3 29.2

5.55 3.81

10.3 1.8

0.978 1.65

1717 2561

0.26 1.06

1631 2100

3.6 Consider a steel plate with a yield strength of 40 ksi, Youngs modulus of 30x106 psi and a Poissons ratio of 0.30 loaded under balanced biaxial tension. What is the volume change, V/V, just before yielding? Solution: At yielding 1 = 2 = 40,000 psi, 3 = 0. e1 = e2 = (1/E)[1 1], e3 = (1/E)[21]; v/v = e1 + e2 + e3 = (1 /E)[2-4 ] = 0.107x10-3. 3.7 The strain-hardening of a certain alloy is better approximated by = A[1--exp(-B)] than by k n. Determine the true strain at necking in terms of A = and B. Solution: = A[1--exp(-B)] =d/d = ABexp(-B); A = A(B+1)exp(-B); = ln(1+B)/B 3-8 Express the tensile strength, in terms of A and B for the material in Problem 3-7. Solution: max load = A{1exp[-B(ln(1+B)/B)]} = A[1+(1+B)] = A(2+B); Tensile strength = max load exp() =A(2+B)exp[ln(1+B)/B] = A(2+B)(1+B)1/B 3-9 A metal sheet undergoing plane-strain tensile deformation is loaded to a tensile stress of 300 MPa. What is the major strain if the effective stress-strain relationship is 6 (.5+ 0 MPa? = 0 5 0 .2 0 1 )2 Solution: =(4/3) =650(0.015+ )0.22; =[(3/4)(300)/650 -0.015]1/0.22 = 0.155; = (4/3) = 0.179

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