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Empathic Design

And Design Thinking.

Empathic Design
Introduction What is Empathic Design The Whole Product Model The Kano Model Summary

Empathic Design
What is Empathic Design
Delighting customers is vital requirement for survival within todays unpredictable marketplace. Products must now appeal at the emotional level, surprising them by giving them things they never knew they needed.

Empathic Design
What is Empathic Design
Even the most talented product designer would be wise to use customers and users as a source of inspiration, however customers often find it hard to tell designers what will excite them about products in the future.

Empathic Design
What is Empathic Design
Empathic design encompasses a variety of techniques that are participatory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The aim is to equip designers with uncaptured customer information that helps to stimulate innovation and differentiate their product and to delight customers.

Empathic Design
The Whole Product Model
It allows a more comprehensive conception of a product, one which incorporates elements beyond its technical capabilities. Why? - product differentiation deteriorates over time; and many customers rank intangibles as equally as important.

Empathic Design





The Whole Product Model

Empathic Design
Core Elements: The absolute minimum elements a product must have. For instance a car must have an engine & wheels. Expected Elements: Those elements which the customers expect the product to have. For example a car is expected to have a radio and intermittent windscreen wipers.

Empathic Design
Augmented Elements: Which further differentiate the product, such as Volvos side impact air bags, or Nissans 6 year corrosion warranty. Potential Elements: Often intangible, but give added value the feeling of driving a Mercedes or above everyone else in a Land Rover Discovery.

Good examples..

Core elements

Expected Elements

Augmented elements

Consumer is temped to give their I-Pod unique/additional features etc.

Potential elements

Empathic Design
As a market matures, expected and augmented elements become core elements. For example, intermittent windscreen wipers, originally for lorries, became an extra for the car market, and now seen as a Core element. Airbags, first an optional extra became standard and now everywhere. These elements often effect price..

Products that wowed!

Empathic Design
An Extremely Brief History!
The Kano Model: was formally introduced to the world in 1982 by Professor Noriaki Kano of Tokyo Rika University. The paper was called Attractive Quality and Must-Be Quality at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Quality Control.

Empathic Design
Delight Excitement

Low Level of achievement



Performance Dissatisfaction

The Kano Model

Empathic Design
The Kano Model
The Model shows that customer responses can be classified into 3 types: Basic Performance Excitement

Empathic Design
Basic: For example, when going for a meal, the customer expects there to be a place setting. If there isnt one the customer will be dissatisfied. If there is one, no credit will be given because there is supposed to be one!

Empathic Design
Performance: The customer expects their order to be taken promptly, accurately and the food delivered in reasonable time. The better the restaurant meets these needs, the more satisfied the customer is!

Empathic Design
Excitement: Excitement is generated because the customer received some feature that they did not expect. That is to say the restaurant providing free champagne on the house.

Empathic Design
Competitive products must flawlessly execute all three types. Meeting customer needs provides the foundation for removing dissatisfaction. Exceeding the customers performance expectations creates competitive advantage.

Quick Break..

Grab a drink, back in 10 mins please. Point of interest: Future phone design concepts from the 1970s !!!

Psychological influences

> There are four principle psychological factors:

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs/Attitudes

Market Segmentation
> Human needs and wants are an essential catalyst within the marketing concept. Maslow advocates that there varying levels of need: > Basic Physiological Needs (food, sleep, temperature) > Safety Needs (protection from danger) > The Need for Recognition (love, belonging) > Ego Needs (self esteem, respect from others) > Self-fulfilment (realisation of one's total being, creativity)

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Self Actualisation Esteem Needs Belongingness and Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological needs

Consumer Behaviour
> Many consumer purchases are individual. When purchasing a Mars bar a person may make an impulse purchase upon seeing an array of confectionery at a newsagent's counter > However, decision-making can also be made by a group such as a household. In such a situation a number of individuals may interact to influence the purchase decision. Each person may assume a role in the decisionmaking process. Five roles are outlined below. Each may be taken by parents, children or other members of the buying centre

Buying decision process

> This involves focusing on three distinct elements: (1) The buying roles within the decision making unit; (2) The type of buying behaviour; and (3) The decision process

Consumer Behaviour
Within the buying process there are five roles:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

the the the the the

Initiator Influencer Decider Buyer Users

Consumer Behaviour
> Initiator: the person who begins the process of considering a purchase. Information may be gathered by this person to help the decision > Influencer: the person who attempts to persuade others in the group concerning the outcome of the decision. Influencers typically gather information and attempt to impose their choice criteria on the decision > Decider: the individual with the power and/or financial authority to make the ultimate choice regarding which product to buy

Consumer Behaviour
> Buyer: the person who conducts the transaction. The buyer calls the supplier, visits the store, makes the payment and effects delivery > User: the actual consumer/user of the product

Consumer Behaviour
> One person may assume multiple roles in the buying group. In a toy purchase, for example, a girl may be the initiator, and attempt to influence her parents, who are the deciders. The girl may be influenced by her sister to buy a different brand. The buyer may be one of the parent who visits the store to purchase the toy and brings it back to the home. Finally, both children may be users of the toy > Although the purchase was for one person, in this example marketers have four opportunities-two children and two parents-to affect the outcome of the purchase decision.

Phases within the buying process

> Within the buying process there are a five key phases: (1) Recognition of the problem (2) The search for information involving four distinct sources: - personal sources - public sources - commercial sources - experimental sources (3) Evaluation of alternatives (4) The purchase decision (5) Post-purchase behaviour

The Buying Process

> The influencing factors include: the products attributes (price, performance, quality and styling); their relative importance to the consumer; the consumer's perception of each brand's image; and the consumer's utility function for each of the attributes

Design decisions
> By understanding the issues related to consumer analysis it is then possible to begin to modify the product offering by: (1) changing the physical product (adding feature/repositioning) (2) changing beliefs about the product (psychological repositioning) (3) changing beliefs about competitors products (competitive depositioning)

Design decisions

(4) changing the relative importance of particular attributes - as a product moves through the product life cycle
(5) emphasising particular product features previously ignored (6) change buyers' expectations

The notion of product change

> The main purpose of the product life cycle is to remind us of three characteristics: (1) that products have a limited life; (2) that profit levels are not constant, but change throughout a products life; and (3) that the product requires different strategies at each stage of the lifecycle (Kotler 1992) > Within the Product Life Cycle a product travels through a series of stages. The ability to mange and react accordingly to these stages determines the success or failure of the product

Standard Product Life Cycle (PLC) Curves

> The main implication of the PLC is to avoid having a high proportion of a company's products at the end of their life cycles. Drucker (1963) has established that there are six categories of products which relate to the notion of product elimination: (1) Tomorrow's Breadwinners (2) Today's Breadwinners - yesterday's innovation (3) Products capable of contributing to profit with substantial help (4) Yesterdays Breadwinners (5) Also Ran's (6) Failures

Standard Product Life Cycle (PLC) Curves

> The purpose of these categories is to determine which products should be maintained, built upon or eliminated. The PLC also provides valuable information for analytical tools (such as the Boston Matrix and GEC model) > Many of the lifecycle curves indicated are generalised and the shape of curves will vary widely from product area to area and from company to company > It must also be noted that there is nothing fixed about the length of a cycle or the length of its various stages

Standard Product Life Cycle (PLC) Curves

> It has been suggested that the length of the cycle is governed by: (1) the rate of technical change (2) the rate of market acceptance (3) the ease of competitive entry

Product life cycle phases

1: Introduction

2: Growth

3: Maturity

4: Decline

Market Characteristics Sales Costs per customer Profits Customer type Competitors
Low High Negative Innovators Few Increasing rapidly Average Increasing Early adopters Increasing, some emulators Attempting to achieve trial. Undifferentiated products, services. Emphasis on fighting for share Peaking Low High Middle and late majority High but beginning to decline Price cutting to achieve volume. Fighting for market share but experiencing difficulties. Emphasis on efficiency and low cost. Shake-out of weakest players Declining Low Declining/negative Laggards Decline with rapid shakeout Exit of some competitors

Competitors strategies Unfocussed and indirect

Marketing Mix Strategies Product

Basic product Developing product extensions and service levels Modify and differentiate. Develop next generation Phase out weaker brands

Distribution Advertising

Low price strategy

Selective Heavy spending to raise awareness and encourage trial among early adopters and distributors Extensive to encourage trial Short to medium

Penetration strategy
Intensive. Limited trade discounts Moderate to build awareness and interest in mass market. Greater word of mouth Reduce to a moderate level Long range Product division

Price to meet or beat competitors

Intensive. Heavy trade discounts Emphasise brand differentiation, special offers Increase to encourage brand switching Medium range

Selective. Phase out weal outlets Reduce to a level that maintains hard core loyalty. Emphasise low prices to reduce stock Reduce Short

Sales promotion Planning time frame

Development structure Task force

Business division with task reduce for new product development

Product Adoption and Consumer Profiles

> When a new product is introduced, not everyone adopts it at the same moment. The rate of adoption within the market place has been identified as following a recognisable model > A method of adopter categorisation is thus:

Product Adoption and Consumer Profiles

Early Majority

Late Majority

Early Adopters



Product Adoption and Consumer Profiles

> Innovators: young educated consumers, profitable risk taking organisations, sometimes category specific > Early Adopters: more mainstream, opinion leaders, need wooing > Early Majority: risk adverse, need reassurance, social pressures > Late Majority: have greater product choice, product possibly mature by now > Laggards (late adopters): possibly older, less well off

Basic buyer analysis..

What do they buy? Why do they buy? Who is involved in buying? How do they buy? When do they buy? Where do they buy?

Buyer Behaviour Model..

External Stimuli Political, Economical Political, Technological Buyers Black Box Buyer characteristics: Cultural, Social, Personal. Buyer Decision Product: Quality, suitability, aesthetics, ergonomics usability.

Product, Price, Advertising


Searches from information. Evaluation. Decision.

Brand recognition
Dealer influence, knowledge. Quantity. Purchase timing.

Buyer thinking..

Competitor Mapping

Product Mapping

Competitor Mapping

Competitor Mapping

Competitor Mapping