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Body Coverings: The Skin

epidermis sebaceous glands sweat gland

Mechanism of Phagocytosis


Tissue damage caused by wound or by invading pathogenic microorganism inducess a complex sequence of events is called inflammation Inflammation of a particular region of body is indicated by the suffix-icitis. For example inflammation of appendix is called appendicitis. The Roman physician Celsus described that the four cardinal signs of inflammation are Rubor (redness),Tumor (swelling),Calor (heat) and Dolor (pain). Later another physician Galen added a fifth sign: Functiolaesa(Loss of function)

Mechanism of inflammation
Vasodilation The vessels that carry blood away from the affected area constrict. Then the capillary net work swells. This results in tissue redness (erythema) and also increase in temperature. The affected area nearby capillaries vasodialates an increase in the diameter of blood vessels enhancing the capillary permeability.

Mechanism of inflammation
With the increase of permeability fluid and pathogens influx from capillaries into the tissues. 5. Accumulation of fluid results' in tissue edema. 6. The influx of phagocytes into tissues involves a series of steps including adherence to endothelial cell wall, emigration into the tissue and finally migration to the site of inflammatory response. 7. Phagocytic cells accumulate at- the response site resulting to the destruction. They destroy the bacteria by their lyric enzymes. The resultant dead cells, digestive material and fluid will form pus.

Mechanism of inflammation
The initiation and regulation of inflammation is by a variety of chemical mediators. One of the better characterized groups of molecules produced during tissue damaging infections are the serum acute-phase proteins, like C-reactive protein. It is produced by the liver in response to tissue damage. This protein binds to the C-Polysaccharide cell-wall component of many bacteria and fungi. This binding activates the complement system. Thereby resulting in increased clearance of the pathogen either by complement mediated lysis or phagocytosis.

Mechanism of inflammation
Histamine is a vasodialating substance released by a variety of cells in response to tissue injury. Another group kinins are normally present in blood in inactive form. But the tissue injury activates these peptides, which then cause vasodialation. A particular type of kinin, called bradykinin stimulates pain receptors. As pain normally protects an individual injured area, it may serves a protective role.

Mechanism of inflammation
After subsiding of inflammatory response most of debris is cleared by phagocytic cells. Tissue will be repaired and new tissue regenerates.


Inflammatory Response

Histamine & prostaglandins released

Capillaries dilate Clotting begins

Chemotactic factors attract phagocytic cells

Phagocytes consume pathogens & cell debris