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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY BELGAUM-590 014 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING R. V.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A FREE WHEEL MECHANISM FOR HYDRAULIC MOTOR


Carried out at
L&T Komatsu Limited Bellary Road, Byatarayanapura, Bangalore 560 092
Under the Guidance of Internal Guide Proff C.S PRASAD Dept of Mechanical Engineering R.V.C.E, BANGALORE External Guide S. RAMADURAI Asst. Manager Product Engineer, Hydraulics Works, L&T Komatsu Limited, BANGALORE

Project on

By: SUMANTH.H 1RV10MPD27 MTECH (P.D.M) R.V.C.E

CONTENTS
Introduction Objectives &Methodology Generic product development process Conceptual design Detail design Design failure mode analysis Cost estimation Conclusion & Scope of work

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A HYDRAULIC MOTOR?


A hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that converts hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular displacement (rotation). Hydraulic motors convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

HOW A HYDRAULIC MOTOR WORKS?

RADIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC MOTOR


In the radial motor, fluid is forced into the cylinders and drives the pistons outward. The pistons pushing against the rotor cause the cylinder block to rotate.

PISTON

ROLLERS

CYCLINDER BLOCK

CONTINUE.
The high pressure oil (red) arrives in the distributor (A) through a passage which communicates with a port located in the cylinder block (C).The piston (B) is pushed (principle of cylinder) towards the housing (D) carrying the beam and roller assembly with it. This is the Feed Startup Phase.

CONTINUE.
The pressure which acts on the piston causes the roller to roll on the boss (D), so obliging the cylinder block to move in the direction shown by the arrow (Rotary shaft, fixed housing).This is the Full Speed Phase.

CONTINUE.
When the roller arrives at the top of the housing, the chamber at the back of the piston no longer communicates with the return of the tank. This is called top neutral position.

CONTINUE.
Driven by another motor position, a new passage with high pressure oil (red) will appear as soon as the roller goes beyond the top position of the following housing and restart a new cycle
Power Supply

Top Neutral Position

Bottom Neutral Position

Discharge

CONTINUE.
The figure shows how the distribution of the high pressure, charge pressure and case drain oils are taking place when the rotor is rotating. The Rollers contacting on the red zones and climbing up the track are contributing for the torque output.

FREEWHEEL MECHANISM
In mechanical or automotive engineering, freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the driveshaft.

BENEFITS OF FREEWHEELING
.

A freewheel mechanism acts as an automatic clutch A freewheel also produces better fuel economy on carburized engines

APPLICATION OF FREEWHEELING

In agricultural equipment A freewheel assembly is also widely used on engine starters Freewheels were used in some luxury or up-market conventional cars In the older style of bicycle, where freewheel mechanism is included in the gear assembly

LITERATURE SURVEY
Sl No 1. Author Hekkert MP, Hendriks FHJF, Faaij APC, Neelis ML Discussions Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development, Energy Policy, 2005:33:579594. Hydraulic Motors This invention relates to radial piston hydraulic motor and, more particularly, to such a motor having equal numbers of pistons and cams.

2.

Pierre.A.Praddaude. patent no US3593621

CONTINUE.
Sl No 3. Author Louis .E. Martin patent no US3808951 Discussions The objective of the invention was to produce a radial piston hydraulic motor to be operated at multi-speed. Radial piston fluid engine The invention relates to a radial piston hydraulic motor and to a method to control speed of a radial piston hydraulic motor. Pressurised Fluid Mechanism Comprising Reaction Rollers Mounted on Pistons,

4.

Jean-Pierre Badoureaux et al patent no 4256018

5.

Louis.B.Bigo & Patrick E

OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY

PROJECT OBJECTIVE

To understand the functional and operational characteristics of radial piston hydraulic motor To identify the sources of implementation of free wheel mechanism for G3 H20 radial piston hydraulic motor. To design and develop a freewheeling mechanism. To check for the performance of the problem definition for consistency and smooth operation. To ensure quality and efficiency of the motor.

PROJECT METHODOLOY
1. Collect Data

2. Design and development of new


design

4. Measure the benefits

GENERIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS


PROBLEM DEFNITION

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
SYSTEM LEVEL DESIGN

DETAIL DESIGN
TESTING & REFINEMENT PRODUCTION RAMP-UP

STUDY OF EXISTING MOTOR

G3 H20 MOTOR SPECIFICATION

CONTINUE.
Weight Type A dia mm 450 B dia mm 281 C dia mm 335 D mm E mm F mm G mm w/o With brake kg brake kg 475 190 358 368 175 233

H20

Displace Type ment cu cm/rev

Max speed in rpm Torque at 400 bar m. daN Full disp Small disp

Maximum power Braking torque m. KW HP daN Radial load tonnes

H20

1979

1260

120

180

75

101

1000

15.3

CONTINUE.
MOTOR HOUSING PISTON

BLOCK CYLINDER

SECTION VIEW OF RADIAL PISTION HYDRAULIC MOTOR

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS


Clarify the problem Explore Systematically Information Search
Reflect on the solutions and the process

PROBLEM DEFINITION

When the vehicle has to be towed or to be moved in downhill, the motors connecting to it has to be running condition. Radial piston hydraulic motors are known, which are provided with a device permitting to fit the piston in retracted position within their respected cylinders. This makes it selectively to the pistons which are coupled are no longer working during the so called declutching and freewheeling periods.

EXTERNAL SEARCH
In this project external search is extensively used as freewheeling is an old term for which enormous knowledge has been shared. Patents and journals regarding freewheeling are collected and studied so that the ideas can be incorporated into the present motor conditions.

INTERNAL SEARCH
Internal search is a process of retrieving a potentially useful piece of information from ones memory and then adapting that information to the problem in hand. Wild ideas are recorded from people to incorporated freewheeling mechanism.

GENERATED CONCEPTS

CONCEPT I

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT FOR FREEWHEELING

CONTINUE.

CONCEPT II

SPRING

SUPPORTRING

CONTINUE.

CONCEPT III

ELECTRO MAGNETIC CYLINDER BLOCK

CONTINUE.
CONCEPT 1 CONCEPT 2 MERITS Hydraulic circuit can be easily built. Less maintenance cost. Ease of design and assembly. Less implementation cost. DEMERITS Hydraulic force acting cannot cause backward Lifespan of mechanical components will fail due to Magnetic force will be lost as the operating Energy consumption is less. Ease of maintenance. CONCEPT 3

force on the piston as the


components associated to piston as not fixed to each other.

the fatigue developed by


the dynamic loads on the spring.

temperature inside the


motor is very high.

CONCEPT SELECTION

Few Methods
External

decision. Product Champion. Intuition. Multi voting. Pros and cons. Prototype and test. Decision matrices.

CONCEPT SCREENING
SELECTION CRITERIA Ease of manufacturing Ease of applying the methodology to motor Ease of handling Durability. Efficiency of the motor Effectiveness in performance of motor Sum +s Sum 0s Sum s Net score Rank Continue I + + 0 + + 4 1 1 3 2 YES

CONCEPTS II +
+ + + 0 + 5 1 0 5 1 YES

III + + + 2 0 3 -1 3 NO

CONCEPT SCORING
CONCEPTS Concept 1 Selection Weight age 30% Rating 4 W.S 1.2 Concept 2 Rating 5 W.S 1.5 Concept 3 Rating 2 W.S 0.6

screening
Ease of manufacturi ng Ease of applying the methodology to motor Ease of handling Durability. Efficiency of the motor Effectivenes s in performance of motor

30%

0.6

1.2

0.6

10%

0.2

0.4

0.3

5%
10% 15%

3
1 1

0.15
0.1 0.15

3
3 3

0.15
0.3 0.45

3
1 2

0.15
0.1 0.3

Total Score Rank Continue?

2.4 2 YES

4 1 YES

2.05 3 NO

DETAIL DESIGN

SUPPORT RING DESIGN


SUPPORTRING DESIGN CONSIDERATION
Determining Ring Type Installation Considerations - Axial Versus Radial Ring Size Material Finishes

CONTINUE.

Determining ring type

Here the assembly must retain is on a shaft, so we need an external type or SHAFT (SH) ring.

INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS

How the ring is to be installed will affect the type of ring we select. The installation is axial, (along the axis or center point of beam); we will need an Axial Retaining Ring. These include HO, SH, HOI, SHI, SHR, SHM rings

CONTINUE.

RING SIZE

The beam diameter is 30mm so according to DIN 471 standards

CONTINUE.
SHAFT Dia S SUPPORTRING DIMENSION t Tol D Tol Cs b L h Fr G GROOVE DIMENSION Tol W n Fn

Mm

mm

Mm

mm

Mm

mm

mm

Mm

mm

kN

mm

mm

mm

mm

kN

30

1.50

+0.00 -0.06

27.9

+0.21 -0.42

40.5

3.5

5.0

2.0

32.1

28.6

+0.00 -0.21

1.6

2.1

10.37

CONTINUE.

MATERIAL ST-Carbon Spring Steel (SAE 10601090//UNS G10600-G 10900) this is known for its high strength and reliability in retaining ring applications. (Ex. HO-25ST) offering the following advantages
High strength Ductility Corrosion Protection

CONTINUE.

FINISHES
PHOSPHATE

COATING (PA) - This standard finish is recommended over unfinished plain steel since it offers an extended shelf-life protection against rusting.

SPRING DESIGN

To find deflection length

CONTINUE.
Consideration
Two

pistons and its associated components in working condition = Cam profile angle given R (A+a) = Radius of the cam at the specified angle L = Deflection length. B = Length at which second roller at the specified angle O = Spring installed angle = 340

CONTINUE.
For example:

= 170 R = 153.02 a = 18.8 A = R-a

= 153.02-18.8 = 132
B

= 119.49

CONTINUE.
By Pythagoras theorem

C = A*Cos (O)

= 132 * Cos (170) = 109.43

D=BC

= 119.49 109.43 = 10.06

E = A*Sin (O)

= 132 * Sin (170) = 73.81

CONTINUE.

= E2 + D2 = 73.812 + 10.062 = 74.50mm

This is the length of spring at 170 of motor housing rotation. Likewise when calculated for each half degree of the cam it leads maximum of 77.82mm to minimum of 73.12mm. As the cam profile on motor housing is symmetric for every 600, spring length will also be repeated (Table 5-2). The loads are 108N and 227N force on the spring at 73.12mm and 77.82mm of length respectively.

CONTINUE.
Commercially available 2mm wire diameter and machined loop type with diameter equal to outside diameter of the spring has been considered for spring design. The space inside the motor to incorporate spring is measured with the help of drawings supplied and its 12mm. A nominal dimension of 10.8 has been chosen for spring outside diameter.

CONTINUE.

Design Configuration Units Metric Design Method EN 13906-2: 2001 Tolerance DIN 2097: 1973 Material

ASTM A401 SiCr Pre Hard & Temp Youngs Mod (E): 206844N/mm2 Rigidity Mod (G): 79290N/mm2 Density: 00000786Kg/mm3

CONTINUE.

End type

Machined Loop Loop Selection: Equal to Body Dia. Loop Outside Diameter = 10.80mm

Design Parameters

Wire Diameter: 2.00mm Outside Diameter: 10.80mm Initial Tension: 21.58N

CONTINUE.

Operating Data
Operating Positions 1 2

Length (mm)
Load (N)

73.12
260.65

77.82
318.21

CONTINUE.

Calculated Data
Total active Coils Spring Rate Free Length Initial Tension Stress Body Length Body Length (Max) Stress Factor Spring Index 19 12.25N/mm 53.60mm 60.45N/mm2 40.00mm 41.02mm 1.34 4.40

Inside Diameter
Mean Coil Di

6.80mm
8.80mm

CONTINUE.
Loop Inside Diameter Wire Length Weight / 100 Natural Frequency Available Deflection Deflections for Position 1 6.80mm 568.12mm 1.40Kg 29150RPM 26.27mm 19.52mm

Deflections for Position 2


Body Stress for Position 1 Body Stress for Position 2 Loop Stress for position 1 Loop Stress for position 2

24.22mm
730N/mm 891N/mm 1840.9mm 2247.5mm

SPRING TOLERANCE
Value Free length (mm) Outside diameter (mm) Working loads Load 1 (N) Load 2 (N) 260.65 318.21 +/+/16.11 16.66 25.57 26.44 40.92 42.30 10.80 +/0.15 0.25 0.5 33.98 +/Grade 1 0.80 Grade 2 1.10 Grade 3 1.80

LOAD V/S DEFECTION GRAPH

From the figure 5-6 it is clearly specified that the spring can withstand a maximum load of 316N. Therefore the spring is safe.

SPRING DRAWING

CONTINUE.

Right hand helix Material: ASTM A401 SiCr Tolerance: DIN 2097: 1973 (Grade 3) D Wire Diameter 2.00 mm De Outside Diameter 10.80 mm 0.500 DL Loop Diameter: Equal to Body Dia. nt Total Coils 19.00 Rs Spring Rate 12.25 N/mm L0 Free Length 53.60 mm 1.80 F0 Initial Tension 21.58 N

CONTINUE.
Operating Positions L1 F1 L2 F2

Length Load Length Load

73.12 mm 260.65 N 40.92 77.82 mm 318.21 N 42.3

RELAXATION FOR SPRING


Calculated for 2500 Hrs. Dynamic load, Operating between 980 N/mm2 and 1197 N/mm2 corrective stresses Operating temperature is 2000 C. The relaxation prediction based on IST data is 18%

DESIGN FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS

DFMEA FOR FREEWHEEL MECHANISM


Sl no 1. Dimensional variation Mode of failure Cause failure Supportring undersize of Effect failure Loads spring. Motor beak down on 4 4 5 80 of P S D R Recommended corrective action Replace supportring Circlip are prepared with dimension QC inspection correct with dimensional Action taken

precise to ppm.

Spring undersize

Loads

on 4

60

Replace spring with Springs correct dimension. QC inspection prepared dimensional precise to ppm.

are with

supportrin g. Motor beak

down
Groove undersize Loads on 3 3 4 36 Replace beam with Groove is prepared correct dimension. QC inspection with high tolerance.

the spring and supportrin g

CONTINUE.
Sl Mode of Cause of Effect of P S D R Recommended Action taken

no failure

failure

failure

corrective
action

2.

Assembling variation

Wrong

Loads on 4

3 3 36 Training operator

to Standard operation

assembly of beam

supportrin
g springs

and

procedure

has

and piston.

been developed.

From DFMEA we found that the risk priority in case of dimension variation is high, it is assumed that these failure will leads to the problems in future.

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

High tolerances with precise manufacturing techniques are to be introduced for supportring and springs. Materials selected for support ring and spring with high strength and are designed such way that it can withstand some fluctuating load.

Lifecycle of support ring and springs are calculated so that it can be changed before it fails.
To avoid assembly variation standard assembling procedure and standard testing procedure has been developed. To avoid dimension variation standard process sheet has been developed.

COST ESTIMATION

MATERIAL COST OF SPRING


Material cost of ASTM 401 is Rs 63/ Kg Material cost for 1.40kg = 1.40 * 63 Rs 88.62 /

Therefore material cost for 20 springs = 20 * 88.62 Rs 1764 /-

MANUFACTURING COST OF SPRING


Sl no Manufacturi ng process 1. 2. Coiling Heat treatment 3. 4. 5. Grinding Shot peening Setting Total (Rs) 2 3 3 100 500 200 200 1500 600 3100 Estimated hours 2 1 150 500 300 500 Cost/ Hr Cost

TOTAL COST OF SPRING


Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. Description Material Manufacturing Inspection Total Cost in Rs. 1764 3100 1000 5864

COST OF SUPPORT RING


Each support ring cost is Rs 15.39 / Therefore total cost for 20 numbers of support ring = 20 * 15.39 = Rs 307.8 /

TOTAL COST OF MECHANISM


Sl. No. 1. 2. Description Spring Support ring Cost in Rs. 5864 307.8

3.
4.

Assembly
Inspection Total

1500
1000 8671.8

CONCLUSION AND SCOPE OF WORK

CONCLUSION

The mechanical freewheel mechanism can be easily adapted for radial piston hydraulic motor. By adapting this mechanism the excavators can be easily towed or moved in downhill. The observation during design and development of freewheel mechanism for radial piston hydraulic motor it was found that the variations in dimensions of various components such as supportring, springs, improper assembly of springs, supportring etc. were responsible for the improper functioning of motor.

CONTINUE.

It was therefore suggested that care must be taken to aim for achieving middle tolerance of all the dimensions. 100% inspection should be carried out to eliminate defective component getting into assembly. The manufacturing processes were slightly modified to achieve this goal.

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

Check for performance of motor introduced with freewheel mechanism. Flow analysis in motor can be carried out to understand the oil flow at different positions of motor and effects on flow on freewheeling mechanism.

REFERENCES

Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 27, Issues 14-15, October 2007, Pages 23392352. Hekkert MP, Hendriks FHJF, Faaij APC, Neelis ML. Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development, Energy Policy, 2005:33:579594. Hydraulic motors patent no US3593621 patented on 20th July 1971 by Pierre.A.Praddaude. Hydraulic motors patent no US3808951 patented on 07th May 1974 by Louis.E.Martin. Radial piston fluid engine, patent no 4256018 patented on 17th March 1981 by Jean-Pierre Badoureaux et al

CONTINUE

Pressurised Fluid Mechanism Comprising Reaction Rollers Mounted on Pistons, Louis.B.Bigo & Patrick E. Patent no 4,469,012 dated on 4th September 1984. Radial piston hydraulic motor and method in control of a radial piston hydraulic motor, Mika kalervo Lampinen patent no US7, 225, 720, B2 on 5th June 2007 Karl T Ulrich, Setven D Eppinger, Product design & development, McGraw Hill publications, 2005 Chapter 2

SMI handbook of spring design


Data supplied from company.

APPENDIX

WHEEL MOTOR

CONTINUE..

WHEEL MOTOR

CONTINUE..

Motor Endurance Testing Machine (to measure loads and pressure)

WHEEL MOTOR