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# Frequency Modulation

## Relationship between FM and PM

We can generate FM signal by using PM modulator and vice versa.
From the above block diagrams, it can be shown that the generation of
FM and PM signals are mutually related.
Differentiator

FM
Modulator

v
m
(t) v
PM
(t)
dt
d

PM
Modulator

v
m
(t) v
FM
(t)

Integrator

}
dt
Generation of FM
Generation of PM
)] ( cos[ ) ( t v k t E t v
m p c c PM
+ = e
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
}
t
m f c c FM
dt t v k t E t v
0
cos e
Demodulation process is used to get back the information signal.
For FM demodulator in order to get back information signal from FM
signal : PM modulator is used and the signal is pass through
differentiator.
In contrast for PM demodulator : FM demodulator is used and the
signal is pass through the integrator.
This shows the close relationship between FM and PM.
Hence we can discuss only either one technique in angle modulation.

Differentiator

dt
d

PM
Demodulator

v
m
(t)
v
FM
(t)

FM Demodulator

FM
Demodulator

v
m
(t)

v
PM
(t)

Integrator

}
dt
PM Demodulator
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
}
t
m f c c FM
dt t v k t E t v
0
cos e
)] ( cos[ ) ( t v k t E t v
m p c c PM
+ = e
FM: Modulation Index
Any modulation process produces sidebands.

Side frequencies are the sum and difference of the
carrier and modulating frequency.

The bandwidth of an FM signal is usually much
wider than that of an AM signal with the same
modulating signal. (infinite number of pairs of upper
and lower sidebands generate)
Modulation Index
The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating
frequency is known as the modulation index (m).

In most communication systems using FM, maximum limits
are put on both the frequency deviation and the modulating
frequency.

) (
) (
Hz f
Hz f
m
m
A
=
m m
f
f
m
A
=
A
=
e
e
m c m c m c
nf f f f f f , 2 ,
e.g. for m = 5,
16 sidebands
(8 pairs).
Determining the Number of
Significant Sidebands
Bessel Functions
A complex mathematical process to
determining the number of significant
sidebands
The individual frequency components that
make-up the modulated wave are not obvious.
However, Bessel Function identities can be
applied for this.
Bessel Function
Modulating wave is given by:

By using Bessel Function, the angle-modulated wave
can be written as:

J
n
(m) is the Bessel function of the first kind of nth order
with argument m.
( ) ( )
cos cos cos
2
n
n
n
m J m n
t
o | o |

=
| |
+ = + +
|
\ .

)] cos( cos[ ) ( t m t V t m
m c c
e e + =
Thus, m(t) can be rewritten as

Expanding the equation, becomes

Where
m = modulation index
Vc = peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier
J
0
(m)= carrier component
J
1
(m)=first set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by
m
J
2
(m)=second set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by 2
m
J
n
(m)=nth set of side frequencies displaced from the
carrier by n
m

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
n
m c m c
n
t n t m J V t m
2
cos ) ( ) (
t
e e
)...} ( ....... ) cos( ) (
) 2 cos( ) ( ]
2
) cos[( ) (
]
2
) cos[( ) ( cos ) ( { ) (
2
2 1
1 0
m Jn t m J
t m J t m J
t m J t m J V t m
m c
m c m c
m c c c
+ +
+ + +
+ + + =
e e
e e
t
e e
t
e e e
Magnitudes of sidebands includes upper and lower sidebands
are defined by J
1
(m), J
2
(m), and so on

J can be defined as:

( ) ( ) ( )
120) 5 4 3 2 1 Means 5! (e.g.
index modulation m
frequency side the of number or J n
etc.) (1x2x3x4, factorial ! where
...
)! 1 ( ! 3
6 2 /
)! 2 ( ! 2
4 2 /
)! 1 ( ! 1
2 / 1
2
) (
2
=
=
=
=
(

+
+

+
+
+
=
n
m
n
m
n
m
n
m
m J
Figure 5-8: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM
signals based on the Bessel functions.
Sidebands (Pairs)
Bessel Function Plot
Figure 5-9: Plot of the Bessel function data from Fig. 5-8.
Bessel Function Plot
Bessel Function Plot
Bandwidth
FM Signal Bandwidth
The higher the modulation index in FM, the greater the
number of significant sidebands and the wider the
bandwidth of the signal.

When spectrum conservation is necessary, the
bandwidth of an FM signal can be restricted by putting
an upper limit on the modulation index.

E.g: In standard FM broadcasting, the maximum
permitted frequency deviation is 75 kHz and the
maximum permitted modulating frequency is 15 kHz
(modulation index : 5)

Determining the Number of
Significant Sidebands
m c
e e
m c
e e +
c
e
m = 0.25
) (
1
rads e
BW
m c
e e 4
m c
e e 4 +
c
e
m = 2
) (
1
rads e
BW=2nf
m
=8f
m
m c
e e 8
m c
e e 8 +
c
e
m = 5
) (
1
rads e
BW=2nf
m
=16f
m
The number of sidebands depend on m value:
BW = 2fmN
Where N is the number of
significant* sidebands
*Significant
sidebands
are those
that have an
amplitude of
greater than
1% (.01) in
the Bessel
table.
Bandwidth
Example:
If the highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz and
the maximum deviation is 6 kHz, what is the
modulation index?

m = 6 kHz/3 kHz = 2

What is the bandwidth?

BW = 2fmN

Where N is the number of significant*
sidebands

BW = 2(3 kHz)(4) = 24 kHz
Solution:
Carlsons Rule
Take into consideration only the power in the most
significant sidebands whose amplitude are greater than
2 percent of the carrier (sidebands whose values are 0.02
or more)

Therefore the BW needed for FM was :
( ) max max 2
m
f f BW + A =
For FM Modulator with frequency deviation of 10 kHz,
modulating frequency of 10 kHz, Carrier amplitude
voltage of 10V and Carrier frequency of 500 kHz,
determine the following:

(a) Minimum Bandwidth using Bessel table
(b) Minimum Bandwidth using Carsons rule
(c) Amplitudes of the side frequencies and plot the
output frequency spectrum

EXAMPLE 2 :
Solution:
a)

From Bessel function table, m=1 yields three sets of
significant sidebands. Thus bandwidth is

b) Approx. minimum bandwidth is given by Carsons rule.
So

1
kHz 10
kHz 10
= =
A
=
m
f
f
m
Hz 60 ) 10 3 ( 2 k kHz B = =
Hz 40 ) 10 10 ( 2 k kHz kHz B = + =
c)
V J
V J
V J
V J
2 . 0 ) 10 ( 02 . 0
1 . 1 ) 10 ( 11 . 0
44 ) 10 ( 44 . 0
7 . 7 ) 10 ( 77 . 0
3
2
1
0
= =
= =
= =
= =
7.7V
44V
1.1V
0.2V
500 510 520 530 490 480 470
0.2V
44V
1.1V
Frequency spectrum consists of carrier component at
f
c
and also sideband at f
c
nf
m
where n is an integer (n
= 1,2,3,)
The number of sideband depends on index
modulation value, m.
Magnitude of carrier signal decreases as m increases.
Amplitude of the frequency spectrum depends on
value of J
n
(m).
The bandwidth of modulated signal increases when
index modulation, m increases. BW > 2f
m
is expected.
Summary of FM spectrum:
Power in FM signal
Power signal depends on the amplitudes and not on the
frequencies.
The amplitude of the FM signal is constant and therefore
the power transmitted depends only on the amplitudes of
the signal. It does not depends on the modulation index.
For AM signal the power transmitted depends on the
modulation index.
It can be seen from the Bessel equation:

In other word the total power of FM signal consists of the
power in carrier component and all the power in the
sidebands.
( )

=
+ =
+ + + + + =
1
2
... 2
0
3 2 1 0
n
J J
J J J J J T
n
n
P P
P P P P P P

=
= + = + + + + +
1
2 2
0
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
1 2 2 ... 2 2 2
n
n n
J J J J J J J
FM equation is given by:

And therefore the total power transmitted :
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =

=1
2 2
0
2
2 2 2
3
2 2
2
2 2
1
2 2
0
2
2
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
) (
) (
2
2
2
...
2 2 2
2
2
... 2
... 2
3 2 1 0
3 2 1 0
n
n
c
n c c c c c
rms J rms J rms J rms J rms J
J J J J J FM T
J J
R
E
R
J E
R
J E
R
J E
R
J E
R
J E
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
P P P P P P
n
n
]} ) cos( ) )[cos( ( ...
] ) 3 cos( ) 3 )[cos( (
] ) 2 cos( ) 2 )[cos( (
] ) cos( ) )[cos( ( ) cos( ) ( { ) (
3
2
1 0
t n t n J
t t J
t t J
t t J t J E t v
m c m c n
m c m c
m c m c
m c m c c c FM
e e e e |
e e e e |
e e e e |
e e e e | e |
+ + + +
+ +
+ + +
+ + =
Power Calculation
The average power of modulated wave is defined as :

P
c
= V
c
2
/ 2R

V
c
=peak unmodulated carrier voltage (V)
R = load resistance

The instantaneous power for angle modulation is defined as:
P
t
= m(t)
2
/ R W
or
P
t
= V
c
2
/ R [1/2 + cos(2
c
t + 2u(t)]

Average power of the second term is zero. Thus

P
c
= V
c
2
/ 2R

Modulated carrier power
= power of carrier +
power of side frequency
components
average power of
modulated carrier =
average power of
unmodulated carrier.
Consists of an infinite
number of sinusoidal
side frequency
components
Power Calculation
The total power for modulated wave is defined
as:

P
0
= modulated carrier power
P
1
= power in the first set of sidebands
P
2
= power in the second set of sidebands
P
n
= power in the nth set of sidebands

R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
P
n c
t
2
) ( 2
...
2
) ( 2
2
) ( 2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
+ + + + =
n t
P P P P + + + = ...
2 1
Narrowband and Wideband FM
From the graph/table of Bessel functions it may be seen that for small |, (| s 0.3)
there is only the carrier and 2 significant sidebands, i.e. BW = 2fm.

FM with | s 0.3 is referred to as narrowband FM (NBFM) (Note, the bandwidth is
the same as DSBAM).
For | > 0.3 there are more than 2 significant sidebands. As | increases the number of
sidebands increases. This is referred to as wideband FM (WBFM).
Narrowband FM NBFM
Wideband FM WBFM
Large modulation index
m
c
f
f A
= | means that a large bandwidth is required called
WBFM.
Narrow Band FM (NBFM)
For FM signal with the small index modulation i.e m < 0.2, is
called Narrow Band FM (FM jalur sempit)
For FM signal that we have studied previously also known as
WBFM and the equation is given by :

Let :

Hence, the equation yields:

NBFM with m = small , therefore;

) sin( m ) ( t t
m
e 0 =
)] ( sin m [ sin ) sin( )] sin( m cos[ ) cos( ) ( t t E t t E t v
m c c m c c FM
e e e e =
)] ( [ sin ) sin( )] ( cos[ ) cos( ) ( t t E t t E t v
c c c c FM
0 e 0 e =
1 ) sin( m ) ( << = t t
m
e 0
] ) cos[(
2
m
] ) cos[(
2
m
) cos(
) sin( ) sin( m ) cos(
) sin( ) ( ) cos( ) (
t
E
t
E
t E
t t E t E
t t E t E t v
m c
c
m c
c
c c
c m c c c
c c c c FM
e e e e e
e e e
e 0 e
+ + =
=
~
1 )] ( cos[ ~ t 0
) ( )] ( sin[ t t 0 0 ~ and
( ) ( ) | | ( ) | | t
mE
t
mE
t E t am
m c
c
m c
c
c c FC DSB
e e e e e + + + =

cos
2
cos
2
cos ) (
Therefore :
Hence NBFM equation yields :
Compared with am
DSB-FC
signal:
It is shown from both equations for NBFM and am
DSB-FC
consist of
one carrier component and two sidebands components. But LSB
component for NBFM the phase shift is varies for 90 (quadrature).
1 ) sin( m ) ( << = t t
m
e 0
Differences between FM and AM
Frequency spectrum

) (V Amplitud
) (
1
rads e
c
e
m c
e e +
m c
e e
0
c
A
2
c
mA
2
c
mA
2 2
m c
A mA
=
Di mana
) (V Amplitud
) (
1
rads e
c
e
m c
e e +
m c
e e
0
c
A
2
|
c
A
2
|
c
A

AM
FM
Figure: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM
signals based on the Bessel functions.
Sidebands (Pairs)
Bessel Function Plot
Ex. 1 :
A carrier with a peak value of 2000 V is frequency modulated with a
message signal of 5 kHz. The modulation index obtained is 2. Calculate the
average power in:
(i) Highest sideband (ii) Lowest sideband . Given R = 50 .
Solution : ( =m)
For = 2 from Bessel table :
The highest sideband is : ( ) 58 . 0
1
= | J
The lowest sideband is : ( ) 01 . 0
5
= | J
( )
( ) 03 . 0 2
58 . 0 2
4
1
=
=
J
J
=>
R
E
P
C
1
2
58 . 0
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
=
(i)
kW 5 . 13
50
1
2
2000 58 . 0
2
= |
.
|

\
|
=
50
1
2
2000 03 . 0
2
5
|
.
|

\
|
= P
W 4 =
(ii)
Ex. 2 :
(a) Determine the BW required to transmit FM signal when the modulating
frequency, f
m
= 10 kHz and maximum frequency deviation is 20 kHz.
From Bessel table the components obtained is J
0
, J
1
, J
2
, J
3
, J
4
and J
5

That means J
1
will be at 10 kHz, J
2
at 20 kHz, J
3
at 30 kHz etc.
Therefore BW = B
FM
= 2nf
m
= 2 x 5 x 10 = 100 kHz
2
10
20
= =
A
=
m
f
f
|
Amplitud
f
c
f
c
+f
m
f
c
+2f
m
J
0

J
1

J
5

f
c
-f
m
f (kHz)
( )
( )
m
m
f f
f BW
+ A =
+ =
2
1 2 |
Carson Rule
Solution :
(b) Repeat (a) with f
m
= 5 kHz
From Bessel table the highest component is J
7

Therefore BW = 2 x 7 x 5 = 70 kHz
4
5
20
= =
A
=
m
f
f
|
( )
( )
m
m
f f
f BW
+ A =
+ =
2
1 2 |
Carson Rule
Solution :
Equation for NBFM:
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
}
t
m f c c FM
dt t v k t E t v
0
cos e
Given, , ( ) t f E t v
m m m
t 2 sin =
kHz 10 =
f
k
V 100 =
c
E
kHz 5 dan V 1 , MHz 2 . 106 = = =
m m c
f E f
(i) frequecy deviation
(ii) BW by Carson rule
(iii) Total Power
(iv) Equation for NBFM
Penyelesaian :
( ) ( )
( )
( ) | | t f dt t v k E t f E v
R
E
P
f f BW
f
f
E k f
c m f c c c NBFM
c
FM
m
m
m f
t t t
|
2 sin 2 2 cos (iv)
1 R g Considerin ; kW 5
1 2
100
2
(iii)
kHz 30 5 10 2 2 2
5
10
(ii)
kHz 10 1 10 (i)
2 2
}
=
O = = = =
= + = + A = = =
A
=
= = = A
) sin( ) ( sin ) cos( ) ( t t E t E t v
c m c c c NBFM
e e | e =
Ex. 3 :
A FM signal, 2000 cos (2 x 10
8
t + 2 Sin x 10
4
t) is transmitted using an antenna with
the resistance of 50 . Determine
(i) Carrier frequency (ii) Modulation index (iii) Information signal
(iv) Power transmitted (v) Bandwidth (vi) Power in highest and lowest sidebands
Penyelesaian :
] sin [ cos ) ( t t E t v
m c c FM
e | e + =
(i) f
c
= 10
8
Hz = 100 MHz
(ii) = 2
(iii) f
m
= 10
4
/ 2 = 5 kHz
i) (v) = 2 => sideband 4
BW = B
FM
= 2nf
m
= 2 x 4 x 5 = 40 kHz
Carson - BW = 2( + 1)f
m
= 2(2 + 1)5 = 30 kHz
i) (iv) E
c
= 2000 V => E
c(rms)
= 2000 / \2
P
T
= V
2
(rms)

/ R
= (2000 / \2)
2
/ 50
= 40 kW
(vi) lowest side band J
1
amplitude
for 1
st
side band = 0.58 x 2000
P = (0.58 x 2000/\2)
2
/ 50
= 13.27 kW lowest sideband
For double side band
= 2 x 13.27 kW = 26.54 kW
Band limit : f
c
f
m
= 100 MHz 5 kHz
Highest sideband J
4

P = (0.03 x 2000/\2)
2
/ 50 = 36 W