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Overview of Compilation

Programming Language Principles Lecture 2

Prepared by

Manuel E. Bermdez, Ph.D.


Associate Professor University of Florida

Overview of Translation
Definition: A translator is an algorithm that converts source programs into equivalent target programs.

Source

Translator

Target

Definition: A compiler is a translator whose target language is at a lower level than its source language.

Overview of Translation (contd)


When is one languages level lower than anothers? Definition: An interpreter is an algorithm that simulates the execution of programs written in a given source language. input

Source

Interpreter
output

Overview of Translation (contd)


Definition: An implementation of a programming language consists of a translator (or compiler) for that language, and an interpreter for the corresponding target language. input Source Compiler Target Interpreter output

Translation
A source program may be translated an arbitrary number of times before the target program is generated. Source Translator1

Translator2 . . .
TranslatorN Target

Translation (contd)
Each of these translations is called a phase, not to be confused with a pass, i.e., a disk dump. Q: How should a compiler be divided into phases? A: So that each phase can be easily described by some formal model of computation, and so the phase can be carried out efficiently.

Translation (contd)
Q: How is a compiler usually divided? A: Two major phases, with many possibilities for subdivision. Phase 1: Analysis (determine correctness) Phase 2: Synthesis (produce target code) Another criterion: Phase 1: Syntax (form). Phase 2: Semantics (meaning).

Typical Compiler Breakdown


Scanning (Lexical analysis). Goal: Group sequences of characters that occur on the source, into logical atomic units called tokens. Examples of tokens: Identifiers, keywords, integers, strings, punctuation marks, white spaces, end-of-line characters, comments, etc.,

Source

Scanner (Lexical analysis)


Sequence of Tokens

Lexical Analysis

Must deal with end-of-line and end-offile characters. A preliminary classification of tokens is made. For example, both program and Ex are classified as Identifier. Someone must give unambiguous rules for forming tokens.

Screening
Goals: Remove unwanted tokens. Classify keywords. Merge/simplify tokens. Sequence of Tokens

Screener Sequence of Tokens

Screening
Keywords recognized. White spaces (and comments) discarded. The screener acts as an interface between the scanner and the next phase, the parser.

Parsing (Syntax Analysis)


Goals To group together the tokens, into the correct syntactic structures, if possible. To determine whether the tokens appear in patterns that syntactically correct.

Parsing (Syntax Analysis)


Syntactic structures: Expressions Statements Procedures Functions Modules Methodology: Use re-write rules (a.k.a. BNF).

String-To-Tree Transduction
Goal: To build a syntax tree from the sequence of rewrite rules. The tree will be the functional representation of the source. Method: Build tree bottom-up, as the rewrite rules are emitted. Use a stack of trees.

Contextual Constraint Analysis


Goal: To analyze static semantics, e.g., Are variables declared before they are used? Is there assignment compatibility? e.g., a:=3

Is there operator type compatibility? e.g., a+3


Do actual and formal parameter types match? e.g. int f(int n, char c) {} ... f('x', 3); Enforcement of scope rules.

Contextual Constraint Analysis


Method: Traverse the tree recursively, deducing type information at the bottom, and passing it up. Make use of a DECLARATION TABLE, to record information about names. Decorate tree with reference information.

Example
Chronologically, 1. Enter x into the DCLN table, with its type. 2. Check type compatibility for x=5. 3. X2 not declared! 4. Verify type of > is boolean. 5. Check type compatibility for +. 6. Check type compatibility between x and int, for assignment.

Code Generation
Goal: Convert syntax tree to target code. Target code could be: Machine language. Assembly language. Quadruples for a fictional machine: label opcode operands (1 or 2)

Code Generation
Example: pc on UNIX generates assembly code pi on UNIX generates code for the p machine, which is interpreted by an interpreter. pc: slow compilation, fast running code. pi: fast compilation, slow running code.

Method: Traverse the tree again.

Code (for a stack machine)


LOAD STORE LOAD LOAD BGT COND LOAD LOAD BADD STORE GOTO . . . L3 5 X X 10 L1 X 1 X L3 L2

L1

L2

Code Optimization
Goals: Reduce the size of the target program. Decrease the running time of the target.

Note: Optimization is a misnomer. Code improvement would be better.


Two types of optimization: Peephole optimization (local). Global optimization (improve loops, etc.).

Code Optimization (contd)


Example (from previous slide): LOAD 5 STORE X LOAD X can be replaced with LOAD 5 STND X

Store non-destructively, i.e., store in X, but do not destroy value on top of stack.

Summary

Source
Scanner Tokens Screener

Table Routines

Tokens Parser

Error Routines

Tree Constrainer
Tree Code Generator Code (for an abstract machine) Input Interpreter Output

Overview of Compilation
Programming Language Principles Lecture 2

Prepared by

Manuel E. Bermdez, Ph.D.


Associate Professor University of Florida