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Sulphur Marketing

What is Sulphur? Where it is Found?

Sulphur is a mineral found in nature Most of the earths sulphur is tied up in rocks and salts It is also buried deep in the ocean in oceanic sediments Sulphur is one of the components that make up proteins and vitamins Sulphur is found in the amino acids - the building blocks of protein

Uses of Sulphur
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid Phosphatic Fertilisers, Agro Chemicals Used for everything from adhesives to matches Used as a hardening agent in the manufacture of rubber products, such as tires and plastics Leaching of Ores Mfg of Pulp , Paper and Rayon Dyes and Intermediates Pharma Industries Medical salves and creams

Applications of Sulphur
Some of the general applications of sulphur or derivatives of sulphur are indicated below. Fertilizers Dye Fungicides Glue Cellophane Viscose rayon Celluloid Insecticides Rodent repellents Electroplating Leather Matches Synthetic fibres Metallurgical processing Tires Paints Pigments Plastics Pulp and paper Photography Plate glass Resins Soap Soda Solvents Steel Storage batteries Textiles

Sulphur End Use


Chemicals 11%

Ore Leaching 7% Ag. Chemicals 10%

5%

3%

2%

2%

Phosphate Fertilizers 60%

Phosphate Fertilizers Ore Leaching Rubber/Plastics Pigments

Other Fert./Ag Chem. Petroleum Ref. Pulp & Paper Chemicals

Over 75% of sulphur is used for manufacture of Sulphuric Acid

Sulphur Production Sources - World Market Summary

MMT FRASCH

%
1

0.8

MINED ELEMENTAL
GAS

23.8

35

RECOVERED

ALL FORMS

OIL/Other

21.4

32

PYRITE NON-ELEMENTAL OTHER

MINED

4.7

SMELTERS

16.3

25

TOTAL 67 million tonnes

How Sulphur is produced in the Refinery?

Molten sulphur is pumped into Rotoformer Small Pastilles are formed and cooled on a steel plate Pastilles are transported to silo for storage and loading

How the pastilles are formed in the rotoformer?

Rotoformer snapshot

Furnace oil as a Prime Mover Fuel

Forms of Sulphur
Lumps

Pellets

Flakes

Formed Sulphur Specifications


Name Solid Sulphur

Grade
Description Chemical Formula Specific gravity Bulk Density Appearance Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water Odor

Industrial
Uniformly sized, solid free flowing Pastilles S 2.07 (at Room Temp) 1040 kg/m3 (loose) - 1200 kg/m3 (agitated) Bright Yellow 115 Degrees C depending on temperature history 445 Degrees C at one atmosphere pressure Nil Very slight - sweet to mercaptany. Melted sulfur changes from lemon yellow color to orange to red to black as temperature increases. Strong "sulfuric" odor at liquid state

Formed Sulphur Specifications


Material Characteristics Free Sulphur (Dry Basis) Ash Carbon Acidity H2S Physical Characteristics Shape Mean Size Moisture Angle of Repose Frability Fine Particulate size Specification 99.5% wt, Min 500 ppm by wt, Max 250 ppm by wt, Max 100 ppm by wt, Max 10 ppm by wt, Max Specification Pastilles Between 2and 4 mm < 0.5 % w/w < 25 Deg min Low 0.3 mm shall be < 2%

World Elemental Sulphur Demand & Supply


Forecast 000 tonnes S

60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Oil

Gas

OS+other

Mined

Demand

Imports of Sulphur by China

15
12.00

Actual 2005 8.3 million

10.80 9.90

11.40

10
8.10 6.77 4.99

8.90

4.09

Growth rates

22%

22%
2003

36%
2004

23%
2005

7%
2006

11%
2007

9%
2008

6%
2009

5%
2010

0
2002

With consumption over 25% of world production China sets the world prices

Thank You for Your Time

Questions? Time for Q & A !