Anda di halaman 1dari 34

5.

6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE

AIM
a. Computer terminology - CPU, ALU, IC and control unit - Software and hardware - Bit and byte - Memory devices such as RAM, ROM, PROM b. Computer technology in aircraft systems

AIRPLANE COMPUTER
What computer can do :
To detect fault To monitor aircraft performance To help pilot do their work Aircraft does not overstress through excessive control Aircraft can be operate efficiently

DEFINITION
Electronic device Accept and process data by carrying out of set of store instructions in sequence. Using mathematical and logic operation is know as PROGRAM.

DIGITAL COMPUTER

INPUT

CPU / PROCESSOR

OUTPUT

INPUT DEVICE
Keyboard Keypad Pointing Devices Touch pad Mouse Joysticks Paddle Microphone

OUTPUT DEVICE
CRT monitor (cathod ray tube) LCD monitor (liquid crystal display) LED monitor (light emiting diode) Sound Output Light Aircraft Control Surface Printer

HARDWARE
Physical parts of a computer. Internal hardware device include motherboards, Hard drives and graphic card, RAM, etc. External hardware devices include monitors, keyboards, mouse, printers, etc. Internal hardware called components, external hardware devices called peripherals.

SOFTWARE
Software cannot be touch Provides the instructions to hardware or serve as input to another software. Can be programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Binary number as a language. Type of software : System software & Application software

CPU/PROCESSORS
Brain of computer To process data Microprocessor is a central processing unit (CPU) that fits on one microchip. Fabricated by silicon. Small zap of high voltage current (static electricity) can destroy the chip.

COMPUTER
CONTROL

ARITHMETIC

INPUT

MEMORY

OUTPUT

CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT (CPU)

CONTROL UNIT
Responsible for overall action of computer to perform correct sequence and at the right time. Determine by software. Will control the timing and electronic switching throughout the computer by clock (synchronous operation).

ALU ARITHMATIC LOGIC UNIT


Perform mathematic and basic logical operations. Required power processor to perform variable task of division, multiplication, fixed and floating point arithmetic and employ parallel operation for high speed.

Simple example of ALU

REGISTER
Temporary storage units within CPU. Can store data or program information. Store limit amount of temporary basis.

BUSES
As a medium for transfer data from one part to other part of computer. Computer highway use large number of parallel connected wires. 3 type of buses which is data bus, address bus and control bus. - Control bus : medium for communicating - Address bus : carry information - Data Bus : Carry actual data being process

Control bus : medium for communicating Address bus : carry information Data Bus : Carry actual data being process
ADDRESS BUS

I/P

INPUT/OUTPUT UNIT
O/P

MEMORY

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

CONTROL BUS

DATA BUS

BIT AND BYTE


A bit is a binary digit, the smallest increment of data on a computer Bits are usually assembled into a group of eight to form a byte. Used for measuring the amount of data that is transferred in a second between two telecommunication points
1 byte = 8 bits 1 kilobyte (K / Kb) = 2^10 bytes = 1,024 bytes 1 megabyte (M / MB) = 2^20 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes 1 gigabyte (G / GB) = 2^30 bytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes

MEMORY
Physical devices used to store information which is instructions and data. Using binary digit. Can store data temporary and permanently.

VOLATILE MEMORY
Lost data when power off. Volatile memory requires power to maintain the stored information.

NON-VOLATILE MEMORY
Permanent store Non-volatile computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered.

PERMANENT STORAGE
ROM : Read Only Memory - Use to store permanent data (FIRMWARE) - Cannot be reprogram or change the data - Eg : PROM( for BIOS), CD-ROM EPROM : Erasable Program Read Only Memory - Can erase by expose in strong UV light in 10min - Use by military EAROM : Electrical Altered Read Only Memory - Combine non-volatility of ROM with electrically alterable of RAM. Considered non volatile RAM. Flash Memories - Eg : Hard Disc, Thumb drive

TEMPERORY STORAGE
RAM : Random Access Memory
Primary Memory (fast but limited capacity) takes the form of integrated circuits Allow data to be read quickly Used to run programs. Eg : SRAM, DRAM, DDR RAM etc

MEMORY APPLICATION
When opening Operating System

POWER ON
LOAD BIOS CPU LOAD OS

HD Only critical part of OS maintain in RAM RAM

When opening Application


CPU RAM

Application conserve in RAM, HD Saved in HD

MICROPROCESSOR
central processing part of a computer contained within an IC. small, lightweight, and relatively cheap when compared to any CPU Use for simple application Can incorporate all the elements of a total computing system: I/O, ROM, RAM and CPU

ELEMENTARY MICROCOMPUTER
INPUT/ OUTPUT PORTS ROM
OUTPUT INPUT

MICROPROCESSOR (CPU)

COMPUTER HIGHWAY

RAM

AIRBORNE DIGITAL COMPUTER APPLICATION


FROM CONTROL

SENSORS: VOR/DME - OMEGA DOPPLER - COMPASS ETC

Signal convert from analog to digital

A D

MAGNETIC CARD READER

FROM CONTROL

MAGNETIC TAPE CASSETTE/CARTRIDGE

REGISTERS SEQUENCING & ADDRESSING

TO STORE

PUSH BUTTON CONTROLLER ALPHANUMERIC DEDICATED

TO CONTROL

COMPUTER INPUT

FMS - FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


LINE SELECT KEYS DISPLAY SCREEN

FUNCTION SELECT KEYS


PPOS DIR
HDG SEL NEXT PHASE AIR PORTS

ALPHANUMERIC KEYPAD

PERF

1 4 7

2 5 8 0

3 6 9

EXEC MSG CLEAR

FUEL DATA

FIX

START
ENG OUT SPEC F-PLN

DISPLAY BRIGHTNESS CONTROL

A
H O V

B
I P W

C
J Q X

D
K R Y

E
L S Z

F
M T /

G
N U

FMS - FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Have 2 FMC (Flight Management Computer) in aircraft for redundancy Four main functions of FMS:
Automatic Flight Control Performance Management Navigation and Guidance Status and Warning Displays

Receive input from sub system computer


Flight Control Computer (FCC). Thrust Management Computer (TMC). Digital Air Data Computer (DADC) Engine Indicating & Crew Alerting System (EICAS).