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Group discussion

Group discussion : group discussion is a co-

operative, problem solving activity which seeks a consensus regarding the solution of a problem.

To give students an opportunity to apply principles,

concepts and theories to transfer their learning to new and different situations. To clarify the information and concepts To learn the process of group problem solving To develop and evaluate their beliefs and positions To change the students attitude To raise students interest and enthusiasm for a subject or course

To motivate to attend class and to learn

To learn the value of contributions of others and

to develop team spirit To learn the individual difference

Classroom discussion techniques

They can be categorized under three headings Proper planning: selection of apt topics, formulation of objectives and setting guidelines. Preparing students for discussion : teacher can prepare the student through 1. Providing some basic information related to topic to be discussed 2. Clearly stating the objectives and guidelines 3. Clarifying the role of teachers, students and student teachers.

Discussion guiding techniques: teacher opens the

discussion with a keynote address. Gives a brief introduction , dictate objectives and guidelines. Keynote address ends with an invitation for the students to express their ideas or viewpoints.

Discussion leading process

1. Setting the discussion themes
2. Providing resource materials 3. Evolving team sensual rules

4. Personalizing discussion topics

5. Attending to the group's composition 6. Facilitating discussion

Types of discussion

a) b) c) d) e)

Closed group discussion: These are private or non-public. The talk is addressed to members only. In some discussions non participants are also present. Closed group discussions will be held on different kinds of situations. Study group Workshop Staff meeting Briefing sessions Round table

Decision making: these discussions are held for the

purpose of deciding policy, solving problem and reaching decisions which lead directly to action if the group has power to act

Public discussions
Panel discussion
Dialogue Symposium


Discussion techniques for small groups

2. 3.

5. 6.

Individual conference The informal class group discussion The seminar The clinical conference Role play Case analysis

Discussion techniques for large groups

Multiple discussion groups 2. Symposium 3. Panel

Value of group discussion

Encourages the students to think for himself, to

develop critical habits of study Helps the student to advance in creative thought by his own efforts Enables student to enrich his own conceptions by reacting to those of others. The teacher can observe the student Gives student an opportunity to learn how to adjust to social situations

Opportunity to co-operate with others in reflecting

solutions of a problem The student acquires new knowledge from discussion and also develops ability to re-examine and analyze her own reasons and contributions in light of ideas presented by others

Group functions
Group task roles: those which help the group to do

its work, deals with aiding the group to its goals. The following are some task functions 1. Initiating 2. Regulating 3. Informing and clarifying 4. Supporting 5. Evaluating

Group building and maintenance roles : those

which contribute to building relationship and cohesiveness among the membership some building functions are 1. Encouraging 2. Mediating 3. Expediting 4. Standard setting 5. Listening 6. Tension relieving

Unhelpful behavior in a group

Animal codes

The giraffe
Who looks down on the others, and the programme in

general, feeling, I am above all this childish nonsense.

The elephant
Who simply blocks the way, and stubbornly prevents

the groups from continuing along the road to their desired goal

The donkey
Who is very stubborn, will not change his/ her point of


The tortoise
Who withdraws from the group, refusing to give his or

her ideas or opinions

The rabbit
Who runs away as soon as he senses, conflict, or an

unpleasant job.

The frog
Who crocks on and on about the same subject in a

monotonous voice.

The fish
Who sits there with a cold glassy stare, not responding

to anyone or anything

The chameleon
Who changes color according to the people she is with

The peacock
Who is always showing off, competing for attention

The lion
Who gets in and fights whenever others disagree with

his/her plans

The cat
Who is always looking for sympathy. It is so difficult

for me.. Meo..w.

The rhino
Who charges around putting his/her foot in it and

upsetting people unnecessarily

The ostrich
Who buries his/ her head in the sand and refuses to

face reality or admit there is any problem at all

The mouse
Who is too timid to speak to on any subjects

The snake
Who hides in the grass and strikes unexpectedly

The hippo
Who sleeps all the time, and never puts up his head

except to yawn

The owl
Who looks very solemn and pretends to be very wise,

always talking in long words and complicated sentences

The monkey
Who fools around, chatters a lot and prevents group

from concentrating on any serious business.

Grasps complex facts faster
Active participation and interaction Factual knowledge are understood better than

memorizing Team spirit Improves thinking, generates ideas, share and tried out Ideas responded better by others Nurturing environment for professional application

Students feel aided

Instant feedback for students Ability to present information

Working in group is fun!

Discouragement for weak students
Dependency on others for solving problems Withdrawn behaviors

Boredom for bright students

Requires co-ordination Uninteresting if unplanned Cost more in terms of time-teacher and



Any doubts??????

Research input
. Bennett, J., Hogarth, S., Lubben, F., Campbell, B., and

Robinson, A. (2009). Talking science: the research evidence on the use of small group discussions in science teaching. Int. J. Sci. Educ. iFirst article Bennett and colleagues conduct two systematic reviews of research articles on small group discussions among secondary science students. The authors note a dearth of research that aims to determine the effect of small group discussion on students' interests and attitudes

The reviews reveal that the main goals for discussion

were formative assessment and development of students' communication and argumentation skills. Within groups, the leader's use of an inclusive discussion style was associated with student learning gains

The effects of education and groupdiscussion in the

post myocardial infarction patient L. Horlick, R. Cameron, W. Firor, U. Bhalerao, R.Baltzan An education and groupdiscussion program administered to a randomly selected group of post myocardial infarction subjects failed to produce any differences in a large number of behavioral and psychological measures. These included smoking behavior, health status, social and recreational status, family and marital life and vocational activities, as well as measures of anxiety, depression, and health locus of control.

Effectiveness of Lecturing Teaching Method and

Group- Discussion Teaching Method on Educational Achievements and Communicative Skills: A Comparative Study Author(s): Dr. M. Javad Liaghatdar , Dr. M. Reza Abedi, Dr. E. Jafari and Dr. F. Bahrami

The main purpose of the current study was to compare

effectiveness of teaching methods, Lecturing and group discussion, on students, educational achievement and their communicative skills. A Semiexperimental research method was used for this study In general, research results indicated that group-discussion teaching method was more effective than lecturing teaching method. Furthermore, group-discussion was more effective than the other method for male students, regarding educational achievement but there was no significant difference between male and female regarding their communicative skills.

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