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APA Formatting and Lab Report Writing

Yong Sook Yee (Samantha) Bachelor of Arts in Psychology University of Nebraska-Lincoln , USA Student Tutor Center for SNHU Programs HELP College of Arts & Technology

Purpose of Lab Report


To communicate to others what you did To explain why you did it To describe how you did it To present what you found To say what you think it means

Simple Rule: Could someone replicate your experiment with the information you provide?

Appendix

The Format of the Lab Report

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction

Abstract Title page

Appendix

Part 1: Title Page

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

Title Page
1. Title of research must be concise to give reader an idea of your research (10-12 words). Most research title includes independent and dependent variables , no abbreviation or words that serve no purpose. 2. Full name 3. HELP CAT Student ID number 4. Center for SNHU Programs 5. Class code (PSY 105) 6. Lecturers Name 7. Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER ** If it is a group paper, write the names in alphabetical order.

Title Page Example


3 to 5 words for the Header Press enter 3 times

5 Spaces between Header and Page Number

Running head: Relationship between Bullying and Stress

Page number must appear on every page

Relationship between Bullying and Stress among Women in Organizations Karen Wong Ai Cheng B0900123 Center for SNHU Programs PSY 105 Dr. Chan Mei Ling
Times New Romans. (Size: 12), double-spaced Full Name

Appendix

Part 2: Abstract

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

Abstract
Begins on a new page Include the page header: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Center the word Abstract no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks. Beginning with the next line (no indent) , write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Not more than 120 words in one paragraph Written last after you have written up the report

Abstract
Give a brief summary of the main points: Objective of the study/brief statement of the problem being investigated (1 sentence) Information about participants (age, demographic) (1 sentence) The design used (case study, experimental design) (1-2 sentences) Findings and whether or not hypotheses were supported (1-2 sentences) The main conclusion and implications drawn (1 sentence)

Abstract Example
Page Header No indent

Page Number Centered, no Bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks

Times New Romans. (Size: 12), double-spaced

Appendix

Part 3: Introduction (Literature Review)

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction

Abstract Title page

Introduction
Start on a new page First line will be the title of your paper , centered it, but no bold , italics, underline or quotation marks. For the title, every first letter of the word of the title should be capitalized. E.g. : Relationship between Bullying and Stress among Women in Organizations

Opening remarks to catch readers interest First paragraph introduce your field of study reasoning behind the particular experiment why it is important/interesting/applicable to daily life Theoretical background what is the current theory, research or clinical work, how is this study useful, important or of interest.

Review relevant past research/past studies that relate to your study What they have done (methods) What they have found (results) Conclusion they drew from their results (discussion) Two ways presenting past research: State the theory , then state the past research that has been done that is related to that theory. State all the theories and then all the past research *** While introducing the past research, you must cite all the sources you used, or else it will be consider as plagiarism.

Introduce your research: Purpose of your research What research question you hope to answer through your research Give reason on conducting the current study Brief general description of your study State Hypothesis Proposing new knowledge Hypothesis should be based on a thorough understanding of what is known and how it was learned, you identify some guess about what new knowledge you propose to identify with your research.

Flow of the Introduction

Theory

Past research

Your research

Your hypothesis

Past Research ( Journals) -Academic Database


EBSCOhost http://search.ebscohost.com/ Username:ns014962 Password: password

Step 1: Log-in

Click Continue

Step 2: Choose Database (10 database): Psychology, Business, Computer Science, Hospitality.

Step 3: Use the Search Engine

Step 4: Narrow Your Search

Click

Step 5: Download PDF

Step 4: Read the Abstract

Introduction Section Example


Page Header Centered, no Bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks

Page Number

Plagiarism
What is Plagiarism Plagiarism is the verbatim use of anothers work as if it is the students own work. If students take the writing of a published author and present it as their own, this constitutes plagiarism. Sometimes this is done unintentionally because of poor research habits; sometimes it is quite deliberate. In either case, plagiarism is unacceptable. (Faculty of Education, University of Sydney, Australia).

To avoid Plagiarism Paraphrase your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Give credit to the author Citations section later ( in-text citations, references )

Original Text

A legitimate paraphrase

Students frequently overuse In research papers students direct quotation in taking often quote excessively, notes, and as a result they failing to keep quoted overuse quotations in the material down to a final [research] paper. desirable level. Since the Probably only about 10% of problem usually originates your final manuscript during note taking, it is should appear as directly essential to minimize the quoted matter. Therefore, material recorded verbatim you should strive to limit (Lester, 1976). the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

Original Text Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

An Acceptable Summary Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester, 1976)

Original Text

A plagiarized version:

Students frequently overuse Students often use too direct quotation in taking many direct quotations notes, and as a result they when they take notes, overuse quotations in the resulting in too many of final [research] paper. them in the final research Probably only about 10% of paper. In fact, probably only your final manuscript about 10% of the final copy should appear as directly should consist of directly quoted matter. Therefore, quoted material. So it is you should strive to limit important to limit the the amount of exact amount of source material transcribing of source copied while taking notes. materials while taking notes.

Appendix

Part 4: Methods

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

Methods
1. Continue on the same page as the Introduction 2. Give readers a detailed account on how the research was conducted. Sufficient information must be given in order for the readers to replicate your study. 3. The method section is split into sub-sections: a) Design b) Participants c) Materials & Apparatus d) Procedure

1. Designs
Able to identify the followings: How were the subjects assigned to conditions or groups ? (e.g. randomly assigned ) How many groups were included in the design? (e.g. 2x2 independent design).

How are the groups similar and different in how they are treated in the study ? (e.g. Independent Variable & Dependent Variable) The independent variable includes the conditions you selected to represent different levels of the IV The dependent variable includes details of the units of measurement used (e.g. seconds, milliseconds, number of correct responses)

2. Participants
Able to identify the followings: Who are the participants and how many are there in this study ? (e.g. Sample Size) How was this sample obtained, recruited, and selected? (e.g. Random sampling) What are the demographic characteristics of the participants (e.g. sex, age , ethnicity , race, socioeconomic status)? What, if any, inclusion or exclusion criteria were invoked , that is, what were the selection rules to obtain the participants. (e.g. people with eating disorder)

3. Materials
Able to identify the followings: What equipment were used (e.g. computers, video cameras, questionnaires, test sheets) attach questionnaires at the Appendix section. Where was the research conducted -- laboratory or natural setting ? Discuss the validity and reliability of the measures. Validity: Questionnaires measures what it was intended to measure. Reliability: Repeatability of results or observations over time.

4. Procedures
Able to identify the followings: How the study was conducted. What your participants did. What instructions you have given to the participants. *There should be enough information for someone to replicate your experiment exactly.

Method Section Example


Method Design This research has non-experimental design.(continue) Participants The sample of this survey includes 200 women staff from University of XYZ, aged 20-30 years old. Researchers administered the questionnaires(continue) Materials Questionnaires were used for gathering the data for hypothesis test. The questionnaires have two sections, stress and bullying. Each section has 35 objective questions. Cronbach's Alphas scale for stress assessment queries was 96% and for 92% for bullying assessment queries. Procedures The questionnaires were given out to participants. All participants were instructed to fill the questionnaires and return the questionnaires to the researcher on the same week.(continue).

Appendix

Part 5: Results

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

Results
Continue on the same page as the Method Section. Centered the word Results but no bold , italics, underline or quotation marks. Provides the reader with a clear, concise summary of the data you collected and the results of any statistical tests Reports the data and the analysis No interpretation of the results which is left to the discussion section

Tables & Figures Should be titled Label them clearly Must include explanatory text to describe what data appears in the table

Guide to the results section


Summary tables include: Central tendency (mean, median, mode) Dispersion (standard deviation, variance, range)

Report the statistical analysis conducted on the data The value of the test statistic Degrees of freedom One- or two- tailed test The observed p-value Whether the test result was significant

Result Section Example


Page Header Page Number

Centered, no Bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks

Page Header

Page Number

Appendix

Part 6: Discussion

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

Discussion
Continue on the same page as the Result Section. Centered the word Discussion -- no bold , italics, underline or quotation marks. Stating the results Was there a significant difference between the experimental conditions? Were the findings consistent with the hypothesis?

Accounting for the findings


The next stage is to discuss what the findings mean. If you have rejected the null hypothesis then You need to establish whether this was really caused by the manipulation of the independent variable You need to make sure that there are no other confounding variables that can be said to be the cause of the outcome of the experiment If you have failed to reject the null hypothesis You need a plausible explanation for the absence of relationship that was not significant between the independent and dependent variable.

Were the findings consistent with the research hypothesis?


Yes What have we learned about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables? Does this new understanding allow us to improve our theories or our explanation of a particular phenomena? No Give alternative explanations with supporting evidences

You have to describe the shortcoming of the experiment e.g. The sample of this research is only done among Iranian women. The results cannot be generalized to other organizations because it is limited to one culture. e.g. Failed manipulation

Describe confounding variables and suggestions to overcome them in the future e.g. Music and memory Room 1: Pop music Room 2: Rock music Room 3: No music (unintended noise)

General improvements/suggestions for future research e.g. We suggest that future research would regenerate this research in industrial and production organization, aside from the educational organization.

Implications of the research e.g. We suggest that organizations should establish morale restrictions and antibullying instructions to prevent bullying in workplace. Show how the study you have conducted has benefited the research community and improved our understanding of the ideas that you introduced earlier General closing remark

Appendix

Part 7: References

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

References
Start a new page Center the word References no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks. Alphabetical order Type out the journal titles fully

Reference Section Example


Page Header Page Number Centered, no Bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks

Revision: Follow APA Format


In-Text Citation Whenever you use a source for your paper, in-text citation were needed, showing that you give credits to the author. In-text citations also help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.
Karaseks job strain model postulates that health problems are associated with job strain resulting from the combination of high psychological demands and low decision latitude at work (Karasek & Theorell, 1990). Meanwhile, social supportnamely, helpful social interactions available on the job from coworkers and supervisorsis hypothesized to reduce the effect of job strain on health (Johnson, Hall, & Theorell, 1989; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). An Italian health care professional study (Klersy et al., 2007) demonstrated that an important consequence of burnout is poor quality of life.

In- Text Citation

Appendix

Part 7: Appendix

References Discussion Results Methods Introduction Abstract Title page

Appendix
Appendix 1 Sample Mood Scale

Q1: Do you feel you suffer stress in your life? ____________________________ Q2: Can you provide some of the symptoms of stress that are visibly palpable? __________________________ Q3: How often do you have peaceful sleep? a) Rarely b) Sometimes c) Mostly d) Almost everyday Q4: Are you suffering a financial turmoil? a) Yes b) No

For More Information:


APA Style www.apastyle.org
Purdue University Online Writing Lab (APA Formatting) http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Yong Sook Yee (Samantha) E-mail: sook.yee@helpcat.edu.my Telephone: 2788 2000 (Ext:2066)