Anda di halaman 1dari 56

Boiler Construction

62b - 203

Introduction
Objectives

Know function, purpose and location of boiler components Describe path of a drop of water/steam through boiler Describe the flow path of combustion gases

Boiler Types
Main

propulsion

Supply steam to propulsion turbines and auxiliary equipment


Auxiliary

Supply steam to auxiliary services only

600 PSI D Type


Lighter and smaller than M type Both 600 and 1200 psi steam Superheater protection required during lightoff and securing Uncontrollable superheat

Superheater temperature is directly proportional to firing rate and steam demand

Navy Boiler Design


Reliability Flexibility

Wide range of steam loads Rapid changes Responsive to automatic controls


Relatively

compact

Navy Boiler Design


Efficient operation 5 different heat exchangers

Combustion air Economizer Furnace Superheater Desuperheater

Accessability for cleaning and repair

Boiler Construction
Watersides
Firesides Casings

Watersides

Watersides
Economizer Steam drum Water drum Headers Downcomers Blowdown piping

Tubes Generating Screen Furnace circuit Superheater Desuperheater

Economizer
Multi-pass

heat exchanger Top of boiler at uptake (stack) Combustion gases pass through

Economizer
Feedwater

in tubes heated Inlet temp 246 F Outlet temp 440 F Vents

Economizer
2

inch tubes with fins or rings attached Attached to the inner casing Element ends between casings Check valve between outlet and feed piping to steam drum

Steam Drum
Collects

steam Separates moisture Receives feedwater and distributes boiler water Provides a water reservoir

Steam Drum
Steel

cylinder at top of boiler Four piece construction


Upper half called WRAPPER PLATE Lower half called TUBE SHEET Tubes penetrate tube sheet Disc surfaces welded on each end; manway doors for access

Steam Drum
Drum penetrations Feed inlet Saturated steam pipe(outlet) downcomers & tubes Three safety valve flanges Surface blow pipe Two drum level transmitter lines Two gage glass lines Drum vents(air cock) Injection flange(blanked)

Steam Drum
Baffle

plates / apron plates

Attachment framing supports drum internals Separate steam/water mixture from feedwater in the drum Direct steam mixture to moisture separators

Steam Drum

Moisture separators Primary separators


Cyclone separators impart swirling motion to steam/water Heavy water flung to sides and back down

Secondary separators
Chevron separators / corrugated scrubbers change direction of steam rapidly Moisture hits scrubber & drains down

Steam Drum
Dry

pipe / dry box

Collects steam as it exits scrubbers Collected steam comes into contact with safety valves and vents Directs steam to saturated outlet piping

Steam Drum

Internal feed pipe


Pipe runs length of drum with holes at equal intervals Distributes incoming feedwater evenly

Surface blow pipe


Pipe runs length of drum with holes at equal intervals Removes contaminates from water surface

Steam Drum
Receives

water from economizer Distributed through internal feed pipe

Steam Drum
Water

flows to ends & into downcomers To water drum and headers

Downcomers
Large

diameter piping (4- 8) Send water from steam drum to water drum/ headers

Downcomers
Located

between inner and outer

casings Path for cool, dense water to flow down

Water Drum
Receives

water from the steam drum Distributes water to the generating tubes Collects sludge and solid matter Has bottom blow connections to remove sludge

Water Drum
Upper

half is TUBE SHEET Bottom half is WRAPPER PLATE Drum heads welded with one manway for access

Headers
Similar

purpose, but smaller than water drum Distribute water to side wall, rear wall, and screen tubes

Headers
Handhole

plugs for access Bottom blow connections to remove sludge

Boiler Tubes
Generating

tubes (1" diameter)

Connect water and steam drum Most numerous tubes in boiler Generate the majority of steam Sonic baffles

Boiler Tubes

Furnace circuit tubes (1. 5 -2")


Connect rear wall & side wall headers to steam drum Protect furnace refractory Generate some steam

Water screen tubes


Connect water and steam drum Protect s/h tubes from direct radiant heat

Superheater
Receives

all steam from steam drum Raises steam temp above saturation Vertically or horizontally configured Multi-pass heat exchanger Two headers support tubes Backfill valves

Superheater
Tubes

(1.5" dia) connected to headers at each end Tubes bent in u shape

Superheater
Headers

have handhole plugs Steam flow required to protect s/h from heat during start up & shutdown

Desuperheater
Heat exchanger in either water drum or steam drum Reduces superheated temperature for lower energy applications (auxiliaries) Reduces material cost and QA requirements Multi-pass tube loop

Desuperheater
Must

verify desuperheater inlet valve locked open prior to operating or hydrostatic test of boiler
If valve is shut, pressure differential will crush the desuperheater

Blowdown Piping
Surface

blow - steam drum

Control water chemistry Surface blow while steaming boiler


Bottom

blow - water drum and

headers
Removes sludge Only when boiler secured

Firesides

Furnace
Steel inner casing Space for combustion 225 cubic ft of air to 1 lb of fuel Lined with refractory

Insulates inner casing from high temperature (3000o F) Directs gases over the tubes Protect headers from flame and radiant heat

Refractory Types

Firebrick
Inner furnace wall Fire/temp resistant to 3000 F 1/10 insulation cap. Of insulating block

Insulating brick
Insulate to 2500 F Cannot withstand flame Intermediate insulation

Refractory

Insulating block
Insulate to 1500o F Cannot withstand flame; Good insulator 1" layer next to inner casing

Silicon baffle tiles


High strength heat conductor Between screen tubes Directs gas flow through the superheater

Refractory

Refractory mortar
Seals joints; Cushions against stress Two types (both air dry) Class 1: dry - for firebrick & tile Class 2: ready mixed - for insulating brick

Burner tile
Shaped to fit specific burner Protect burner assembly/casing

Refractory Anchors
Anchor

bolts

Secure firebrick and burner tile Bolt clips welded to inner casing
Anchor

clips

Hold insulating brick to inner casing


Anchor

strips

Hold castable in place

Refractory Installation
Depot

level work S/f repair only Anchor bolts a must Paint metal surfaces Expansion joints
1/4" Styrofoam between every 4th row of brick; Then burn away

Refractory Life
Aging

factors

Rapid temperature changes Shock and vibration Boiler panting

Fuel Oil Burners


Atomizer

assemblies

Burner barrel SSD


Air

registers

Bladed cone Diffuser

Soot Blowers
Location
Fixed

elements Rotary elements

Casings

Boiler Casings

Two steel casings


Inner casing holds furnace/tubes Outer casing holds accessories Space between is combustion air path

Advantages
Reduces heat loss Preheats combustion air Reduces fireroom temperatures

Boiler Casings
Inner casing leaks Lower furnace temp- combustion/fuel increase Thermal stress in refractory Forced draft blowers speed up Fuel inefficient

Boiler Casings
Outer

casing leaks

Increase fireroom temperature Combustion gases may enter fireroom Forced draft blowers speed up Fuel inefficient

Boiler Casings
Steam

smothering system

Boiler air casing fires Fuel on furnace deck

Combustion Air Path


Intake

plenum Forced draft blower supply Inner and outer casing Air register Gas path Exit through economizer and out stack

Monitoring Exhaust Gases


Periscope
Smoke

indicators / stack gas analyzers

Boiler Foundations
Fixed

saddles or feet

One end of drums & headers Bolted fast to hull girder

Boiler Foundations
Sliding

feet

Other end of drums & headers Oblong bolt holes for movement Lubrication points for grease
AO 177 feet do not require lube

Movement indicator attached


Should move 1/4" to 1/2" cold to hot

Boiler Foundations
Frozen

sliding foot

do not steam boiler soak with a solvent to free last resort-jack boiler up

Summary
Watersides
Firesides

Casings