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# Boundary Extraction in Natural Images Using Ultrametric Contour Maps

## Presented by Derek Hoiem

What is segmentation?

What is segmentation?
Segmentation is a result

What is segmentation?
Segmentation is a result Segmentation is a process
Face

Woman

What is segmentation?
Segmentation is a result Segmentation is a process Segmentation is a guide

Segmentation as a Guide
Multiple Segmentations

Segmentation as a Guide
Multiple Segmentations

Hierarchy of Segmentations

Key Concepts/Contributions
Hierarchical segmentation by iterative merging

Ultrametric dissimilarities

## Thorough evaluation on BSDS

Hierarchical Segmentation
3 Region Image Dendrogram

Contour Image

## Ultrametric Contour Map

Ultrametric
Definition: D(x,y) <= max{ D(x,z), D(z,y) }
The union R12 of two regions R1 and R2 must have >= distance to adjacent region R3 than either R1 or R2

## Ultrametric Contour Map

Region Dissimilarity
1. Dc(R1, R2): mean boundary contrast
contrast(x) = max L*a*b* diff within radius of x

## 3. Da(R1): Area + 3 Scatter (in color space)

D(R1, R2) = [Dc(R1, R2) + 1 Dg(R1, R2)] min{ Da(R1) , Da(R2) }
Learned Parameters: xi = 4.5 1 = 5 2 = 0.2 3 = 0 2

Examples
Contrast

## Contrast + Gradient + Region

Algorithm Summary
Create Initial Contours:
Extrema in gray channel form regions Assign pixels to regions based on above ultrametric

## Iteratively merge regions

Comparison
Martin et al. (Pb) Canny edge detector Hierarchical watersheds (using MFM for gradient) [Najman and Schmitt 1996] Variational (global energy minimization)

Pb

Oriented Edges

No Boundary

Boundary

## [Martin Fowlkes Malik 2004]

Pb

Variational Method
Originally Wavelet-based Textons

## [Koepfler Lopez Morel 1994]

Comparison
MFM: Martin et al. (Pb) Canny: Canny edge detector WS: Hierarchical watersheds (using MFM for gradient) [Najman and Schmitt 1996] MS: Variational (global energy minimization)

Edge-Based

Region-Based

Comparison

Results

Results

Best Results

Best Results

Best Results

Best Results

Median Results

Median Results

Median Results

Median Results

Worst Results

Worst Results

Worst Results

Worst Results

## Hierarchies vs. Multiple Segmentations

Revising Segmentation