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By Mr. Antonio T.

Delgado, BSE III General De Jesus College

Definition of Curriculum, revisited Curriculum Design, defined Types of Curriculum Design Elements of Curriculum Design Selection of Objectives Selection of Content Selection of Learning Experiences

The sum of learning stated as educational ends, educational activities, school subjects and/or topics decided upon and provided within the framework of an educational institution or in a less formal setup ( Garcia, 2007).

All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.

something's form and structure way something is made


(Microsoft Encarta 2009)
(Microsoft Encarta 2009)

Refers to the structure or the arrangement of the components or elements of a curriculum

may be broadly categorized into the following major groups: 1. Traditional or subject centered designs 2. Learner-centered designs 3. Problem-centered or societycentered designs

Are subject-centered The emphasis is on making the learners absorb as much knowledge as possible concerning a particular course or broad field Are easy to develop and to implement because highly-structured

Criticized because they do not make provisions for the differential needs and interests of learners Most popular not only in the Philippines but in most parts of the world

May be based on the anticipated needs and interest of the learners Usually built upon normal activities children engage in (i.e. playing, storytelling, drawing) Content is not organized into subjects (Math, Science, etc.) but into courseworks (playing, storytelling)

The three Rs are integrated into the courseworks Criticized as neglecting the intellectual development of learners

Heavily loaded with societal concerns, problems and issues May be aimed at making the school, the teachers and the students agents of social change

What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experience can be provided that is likely to obtain the purpose? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

1.

2.
3. 4.

Aims and objectives Content and learning experiences Method and organization Evaluation

TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC

NON-SCIENTIFIC

Emphasis on wellformulated objectives

These objectives are the bases for selection and organization of content and evaluation procedure.

Does not usually proceed from predetermined objectives Interests, needs and concerns of learner are bases for selection and organization of content and evaluation of learning.

Based on desired outcomes of teaching-learning process: development of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and habits

Philosophy provides basis for general theory of education and suggests its goals Aims are considered as orientations Goals are specific statements used as guidelines for achieving purposes Objectives may describe school-wide outcomes or specific behaviors

The major educational philosophies are: Perennialism Essentialism Humanism/Progressivism Reconceptualism Reconstructionism

Oldest and most traditional perennial means everlasting Education is viewed as the transmission of the unchanging knowledge of the universe Focus is on permanent studies which are timeless (e.g. philosophy, logic, etc.)

Protest against perennialist thinking Education is viewed as human development that starts from the needs and interest of learners. Focuses more on the child than the subject matter

Related to progressivism Learner-centered, relevant and humanistic education More emphasis on holistic, transcendental, linguistic and artistic aspects of the teaching-learning process

Surfaced in opposition to progressivism Education is viewed as mastery of essential skills. Focus is on the three Rs, English, history and science.

Criticized progressivists overemphasis on child-centered learning Is society-centered Asserts that the creation of a better society is the ultimate purpose of education Focus is alleviating discrimination and poverty, school integration

Three Different Domains Cognitive Affective Psychomotor

LEVEL

BEHAVIORAL TERMS

Knowledge Comprehension

Application
Analysis Synthesis

Evaluation

define, describe, identify explain, paraphrase, infer solve, predict, operate differentiate, relate, select organize, create, develop appraise, criticize, judge

LEVEL

BEHAVIORAL TERMS

Receiving
Responding Valuing

Organization
Characterization

listen, watch, observe answer, assist, comply prefer, appreciate, justify adhere, defend, accept display, influence, practice

CATEGORY

THESE INCLUDE:

Reflex movements Fundamental movements Perceptual abilities Physical Abilities Skilled movements Non-discussive communication

Segmental /inter reflex Walk, run, jump, push Visual, auditory, tactile Endurance, strength Games, sports, dances Posture, gesture

IN FAVOR

AGAINST

Provide criteria for assessment Facilitate communication of intended outcomes Measurable outcomes

Behavioral change cannot be equated with learning Denies the student of freedom of choice Creativity and innovativeness can be overlooked

DepEd has come out in full support of behavioral objectives for classroom use.

Content can have different meanings: A list of subjects for a grade or year level A discipline (i.e. science, math) A specific subject (e.g. biology, physics)

Content has three components which are considered in selection of content: 1. Knowledge 2. Process/skill 3. Affective

Concepts regularities in objects of events designated by labels Ex: concept of water (liquid, colorless) Principles significant relationships between and among concepts Ex: Water boils at 100C

Theories contain a set of logically related principles that attempt to explain a phenomenon Ex: Theory of Relativity Laws theories that have wide applicability and have been continuously proven to hold true. Ex: Laws of Motion

Mental processes used in handling, dealing with or transforming information and concepts Physical/manipulative processes used for moving and handling objects

Attitudes have feeling and emotional tones Ex: openness, respect for others rights Values serve as basis for determining when attitudes and behaviors are appropriate and which are not. Ex: truth, honesty, justice

Relevance Content reflects the social, cultural and technological realities of the time Balance There is a balance between the two polar goals of education: what is constant and what is changing. There should also be balance between the three domains of learning.

Validity refers to accuracy or inaccuracy of the content. Content should also coincide with the expressed aims of the curriculum. Learnability Content should be selected in consideration with the learners level of development.

Feasibility This criterion considers: resources (human, physical and financial) time allotment school calendar enabling legislation public support

Instructional component of the curriculum providing for the interaction between teacher, student and content These include: Teaching methods Learning activities

Appropriateness Learning experiences should be suitable to content, objectives, domain, and learners level of development. Feasibility feasible in terms of time, qualification, experience of staff, available resources, safety and legal considerations

Variety Different activities and methods are required by different disciplines and domains. Optimal Value Learning experiences should encourage learners to continue learning on their own.

Learning outcomes
subject-centered learner centered social-centered

Skills
cognitive psychomotor
Experiences

Experiences scope sequence

Content

Concepts
concrete abstract

Experiences

Values and Attitudes

Curriculum Development: The Philippine Experience. Garcia, Dolores (2007). Designing Curriculum. Rex Book Store.

Reyes, Flordeliza C. (2000).


Salle University Press.

Engineering the Curriculum. De La