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EECE 890/690 Introduction to Wireless Communications

Dr. Bala Natarajan Bala Dr. Bala Dr. Natarajan

Why take this Course?

Fastest growing area This is where the future is jobs Enable intelligent conversations in a bar

Bala is a nice guy!

Are you crazy?

It is hard

• • Who knows which area I’m gonna work in

Book is expensive

Environment for learning

Believe it is going to be fun and easy Be yourself and ask questions

Believe in yourself

My role be on-time, prepared, honest and caring

Your role be on-time, honest, no side conversations or distractions

Course Syllabus

Other

Academic honesty Leave the grading to me!

Feedback is highly encouraged Get help Use me as a resource

You can do it!

You can do it! You can make this a memorable experience 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 7

You can make this a memorable experience

Introduction

  • 1. Communication System A system over which information is transmitted from point A to point B.

  • 2. Communication System (Engineer’s Def.) A system over which information is transmitted from point A to point B where the distance between them is beyond usual voice or visual communication.

  • 3. Wireless Communication System

    • A communication system where medium of transmission is the atmosphere.

    • A communication system where information is conveyed as EM waves through the atmosphere

    • Requires antennas to launch & receive EM waves.

Introduction

Wireless Communication System Challenges

  • Difficult to communicate over wireless communication Channel.

  • Limited amount of spectrum (frequency) over which to communicate information (unlike fiber)

Wireless Communication System - Evolution

  • 1897 : Marconi demonstrates mobile wireless communication to ships.

  • 1940’s (late) : Terrestrial fixed wireless links routinely providing phone service.

  • 1960’s : Satellite links used for (geostationary) intercontinental communications.

  • 1980’s : Cellular systems are introduced.

  • 1990’s : Cellular industry becomes fastest growing of all time.

The Electronics Boom!

The Electronics Boom! 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 10

Course Focus

Intro to Wireless Communications - Focus

  • Not satellite (typical, considered different field of study).

  • Wireless systems that have rapidly grown will start or continue to rapidly grow.

  • Understand technology that is driving these markets & making them

viable.

Spectrum Allocation

Spectrum Allocation 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 12

Examples of WCS

Paging Systems simplex; Paging control center is connected to PSTN and other paging terminals; coverage varies from 2-5 km

Examples of WCS • Paging Systems – simplex; Paging control center is connected to PSTN and

Examples of WCS

Cordless Phones Handset

Base station

PSTN;

range for 1G systems was few tens of meters; range for 2G

systems : few hundred meters.

Examples of WCS • Cordless Phones – Handset Base station PSTN; range for 1G systems was

Examples of WCS

Cellular Telephone systems:

Examples of WCS • Cellular Telephone systems: 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 15

Cellular Telephone system

The MSC coordinates the activities of all BS

Typically, MSC handles 100,000 cellular subscribers and

5000 simultaneous conversations. MSC also takes care of billing etc.

BS to MS communication is defined by a standard common air interface (CAI) with 4 channels.

Forward voice channels (FVC): for voice transmission between BS to MS

Reverse voice channels (RVC)

Forward control channel and reverse control channels (FCC and RCC): for initiating and setting up calls. (5% are CCs and are common throughout the country)

Mobile Radio Standards (US)

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Mobile Radio Standards (Europe)

Mobile Radio Standards (Europe) 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 18

Terminology

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How a Cell Phone Call is Received?

Turn on the cell phone it scans the FCC channels for strongest BS

The MSC receives the call from PSTN and dispatches call to all BS

in the system. MIN (Mobile ID number) is broadcast over all the FCCs

MS receives this page and responds by identifying itself over the

RCC BS relays acknowledgement to MSC

MSC instructs BS to move the call to an unused voice channel

within the cell. BS instructs the MS to do change channels and generates a data message (alert) and transmits over the FCC to instruct the MS to ring.

Once call is in progress the MSC adjusts transmitted power of mobile and changes channels if necessary

Landline to Cell

Landline to Cell 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 21

How a Cell Phone Call is Made?

A call initiation request is sent on the RCC. This request consists of the MS MIN, ESN (Electronic serial number), SCM (station class mark indicates max power level for the user) and number of the called party.

BS directs this to MSC

MSC validates requests and makes connection to PSTN and then instructs BS and MS to move to an unused forward and

reverse voice channel pair.

Roaming: When you are in a different area the MSC issues a global command to all MS once every few minutes. New

unregistered MS report their MINs and ESNs and billing is

automatically adjusted.

Call initiated by the Cell Phone

Call initiated by the Cell Phone 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 23

Comparison of WCS

Comparison of WCS 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 24

Comparison of WCS

Comparison of WCS 8/18/2012 Kansas State University 25

Self Assessment Questions

What are the challenges in a WCS?

Give some examples of WCS?

Explain the operation of (1) paging systems, (2) cordless

phones and (3) cellular networks How is a call initiated by a cell?

How is a call received from PSTN?

What are the various wireless standards that currently exist?

Compare various WCS in terms of complexity at the mobile and at the base station.

Homework Read Chapter 1 from Text