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A Study on the Dropout A Study on the Dropout Problem of Primary Problem of Primary Education in Uttar Education in Uttar Dinajpur,

West Bengal Dinajpur, West Bengal

TOWARDS ACHIEVING RTE Chandan Roy, Assistant Prof. Kaliyaganj College

RTE came into force on 1st April,2011 Ensures free & compulsory education to all the children between 6-14 age- group Compulsory education casts an obligation on the appropriate government RTE matches with 2nd MDG, i.e., every child across the nations must achieve primary education within 2015

Education Scenario in India

Primary School enrolment has increased by 13.5% during 2001-05 But 1 out of 4 dropout from school before reaching Grade V Almost 2 out of 4 dropout before reaching grade VIII Dropout seems to be major hurdle in achieving RTE

Dropout Scenario in West Bengal

West Bengal is second largest state in dropout statistics MHRD (97-98) shows 35.8% dropout in West Bengal NSS-52 round indicates 11.5% dropout for WB Divergence in statistics is due to inflated enrolment reported by the schools.

Dropout problem in Uttar Dinajpur

Uttar Dinajpur is the lowest ranking District in achieving literacy Dropout rate in Primary Education of the district is also highest (34.57% in 2005-06,) Out of Primary School children in the district is 13477 (2010 data)

Major Objective of this Presentation

Shed some light on the issues of dropout Determine some area specific reasons associated with dropout Derive the level of significance of those explanatory variable Suggesting few policy-modification (within limited scope of analysis)

Reasons of Dropout : Literature Review

Weber & Rumberger(2001) explained 3 major reasons for dropout of American students 1. Family Related Reasons (Socioeconomic status, disadvantaged sections, Parental Education, Single Parent Family);

Literature review
2. School Related reasons (attendance, grade, achievement, interest in school and school work) 3. Personal Reasons (Disciplinary Problems, Other extenuating circumstances, like marriage)

Literature Review
Usha Jayachandran (2001) analyzed Indian data (NSS-52 Round data ) Child not interested to studies, Unable to cope, Parents not interested, Financial constraints are principal reasons of Dropout in India

Reasons Child not interested Unable to Cope Parents not interested Financial Constraint Other economic activities Attending domestic duties Wage Work

Percent 37.2 16.4 12.5 11.2 6.5 3.7 2.5

Literature Review
Ramachandran et al (2002) explained few factors for school access and completion of education (i) income, (ii) caste, (iii) occupation, (iv)education level of parents; Choudhury (2006) showed cared for doing well in studies as the most important predictor to reduce dropout in India

Dropout in UD : A block level Analysis

Chopra shows the highest dropout (63.43%), followed by GoalpoherII (53.22%) & Goalpokher I (44.13%) Standard I shows max dropout (21.35%), followed by Std-II(8.5%), Std-III(4.51%), Std-IV (0.41%)

Block Specific Issues Related with Dropout

CHOPRA 1. Girl child working in tea garden leads to high dropout 2. Working parents dont send their elder female-children to school specially, for sibling care Goalpokher I & II Urdu speaking children face language problem 2. Potential learners engaged in Maktab 3. Seasonal Migration 4. Girls engage in Mat making in Lodhan 1.

Block Specific Issues Related with Dropout

Islampur 1. Seasonal Migration 2. Sibling Care by elder child 3. Child Labour due to economic compulsion 1. 2. 3. 4. Karandighi Child Labour in Bidi minding industry Linguistic problem in ST dominated area Lack of interest among students Poverty

Block Specific Issues Related with Dropout

Raiganj & Hemtabad 1. Child Labour Problem 2. Migration Kaliyaganj 1. SC/ST dominated are and problems related disadvantaged section 2. Border area problem (eg, immoral trafficing)

Block Specific Issues Related with dropout

Itahar 1. Economic compulsion of children due to poverty 2. Seasonal Migration 3. Lack of Interest among Children and Parents

Selected factors associating with Dropout

PTR (Pupil Teacher Ratio) SCR (Students Classroom Ratio) REPTR (% of Repeaters) SC (% of SC) ST (% of ST) MUSL (% of Muslim Minorities) GPI (Gender Parity Index)

Performance of Explanatory Factors

PTR : Norm (40:1), District (68.28) (2008-09) SCR : Norm (30:1), District (42.25) (2008-09) REPTR : % of repeaters shows fluctuating trend 50.5%(2003-04), 32.23%(2005-06)

Performance of Explanatory Factors

SC & ST : SC(25.81%DROPOUT), ST(12.35%DROPOUT). SC, ST domination usually signifies a higher rate of dropout(2005-06) MUSL: Muslim Minorities show a higher rate of dropout (44.79 in 2010-11 for UP) due to their religious teaching in Maktab GPI : It reduces the rate of dropout as parents feel more comfortable to send their daughters

Econometric Estimation
The linear proposed model is DRP = Const+ 1.PTR + 2.SCR + 3.REPTR + 4.SC + 5.ST + 6.MUSL + 7. GPI Where, DRP = Dropout rate Constant = Captures the impact of unidentified variables

Econometric Exercise
Found F statistic is highly Significant, which means the model is perfectly fit(after removing the heteroscedasticity) R Squared = .72; Adjusted R Squared= .57 Which means 57% of the data variations can be explained by the factors

The Significant Explanatory factors

SCR (significantly positively related) SC (significantly positively related) MUSL (Inverse relation with dropout, which is a matter of surprise and needs further probing)

Concluding Remarks
SCR needs to be reduced as it can significantly control dropout More effective remedial classes for Disadvantaged sections Social transformation is highly required to send those Matab learners to formal school/Madrash Child Labour needs to be effectively abolished against economic compensation Otherwise the implementation and impact of RTE would remain a pipedream