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Why Electric Vehicles

Domestic Policy Goals
Reduce dependence on foreign oil Job creation Economic Growth (energy sources local)

Global Impact
Europe to mitigate climate change China to balance growth with pollution Governments around the world have allocated funding for clean technology

Energy Independence
Local energy sources reduce price volatility Reduce export of money, particularly to unstable regions of the world Reduce dependence on few key regions roughly half of the EUs gas consumption comes from only three countries (Russia, Norway, Algeria)

Developing Nations
Lower-cost conventional vehicles support economic development goals. Urban air pollution and rising oil imports to be the main driver of electrification China has stated its goal of reducing the carbon intensity of its economy. Lack of Infrastructure (grids) is a huge factor.

Climate Change
Global support for climate change has gained momentum with Europe leading the way. Transportation accounts for roughly 15% of energy related CO2 emissions globally. In 1992, the United States ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which called on industrialized countries to make voluntary efforts to reduce greenhouse gases. EU energy policy provides affordable energy while contributing to the EU's wider social and climate goals

Early Years of Electric Cars: 1890 - 1930 First electric vehicle invented in 1828 Many innovations followed The interest in electric cars increased greatly in the late 1890s and early 1900s First real and practical electric car (with capacity for passengers) designed by William Morrison 1902 Phaeton built by the Woods Motor Vehicle Company of Chicago
Figure: 1902 Wood's Electric Phaeton

The mid-1930s until the 1960s: dead years for electric vehicle development and for their application as personal transportation The electric car declined in popularity because of the following reasons: Better system of roads need for longer-range vehicles Reduction in price of gasoline gasoline was affordable to the average consumer Invention of the electric starter disposed of the need for the hand crank. Initiation of mass production of internal combustion engine vehicles by Henry Ford.

Efforts by the governments to more stringent air emissions requirements and regulations requiring reductions in gasoline use and Zero Emission Vehicle requirements from several states revival
Electric conversions of familiar gasoline powered vehicles as well as electric vehicles designed from the ground up became available Since 2001: Phoenix designs fully functional electric trucks and Sport Utility Vehicle for commercial fleet use

(reached highway speeds with ranges of 50 to 150 miles between recharging)

Battery Electric Vehicle:

A battery electric vehicle runs entirely on an electric motor, powered by a battery. The battery is charged through an electrical outlet. The Nissan Leaf is a battery electric vehicle being released in Vancouver in January 2011. The Leaf will have range of 160 km and reach speeds of 140 km/h.
A plug-in hybrid vehicle has both an electric motor and a gasoline engine onboard. These vehicles generally run on the electric motor until the battery is depleted, at which point the gas engine can kick in, extending the cars range. The main battery in a plug-in hybrid is charged through an electrical outlet. An example of a plug-in hybrid is the Chevrolet Volt.

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle:

Hybrid Electric Vehicle:

A typical hybrid electric vehicle is fuelled by gasoline and uses a batterypowered motor to improve efficiency, thus is not considered a plug-in electric vehicle. The battery in a gasoline hybrid is never plugged into an electrical outlet, but instead is powered by a combination of the gasoline engine and regenerative braking. The most well known hybrid electric vehicle is the Toyota Prius.

Prius does not have step gears clutch or torque converter starter motor alternator

Electric motors and planetary gear system work as a CVT or Continuously Variable Transmission

Schematic diagram of Prius

Where does fuel energy go in a conventional car

87.4 % of fuel energy is wasted Only 12.6 % of fuel energy is transferred to the wheels 5.8 % is turned to kinetic energy, consumed in the brake 17.2 % idling losses, engine on with no torque




Engine is turned off at: Stops Lower speed (say less that 15 km/h), an electric motor drives the car until speed reaches a certain limit, then engine kicks in When vehicle is stopping or going downhill, engine is turned off, Regenerative braking is applied When engine operates in an inefficient mode(e.g. at very high or very low engine speeds), the electric motor kicks in and assists engine. Engine is driven to its optimum operating zone Engine can be made smaller, due to electric motor assistance

1 2

m(VA2 VB2 )


accelerating, fuel is consumed, kinetic energy is increased


braking, vey little fuel is consumed, kinetic energy is reduced

Energy is dissipated in the brakes as heat in conventional cars In hybrids braking energy is recovered by an electric generator and stored in a battery it is called regenerative energy, or Regen Energy

Need engine power, fuel is consumed, potential energy is increased

no need for engine power

Braking, vey little fuel is consumed, potential energy is reduced energy is dissipated in the brakes as heat in conventional cars In hybrids braking energy is recovered, Engine can be turned off automatically going downhill

Providing energy: E-cars get energy out of battery Conventional car gets energy out of combustion engine Efficiency ratio: Electric motor: close to 90 percent Combustion engine: 25-30 percent Take gasoline at $2.40/gallon, and a car that achieves 30 miles/ gallon. Energy cost is $0.08/mile. Now take electricity at $0.12/kW-h, and a car that consumes 200 W-h/mile. Energy cost is $0.024/mile Electric cars have no gearbox Electric cars produce much less noise than combustion engine powered cars

E-car: Occur during electricity production; positive for e.g fine

dust Combustion engine: emissions occur during driving

The main problem with the electric car is battery.

Time of battery charging is long Batteries are heavy (100kg extra weight consumes 2L/100km more) Batteries are expensive Low performance in hot or cold temperatures also may damage the battery Very sensitive to overcharge/undercharge(Battery life reduces dramatically) Contain toxic heavy metals, disposal issue

Opportunity for researchers: Advance research projects on batteries are supported by governments and industries

THE FUTURE DEPENDS ON TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKOUT IN BATTERY. The present trend can be seen in the following picture.
2009 2010 2011 2012

Sport/Luxu ry

Tesla Model S

Cadillac XTS PHEV Volvo V70 PHEV

Tesla Roadster Porsche 918 PHEV Audi A1 PHEV Fisker Karma

Light TrucksSedan/SUV Compact

Mini EV Zenn EV

Wheego LiFe Mitsubishi i-MiEV

Toyota Prius Smart for two Think City Honda insight PHEV

GM Volt

Nissan Leaf

Coda EV

Toyota Rav4 EV


Ford Focus EV

Smith Electric Edison

Navistar eStar

Ford Transit Connect

Mercedes Vito Ecell

Renault Kangoo

Bright Auto Idea





A photovoltaics-carport (solar service station) considered as a charging station of electric cars for the future

Battery recharging employs a special chemical process, occurring on all energy-storage particles at once; in traditional batteries, only a fraction of the energy storage can be replenished at once


Electrical outlet and electric cable will not be required in future anymore, because the electric car of the future "refuels" its power fully automatically and without contacting by induction while driving or parking

Thank you for your attention!


Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum,while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transitition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption.