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Cryptography and Network Security

EVANGELINE PRICILLA

Benjamin Franklin once said


Three people can keep a secret

if two of them are dead!

Security is Not Easy to Achieve

Human tendency Problems of storage and communication Trust in all the parties

Network Security Model


Trusted Third Party
princip al princip al

Security transformation

Security transformation

attacke r

Attacks, Services and Mechanisms


Security Attacks

Action compromises the information security Could be passive or active attacks

Security Services

Actions that can prevent, detect such attacks. Such as authentication, identification, encryption, signature, secret sharing and so on.

Security mechanism

The ways to provide such services Detect, prevent and recover from a security attack
Cryptography and Network Security

Passive attacks

Attacks

Interception
Release of message contents Traffic analysis

Active attacks

Interruption, modification, fabrication

Masquerade Replay Modification Denial of service

Cryptography and Network Security

Information Transferring

Cryptography and Network Security

Attack: Interruption

Cut wire lines, Jam wireless signals, Drop Cryptography and Network Security packets,

Attack: Interception

Wiring, eavesdrop
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Attack: Modification

interce pt
Cryptography and Network Security

Replace d info
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Information Transferring

Cryptography and Network Security

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Attack: Interruption

Cut wire lines, Jam wireless signals, Drop Cryptography and Network Security packets,

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Attack: Interception

Wiring, eavesdrop
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Attack: Modification

interce pt
Cryptography and Network Security

Replace d info
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Attack: Fabrication

Also called impersonation

Cryptography and Network Security

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Need for Security

Authentication

Do you trust the sender of a message?

Integrity

Is the message changed during transit?

Confidentiality

Is the message seen by someone else?

Non-repudiation

Can the sender refute the message?


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Authentication
I am user A A B

Who am I?
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Integrity
Ideal route of the message
A B

Transfer $100 to C
C

Transfer $1000 to C

Has the Message Changed?


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Confidentiality
A

Secret

Has someone seen it?


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Non-repudiation
A I never sent that message! B

A sends a message and refutes it later


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How to achieve Security?

Use Cryptography Art of transforming messages Messages become unreadable

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Cryptography

Cryptography is the study of

Secret (crypto-) writing (-graphy) Conceal the context of some message from all except the sender and recipient (privacy or secrecy), and/or Verify the correctness of a message to the recipient (authentication)
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Concerned with developing algorithms:

Cryptography Basics

Plain text

All understandable messages Example: My name is Simson

Cipher text

All non-understandable messages Example: G%er@17*0-1>-


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Cryptography Mechanisms

Substitution Techniques

Replace one or more characters with other characters Example: Replace each a with d, b with e, etc Rearrange the text Example: Replace 1st character with 4th, 2nd with 5th, etc

Transposition Techniques

Combinational Technique: Mostly used


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Cryptography is simple!
Hi Simson, Hope you are doing fine. How about meeting at the train station this Friday at 5 pm? Please let me know if it is ok with you. Regards. Pricilla Kl Dplw, Krsh brx duh grlqj ilqh. Krz derxw phhwlqj dw wkh wudlq vwdwlrq wklv Iulgdb dw 5 sp? Sohdvh ohw ph nqrz li lw lv rn zlwk brx. Uhjdugv. Dwxo

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Encryption and Decryption

Encryption

Conversion of plain text into cipher text

Decryption

Conversion of cipher text into plain text

Two Aspects

Algorithm Key
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Encryption
Plain text My name is Simy

Encrypt

Encrypt

Cipher text

G%er@17*

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Decryption
Cipher text G%er@17*

Decrypt

Decrypt

Plain text

My name is Simy

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Algorithm and Key

Encryption/Decryption Algorithm

Specifies the operations to be performed Examples: DES, IDEA, AES Known to everybody

Key

Must be kept secret Usually at least 56 bits


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Key Range
A 2-bit binary number has four possible states: 00 01 10 11 If we have one more bit to make it a 3-bit binary number, the number of possible states also doubles to eight, as follows: 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 In general, if an n bit binary number has k possible states, an n+1 bit binary number will have 2k possible states. 30

Brute Force Attack


Try with key = 0 Cipher text
R$9O0-=-P;.

Plain text Decrypt Try with key = 1


V^510->o2

Cipher text
R$9O0-=-P;.

Plain text Decrypt Try with key = 90,171,451,191 Decrypt


7/5vc_=;a1

Cipher text
R$9O0-=-P;.

Plain text
To: Payroll

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