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DEFINITION

Consumer behavior studies how

individuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods services, ideas or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires

CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS


Problem recognition Information search Evaluation of alternatives Post-purchase behavior Purchase decision

INFORMATION SEARCH

Heightened (More receptive) Active (Pro-Active)

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES
THE MULTI ATTRIBUTE MODEL:
Performance of a retailer on certain

attributes
Importance of those attributes to the

customer

IMPLICATIONS OF THE MULTI ATTRIBUTE MODEL FOR RETAILERS


Add benefits
Advertise

Strategize Locations
Cost

PURCHASE DECISION
Models of consumer choice
Perceived risks (Functional, Physical, Financial, Time,

Social)
Intervening Factors (Attitude of others, Unanticipated

situational factors)

Post Purchase Behavior

Satisfaction Action Use and Disposal

Different Consumer Roles


Initiator
Influencer Decision Maker Buyer User

Types of Decision Making


Extended
Limited Routine

Types of Buyer Behavior


High Involvement
Significant differences between brands
Complex buying behavior

Low Involvement
Varietyseeking behavior

Few differences between brands

Dissonancereducing buying behavior

Habitual buying behavior

Strategies to Convert Low involvement purchases to High Involvement


Link it to some involving issue Link it to some personal issue Advertise an emotional appeal Add an important feature

SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING DECISIONS


FAMILY

CULTURE

STAGES IN THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE


Bachelor Stage Newly Married Couples Full Nest I Young, Single people living at home Young, No Children

BUYING PATTERNS
Few financial recreation and fashion oriented commitments -

High purchase rate of consumer durables buy white goods, cars, furniture House buying is at a peak. Liquid assets Are low buy medicines, toys, baby foods white goods or Financial Position is improving buy a wider variety of foods, bicycles, pianos
Financial Position is improving still further. Some children now have jobs & wives are working. Increasing purchase of desirables buy furniture & luxury goods.
Home ownership is at a peak savings have increased & financial position improved. Interested in travel, recreation & selfeducation. Not interested in new products buy luxuries & home improvements

Youngest Child under Six Youngest over Child under Six

Full Nest II

Full Nest III

Older Married Couples with dependent children Older Married couples, no children at home, head of household still in workforce Older Married couples, no children at home,head of household retired

Empty Nest I

Empty Nest II:

Substantial reduction in income. Buy medical products & appliances that aid health, sleep & digestion Income still high but may sell home Same Medical & product needs as in Empty Nest II. Substantial cut in income. Need for attention & security

Solitary Survivor in the Workforce

Solitary Survivor, Retired

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIVIDE OF THE INDIAN POPULATION


OCCUPATION ILLITERATE SCHOOL: UPTO 4 YEARS SCHOOL: 5 TO 9 YEARS

SSC / HSC

SOME COLLEGE BUT NOT GRADUATE

GRADUATE/ PG GENERAL

GRADUATE / PG PROFESSIONAL

1 UNSKILLED WORKERS SKILLED WORKERS PETTY TRADERS SHOP OWNERS 1


E2 E2

2
E2 E1

3
E1 D

4
D C

5
D C

6
D B2

7
D B2 B2 A2

2
3 4

E2
D

D
D

D
C

C
B2

C
B1

B2
A2

BUSINESSMEN/INDUSTRIALISTS WITH NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES :


*NONE *1 TO 9 *10 +
SELF EMPLOYED PROFESSIONALS

5 6 7 8 9 A

B2

B1

A2

A2

A1 A1 A1

C
B1 D D D

B2
B1 D D D

B2
A2 D D C

B1
A2 B2 C C

A2
A1 B1 B2 B2

A1
A1 B2 B1 B1

A1
B1 A2

SUPERVISORY LEVEL CLERICAL/ SALESMEN *JUNIOR *MIDDLE/ SENIOR

OFFICERS/EXECUTIVES :
B
C B1 C B1 C B1 B2 B1 B1 A2 A2 A1 A2 A1

SEC:

Personality & Self Concept


Brand Personality

Motivation

Freud's Theory (Unconscious factors) Maslow's Theory (Heirarchy of needs) Herzberg's Theory (Satisfiers & Dissatisfiers)

Perception
Perception is a person's view of a situation.
Selective Attention Selective Distortion (Distorting information according

to pre-conceived notions) Selective Retention Subliminal Perception

Learning
Classical Conditioning
Drive Cues Eg Use of similar Drives and Cues by new companies

(Genaralization) Use of different drives and Cues To switch brands (Discrimination)